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Socrates, our historian, was a native of Constantinople ; for 
he himself states that he was born and educated in that city, 
and that for this reason he has detailed principally events which 
occurred there. In his youth his philological studies were 
prosecuted under the direction of the grammarians Helladius 
and Ammonias both of whom were idolaters ; who having 
withdrawn from Alexandria about this time, had taken up 
their abode at Constantinople. The reasons which induced 
them to migrate from Alexandria, are thus explained by 
Socrates himself.* — When the Pagan temples had been 
pulled down, by the zeal and exertion of Theophilus 
bishop of that city, Helladius and Ammonius (one of whom 
had been a priest of Jupiter at Alexandria, and the other 
of Simius), grieved at the contempt which was cast upon 
their gods, quitted the scene of what they considered 
sacrilege, and retired to Constantinople. These transactions 
took place during the consulship of Tamasius and Promotus, 
according to the ^^ Chronicon" of Marcellinus, which was the 
eleventh year of the Emperor Theodosius. It would therefore 
appear that Socrates was born about the commencement of 
his reign, inasmuch as boys were generally placed under the 
tuition of grammarians at ten years of age : but some date 
his birth in the year 380. He afterwards studied rhetoric 

* Book V. chap. 16. 


under Troilus, a celebrated teacher of philosophy and elo- 
quence at Constantinople. This however is rather inferred 
from his frequent and honourable mention of Troilus, than 
from any direct statement of the fact. He speaks of Side 
in Pamphilia as the country of Troilus, and names Euse- 
bius, and the bishops Silvanus and Alabius, as among the 
number of his distinguished pupils; and finally* declares 
that the Praetorian prsefect Anthemius, who during the 
minority of Theodosius guided the administration, was greatly 
influenced by his counsels : to which he adds this eulogy of 
him : << Who in addition to his philosophical attainments, was 
not inferior to Anthemius in political sagacity.'' On these 
grounds therefore it is concluded that Troilus taught Socrates 

Our author's first appearance in public life was in the 
Forum at Constantinople, as a special pleader : it was from 
this circumstance that the cognomen ^^ Scholasticus" was 
applied to him ; which indeed was the general appellation 
for advocates on their leaving the schools of the rhetoricians 
to devote themselves to the duties of their profession. When 
at length he resigned his legal practice, his attention was 
directed to the compilation of a " History of the Church," in 
seven books, from the year 309 where Eusebius ends, to the 
year 445 ; in which ho has displayed singular judgment, and 
accurate as well as laborious research. He has carefully 
marked the periods of remarkable events, by giving the Con- 
sulates and Olympiads; and has invested his matter with 
authority by having drawn his information from the most 
authentic sources to which he could obtain access, such as 
public records, pastoral and episcopal letters, acts of Synods, 
and the works of other ecclesiastical writers. In the com- 

* Book vii. page 388. 


position of his ^^ History," he has studiously adopted and 
maintained simplicity and plainness of style, to the rigorous 
exclusion of all oratorical ornament, in order that he might 
be the more readily understood by all classes of persons, as 
he himself declares at the commencement of his first and 
third books. 

His first two books were originally composed on the entire 
credit of Rufinus; but having afterwards discovered, from 
the works of Athanasius, that the principal circumstances 
of the persecution, which that noble defender of the divinity 
of Christ suffered, had been omitted, he subsequently 
amended them. 

He however confounds Maximian with Maximin, which 
is surprising, considering that he chiefly lived at Constan- 
tinople. He errs also in stating that five bishops were 
condemned in the council of Nice for refusing to approve 
the confession of faith there made; for a letter of the 
council shows that there were but two, viz. Theonas and 
Secundus. Theognis and Eusebius were indeed exiled by 
command of the Emperor Constantino ; but it was at another 
time, and for a different reason than that assigned by 
Socrates, as Jerome and Philostorgus testify. His allusion 
to the council of Sirmium is full of obscurity; and he was 
evidently under the mistake of supposing that the three con- 
fessions there promulgated at three several councils, were 
set forth on one and the same occasion. 

Socrates, moreover, in speaking of the council held at 
Antioch by the Arians in the year 341, seems to attach 
too much of authority to the usage which early prevailed of 
inviting the bishop of Rome to all ecclesiastical conventions 
in the West. As if he believed there was a law which forbad 
any decision in the church without that prelate's sanction. 


But Julius himself, who was neither ignorant of his privi- 
leges, nor disposed to relinquish any right which pertained 
to his see, far from pretending to pre-eminence among his 
brethren, disclaimed everything beyond the courtesy of being 
invited to attend, and being consulted in common with the 
other bishops of Italy. And although the primacy of that 
episcopate was recognised, both before and after the council 
of Nice, a preference of judgment in the first instance was 
neither claimed nor allowed, as the example of the council 
of Antioch, where Paul of Samosata was condemned without 
the participation of Dionysius bishop of Rome, clearly shews. 
In fact the language of the bishops of Italy to those of the 
East, complaining of their decision in the case of Maxim us 
and Nectarius without allowing them to take cognizance of 
the affair, puts the matter in a very distinct light: ^^Non 
prcsrogativam vindicamus examinis," said they, " sed cansm-^ 
tium tamen debuit esse communis arbitrii." 

With regard to his religious sentiments. Cardinal Karonius 
in his ^' Annals,'* and Philip Labbseus in his book <^ De 
Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis," assert that Socrates was of the 
Novatian sect. Nicephorus also expresses the same opinion 
in the preface to his ^^ Ecclesiastical History:" his words are, 
" Socrates liad indeed the appellation Catharus^ (i. e. pure^) but 
his principles were not so.** It must not be understood from 
this that his cognomen was Catharus, but simply that he 
was a Novatian ; for the Novatians were accustomed to 
designate themselves Cathari^ as the eighth canon of the 
Nicene council informs us. The same writer (book xi. chap. 
14) speaks thus of him: ^^ Socrates (who from this passage 
clearly owns that he was not opposed to the doctrines of the 
Novatiaiu) says that these things were related to him by a certain 
old man^* &c. But the reasons why Socrates was by very 


many considered a NovatiaD) are neither few nor slight. 
For in the first place he carefully enumerates the series of 
Novatian prelates who governed their church at Constan- 
tinople from the times of Constantine, noticing also the 
Consulates in which they severally died. In the next place 
he passes the highest encomiums on each of them, especially 
Agelius and Sisinnius, Chrysanthus and Paul, and even 
avers that by the prayers of the latter a miracle was per- 
formed at Constantinople. In short he enters into all things 
relating to the sect of the Novatians with so much interest 
and fidelity, as to seem at least extremely favourable to 
them. Yet if any one will candidly examine the subject, 
he will find no conclusive evidence of his having himself 
been a Novatian. For with equal diligence he enumerates 
the Arian prelates who had the administration of their church 
at Constantinople: he is not however on that account said 
to have been an Arian. In fact he has entered as fully 
into all the circumstances connected with the Arians, Euno- 
mians, and Macedonians at Constantinople, as with the 
Novatians. He has accounted for this in book iv. chap. 24: 
where he states that his object more particularly was to 
record those things which took place at Constantinople ; as 
well because he himself resided in that city, in which he had 
been born and educated, as that the transactions there were 
of greater importance, and more worthy of record. But 
if any one should object that the Arian bishops are less 
commended by Socrates than those of the Novatians, the 
ready answer is— that the former were in every respect in- 
ferior to the latter ; for the Novatian church was not only 
sound in doctrines, but at that time abounded with the most 
eminent clergy. It must notwithstanding be confessed that 
our author generally favours the Novatians : as when he 


numbers the founder of that sect among the martyrs ; says 
that the Novatians were attached to the catholics by the 
strongest affection, and united with them in public prayer ; 
and commends the discourse of Sisinnius in reprobation of 
the expression of Chrysostom, " Even if thou hast repented 
a thousand times, approach." But it is one thing to favour 
the Novatians, and another to be a Novatian. Socrates 
might have been favourable to them, either from being on 
terms of familiar intercourse with the most distinguished 
among them, or because he approved of their discipline 
and abstinence : for we may gather from his writings that 
he was rather disposed to austerity of habit. Still had he 
identified himself with that body, he surely would not 
(book ii. chap. 38) have distinctly called the catholics tou9 
rrj<: iKKXr)ala^j those of the churchy and opposed them to 
the Novatians, thereby acknowledging the Novatians to be 
without the pale of the church. Moreover (book vi. chap. 
20 and 23), he classes the Novatians among the heretics, 
with Arians, Macedonians, and Eunomians ; while he styles 
the church simply and absolutely the catholic church, so 
discriminating it from the churches of the various sects. 
Again he censures in no ambiguous terms the abolition of a 
Penitentiary Presbyter^ on the recommendation of Nectarius : 
for by this means, he observes, licence was given to trans- 
gressors, since there was no one whose duty it was to reprove 
them — which is not the language of a Novatian ; for that 
sect did not admit of repentance after baptism, as Socrates 
himself testifies. Theodore Lector, who lived in the same 
city, and almost at the same period as Socrates, viz : — in the 
reign of Anastasius, in an epistle prefixed to his Ecclesiastical 
History, denominates Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, 
avSpa^ OeoffytXehj men beloved of God, Finally, Peter Hal- 


loxius, in his notes on the life of Irenseus (page 664), 
vindicates him from the charge of Baronius, who wrote 
(a. d. 159) thus respecting him : — " These things Socrates 
the Novatian, he himself also celebrating the passover with 
the Jews on the 14th day of the month," &c. For he 
remarks that, *^ whereas Socrates is called a Novatian, it 
may be understood in two senses : in one that he sometimes 
favoured the Novatians, which Bellarminus also affirms in 
his treatise ^ De Scriptoribus Ecclesiasticis' (a. d. 440) ; 
in the other that he had adopted their heretical opinions. 
But in the chapter referred to he clearly shows that he is 
neither a Novatian, nor favourable to their views: on the 
contrary he censures them, and exposes their dissensions and 
vices in the character of an enemy rather than a friend, or 
perhaps that which most became him as an historian, neither, 
but simply a narrator of truth." 

But while we are bound to exonerate him from actual 
identification with a sect whom he himself (book vi. chap. 
20 and 23) reckons among the schismatics, we cannot so 
easily justify all that he has advanced respecting the Nova- 
tians ; for he seems misinformed as to the state of their 
schism and errors. Moreover he confounds Novatian, a pres- 
byter of the Roman church, who really first broke the unity 
of the church, with Novatus, a person that was either among 
the presbytery, or as some say was bishop of Africa, and who 
merely favoured that division, but was not the author of it. 
Cyprian, from his personal knowledge of the latter, represents 
him as " an unruly spirit, the enemy of peace, fond of novel- 
ties, of insatiable avarice, and inflated with insufferable pride." 
He further accuses him of having cast the seeds of discord 
among the faithful of Carthage, of having robbed the widows 
and orphans, and of having appropriated to his own use the 


property of the church and of the poor which had been 
deposited in his hands. He also charges him with having 
suffered his father to die of hunger, and then neglected to 
give him the honour of sepulture, with other gross enormities. 
And finally, he adds that apprehending the deposition and 
excommunication he had merited, he anticipated his con- 
demnation by flight, and going to Rome, joined himself to 
Novatian, and committed there greater crimes than he had 
been guilty of at Carthage. One would not wonder so 
much that Socrates has not distinguished these two men, 
since other Greek authors have not done so, who had little 
need of information on Oriental affairs; had not Eusebius 
in book vi. of his History inserted a letter of Cornelius con- 
taining a description of the occasion of the separation of the 
Novatians, so very unlike his own.* This difference can only 
be attributed to the too great readiness with which he listened 
to one of these heretics at Constantinople; who so artfully 
disguised the circumstances connected with the origin of the 
schism, as to lead him to suspect the credibility of Cornelius, 
as of an interested party. It is under the influence of the 
same principle, without doubt, that he sometimes passes such 
extravagant encomiums on the exterior austerity of their con- 
duct, and the apparent sanctity of their life. 

* Socrates takes no notice whatever of the declaration of Corne- 
lius that Novatian separated from ecclesiastical communion through 
jealousy, because he had not been elected bishop : that he managed 
to get himself ordained by three ptelates whose reason had been 
clouded by the fumes of wine : and that the pardon granted to those 
who had sacrificed to idols during the persecution excited by Decius 
against the church, was but a pretext for his schism. 


Tbb History.— book I. Pages 1-»110. 


Cbaptir I. Preface to the entire work 1 

Chap. II. By what means the emperor Constantine became a 

Christian 2 

Chap. III. While Constantine favours the Christians, Licinius, who 

shared with him the imperial dignity, persecutes them 4 

Chap. IV. War arises between Constantine and Lidnius on account 

of the Christians 6 

Chap. V. The dispute of Arius with Alexander his bishop . . 7 

Qmp. VI. Division begins in the church from this controversy; and 

Alexander, bishop of Alexandria, excommunicates Arius 
and his adherents 8 

Chap. VII. The emperor Constantine, being grieved at the disturb- 
ance of the churches, sends Hosius, a Spaniard, to 
Alexandria, exhorting the bishop and Arius to una- 
nimity 17 

Chap. VIII. Of the Synod which was held at Nice in Bithynia, and 

the fiith there promulgated 22 

Chap. IX. The epistle of the Synod, relative to its decisions ; and 

the condemnation of Arius, with all those who held 
his opinions 35 

Chap. X. The emperor summons to the Synod Acesius also bishop 

of the Novatians 52 

Chap. XI. Of the bishop Paphnutius -.--.. 53 

Chap. XII. Of Spyridon, bishop of the Cyprians .... 55 

Chap. XIII. Of Eutychian the monk 56 

Chap. Xrv. Eusebius bishop of Nicomedia, and Theognis bishop of 

Nice, who had been banished on account of their con- 
curring in opinion with Arius, having published their 
recantation, and agreed to the exposition of the faith, 
are reinstated in their sees 59 

Chap. XV. After the Synod, on the death of Alexander, Athanasius is 

constituted bishop of Alexandria - - - -61 

Chap. XVI. The emperor Constantine having enlarged the ancient 

Byzantium, calls it Constantinople .... 62 

Chap. XVII. The emperor's mother Helen having arrived at Jerusalem, 

finds the cross of Christ which she had long sought, 
and builds a church --.---- 63 



Chap. XIX. 

Chap. XX. 

Chap. XXI. 
Chap. XXII. 

Chap. XXIII. 

Chap. XXIV. 

Chap. XXV. 
Chap. XXVI. 

Chap. XXVII. 




Chap. XXVIII. 
Chap. XXIX. 
Chap. XXX. 

Chap. XXXI. 
Chap. XXXII. 
Chap. XXXIII. 

Chap. XXXIV. 

Chap. XXXV. 

The emperor Constantine abolishes Paganism, and erects 
many churches in different places • - . . 

By what means, in the time of Constantine, the nations 
in the interior of India were Christianized • . . 

By what means the Iberians were converted to Chris- 
tianity 72 

Of Antony the monk 76 

Of Manes the ringleader of the Manichsan heresy, and 
whence his origin 76 

Eusebius bishop of Nicomedia, and Theognis bishop of 
Nice, having resumed courage, endeavour to subvert 
the Nicene creed, by plotting against Athanasius - 80 

Of the Synod held at Antioch, which deposed Eustathius 
bishop of Antioch, on whose account a sedition was 
excited which almost ruined the city - - - - 82 

Of the presbyter who exerted himself that Arius might be 
recalled - 84 

Arius on being recalled, presents his recantation to the 
emperor, and pretends to acknowledge the Nicene 
creed 87 

Arius having returned to Alexandria with the emperor's 
consent, and not being received by Athanasius, the 
partisans of Eusebius lay many chai^ges before the em- 
peror against Athanasius • - - . . - 88 

On account of the charges against Athanasius, the 
emperor directs a Synod of bishops to be held at Tyre - 93 

Of Arsenius, and his hand which was said to have been 
cut off 94 

The accusers betake themselves to flight, when Athana- 
sius is found innocent of what was first laid to his 
charge 95 

When the bishops will not admit his defence on the se- 
cond charge, Athanasius flees to the emperor - - 96 

On the departure of Athanasius, those who composed 
the Synod vote his deposition ----- 97 

The Synod proceed from Tyre to Jerusalem, and having 
kept the feast of dedication of the " New Jerusalem," 
receive Arius and his followers again into communion 98 

The emperor summons the Synod to himself by letter, in 
order that the charges against Athanasius might be 
minutely investigated before him • - . . 99 

The Synod not having come to the emperor, the partisans 
of Eusebius accuse Athanasius of having threatened to 
withhold the com which is supplied to Constantinople 
from Alexandria : on which account the emperor being 
exasperated, sends Athanasius away into exile, ordering 
him to remain in the Gallias - . . - - 102 



Chap.XXXVl. Of Mircellus bishop of Ancyra, and ABterius the sophist 103 
Ch. XXXVII. After the banishment of Athanasius, Anus having been 

sent for from Alexandria by the emperor, excites com- 
motions against Alexander bishop of Constantinople - 104 

Ch. XXXVIII. The death of Arius 106 

Chap. XXXIX. The emperor having fallen into disease, dies - - - 108 

Chap. XL. The ftineral obsequies of the emperor Constantine - 109 

Thb History.— book II. Paget 111—233. 

Chaptxr I. The Preface, in which the reason is assigned for the 

Author's revision of his first and second books - -III 

Chap. II. Eusebius bishop of Nicomedia and his party, by again 

endeavouring to introduce the Arian heresy, create 
disturbances in the churches 112 

Chap. III. Athanasius confiding in the letter of Constantine the 

younger, returns to Alexandria - - - - -114 

Chap. IV. On the death of Eusebius Pamphilus, Acacius succeeds to 

the bishopric of Cesarea 116 

Chap. V. The death of Constantine the younger - • - - 116 

Chap. VI. Alexander bishop of Constantinople at his death, proposes 

the election either of Paul or Macedonius as his suc- 
cessor - 116 

Chap. VII. The emperor Constantius ejects Paul after his elevation 

to the prelacy, and sending for Eusebius of Nicomedia, 
invests him with the bishopric of Constantinople - 118 

Chap. VIII. Eusebius, having convened another Sjmod at Antioch in 

Syria, causes another form of faith to be promulgated 118 

Chap. IX. Of Eusebius Emisenus 120 

Chap. X. The bishops assembled at Antioch, on the refusal of Euse- 
bius Emisenus to accept the bishopric of Alexandria, 
urdain Gregory, and change the expression of the 
Nicene Creed 121 

Chap. XI. On the arrival of Gregory at Alexandria, guarded by a 

military force, Athanasius flees - • • - 125 

Chap. XII. The people of Constantinople restore Paul to his see 

after the death of Eusebius, while the Arians elect 
Macedonius - - - 126 

Chap. XIII. Paul is again ejected from the church by Constantius, in 

consequence of the slaughter of Hermogenes his gene- 
ral 127 

Chap. XIV. The Arians remove Gregory from the see of Alexandria, 

and appoint George in his place - - - - 1 28 

Chap. XV. Athanasius and Paul going to Rome, and being fortified 

by the letters of Julius bishop of Rome, recover their 
respective dioceses 129 

Chapter XVI. 

Chap. XVII. 
Chap. XVIII. 

Chap. XIX. 

Chap. XX. 

Chap. XXI. 

Chap. XXII. 

Chap. XXIII. 
Chap. XXIV. 

Chap. XXV. 
Chap. XXVI. 

Chap. XXVII. 


Chap. XXIX. 
Chap. XXX. 

Chap. XXXI. 
Chap. XXXII. 
Chap. XXXIV. 
Chap. XXXV. 
Chap. XXXVI. 

ch. xxxvni. 

Chap. XXXIX. 
Chap. XL. 


The emperor Constantius sends an order to Philip the 
Prsetorian Prefect, that Paul should be exiled, and 
Macedonius installed in his see 

Athanasius afraid of the emperor's menaces, returns to 
Rome again 

The emperor of the West requests his brother to send to 
him such persons as could give an account of the 
deposition of Athanasius and Paul. Those who are 
sent publish another form of the creed ... 

An elaborate exposition of the faith .... 

Of the Synod at Sardica ...... 

Defence of Eusebius Pamphilus 

The Synod of Sardica restore Paul and Athanasius to 
their sees; and on the Eastern emperor's refusal to 
admit them, the emperor of the West threatens him 
with war 

Constantius being afraid of his brother's menaces, by 
letter recalls Athanasius, and sends him to Alexandria 

Athanasius, passing through Jerusalem on his return to 
Alexandria, is received into communion by Maximus: 
and a Synod of bishops being convened in that city, 
the Nicene creed is confirmed 

Of the tyrants Magnentius and Vetranio ... 

After the death of Constans the Western emperor, Paul 
and Athanasius are again ejected from their sees : the 
former after being carried into exile is slain ; but the 
latter escapes by flight 

Macedonius having possessed himself of the see of Con- 
stantinople, does much mischief to those who differ 
from him in opinion 

Athanasius's account of the violences committed at Alex- 
andria by George the Arian 

Of the Heresiarch Photinus 

Forms of the creed published at Sirmium, in presence of 
the emperor Constantius • 

Of Hosius bishop of Cordova 

Overthrow of the tyrant Magnentius .... 

Of the Jews inhabiting Dio Cesarea in Palestine - 

Of Callus Cesar 

Of Afitius the Syrian, master of Eunomius - 

Of the Synod at Milan 

Of the Synod at Rimini, and the creed there published - 

Cruelty of Macedonius, and tumults raised by him - 

Of the Synod at Seleucia, a city of Isauria ... 

Acacius bishop of Ctesarea dictates another form of the 
creed in the Synod at Seleucia 













Chapter XLI. On the emperor's return from the West, the Acacians are 

convened at Constantinople, and confirm the creed 
brought forward at Rimini, after making some addi- 
tions to it-- 220 

Chap. XLII. On the deposition of Macedonius, Eudosius obtains the 

bishopric of Constantinople 223 

Chap. XLIII. Of EusUthius bishop of Sebastia 224 

Chap. XUV. Of Meletius bishop of Antioch 227 

Chap. XLV. The heresy of Macedonius 228 

Chap. XLVI. Of the ApoUinaristae, and their heresy - - • - 231 
Chap. XLVII. Death of the emperor Constantius .... 232 

Thb History.— book III. Page* 234—296. 

Cbaptsr I. Of Julian, his lineage, and education : his apostasy to 

Paganism after his elcTation to the imperial dignity - 234 
Chap. II. Of the sedition excited at Alexandria, and how George 

was slain - -- 242 

Chap. III. The emperor indignant at the murder of George, severely 

censures the Alexandrians by letter - • - , • 243 
Chap. IV. On the death of George, Athanasius returns to Alexan- 
dria, and is re-established in his see - - - 247 

Chap. V. Of Lucifier and Eusebius 248 

Chap. VI. Lucifer goes to Antioch and ordains Paulinus - - 248 
Chap. VII. By the co-operation of Eusebius and Athanasius a Synod 

is convened at Alexandria, wherein the Trinity is 
declared to be consubstantial . . - - . 249 
Chap. VIII. Quotations from Athanasius's apology for his flight - 252 
Chap. IX. After the Synod of Alexandria, composed of the sup- 
porters of the doctrine of Consubstantiality, Eusebius 
proceeding to Antioch, finds the Catholics at variance 
on account of Paulinus's ordination, and having exerted 
himself in vain to rec<)ncile them, he departs - - 258 

Chap. X. Of Hilary bishop of Poictiers 259 

Chap. XI. The emperor Julian exacts money from the Christinns - 261 

Chap. XII. Of Maris bishop of Chalcedon 262 

Chap. XIII. Of the tumult excited by the Pagans against the 

Christians -------- 263 

Chap. XIV. Flight of Athanasius 265 

Chap. XV. Martyrs at Merus in Phrygia, under the reign of Julian - 266 
Chap. XVI. On the emperor's prohibiting Christians being instructed 

in Greek literature, the two ApoUinares compose books 

in that language 268 

Chap. XVII. The emperor preparing an expedition against the Persians, 

arrives at Antioch, where having provoked the ridicule 
of the inhabitants, he retorts on them by a satirical 
pubUcation entitled ** MisopOgOn," i. e. The Beard-hater 272 


Chap. XVIll. 

Chap. XIX. 
Chap. XX. 

Chap. XXI. 

Chap. XXII. 

Chap. XXIII. 

Chap. XXIV. 

Chap. XXV. 

Chap. XXVI. 



The emperor consulting an oracle, the demon gives no 
response, being awed by the proximity of Babylas the 
martyr --.-.---- 274 

Wrath of the emperor, and firmness of Theodore the 
confessor - 274 

The Jews being instigated by the emperor to rebuild their 
temple, are frustrated in their attempt by miraculous 
interposition 276 

The emperor's irruption into Persia, and death • - 278 

Jovian is proclaimed emperor ..... 280 

Refutation of the statements of Libanius the sophist 
concerning Julian ....... 282 

Anxiety of the bishops to induce Jovian to favour their 
own creed - 291 

The Macedonians and Acacians convene at Antioch, and 
declare their assent to the Nicene Creed ... 292 

Death of the emperor Jovian .... 295 

Chapter I. 











Chap. VII. 

The History.— book IV. Pages 297—363. 

After Jovian's death, Valentinian is proclaimed emperor, 
who makes his brother Valens his colleague in the 
empire; Valentinian holding the orthodox faith, but 
Valens being an Arian - - - - - -297 

Valentinian goes into the West, leaving Valens at Con- 
stantinople, who accedes to the request of the Mace- 
donians that a Synod might be convened, but persecutes 
the Homoousians ....... 299 

While Valens persecutes the orthodox Christians in the 
East, a tyrant arises at Constantinople named Proco- 
pius : and at the same time an earthquake and inunda- 
tion take place -....--. 300 

The Macedonians convene a Synod at Lampsacus, during 
a period of both secular and ecclesiastical agitation ; and 
after confirming the Antiochian Creed, and anathema- 
tizing that promulgated at Rimini, they again ratify the 
deposition of Acacius and Eudoxius ... 300 

Engagement between Valens and Procopius near Nacolia 
in Phrygia ; after which the tyrant is betrayed by his 
chief oflicers, and with them put to death - - - 301 

After the tyrant's death, Valens constrains those who 
composed the Synod, and all Christians, to profess Arian 
tenets 802 

Eunomius supersedes Eleusius in the see of Cyzicum. 
His origin, and imitation of Aetius, whose amanuensis 
he had been 303 

Chapter VIIL 

Chap. IX. 

Chap. X. 

Chap. XI. 

Chap. XII. 

Chap. XIII. 

Chap. XIV. 

Chap. XV. 

Chap. XVI. 

Chap. XVII. 

Chap. XVIII. 

Chap. XIX. 

Chap. XX. 
Chap. XXI. 

Chap. XXII. 

Chap. XXIII. 

Chap. XXIV. 

Chap. XXV. 
Chap. XXVI. 
Chap. XXVII. 
Chap. XXVIII. 

Chap. XXIX. 



Of the oracle found inscribed on a stone, when the walls 
of Chalcedon were demoUshed by order of the emperor 
Valens 305 

Valens persecutes the Novatians, because of their holding 
the orthodox faith 307 

The emperor Valentinian begets a son, who is named 
after his father : Gratian having been bom before his 
accession to the imperial dignity .... 309 

Hail of extraordinary size : and earthquakes in Bithynia 
and the Hellespont 309 

The Macedonians pressed by the emperor's violence toward 
them, send a deputation to Liberius bishop of Rome, 
and subscribe the Homoousian Creed - - - 310 

Eunomius separates from Eudoxius; through whom a 
disturbance being raised at Alexandria, Athanasius 
secretes himself again, until by virtue of the emperor's 
letters, he is re-established 318 

The Arians ordain Demophilus after the decease of Eu- 
doxius at Constantinople; but the orthodox party 
constitute Evagrius his successor - - - - 319 

The Homoousians are persecuted by the Arians, after 
the banishment of Evagrius and Eustathius - - 320 

Ecclesiastics burnt in a ship by order of Valens. Famine 
in Phrygia 321 

The emperor Valens while at Antioch, again persecutes 
the Homoousians 322 

Transactions at Edessa: constancy of the devout citizens, 
and courage of a pious female 323 

Slaughter of many persons by Valens on account of their 
names, by reason of a heathen prediction . . • 324 

Death of Athanasius, and elevation of Peter to his see - 325 

The Arians induce the emperor to set Lucius over the 
see of Alexandria, and Peter is imprisoned ... 326 

Flight of Peter to Rome. Massacre of the Solitaries at 
the instigation of the Arians 327 

A list of holy persons who devoted themselves to a 
solitary life - 328 

Assault upon the monks, and banishment of their supe- 
riors, who exhibit miraculous power ... - 337 

Of Didymus the blind man 340 

Of Basil bishop of Cssarea, and Gregory of Nazianzen - 342 

Of Gregory Thaumaturgus 345 

Of Novatus and his followers. The Novatians of Phrygia 
alter the time of keeping Easter ... - 347 

Damasus ordained bishop of Rome. Sedition and loss of 
life caused by the rivalry of Ursinus - - - - 360 



Chapter XXX. Distension about a successor to Auxentius bishop of 

Milan. Ambrosius goyemor of the province, going to 
appease the tumult, is by general consent, the empe- 
ror Valentinian also sanctioning it, elected to preside 
over that see 351 

Chap. XXXI. Death of Valentinian 352 

Chap. XXXII. The emperor Valens, appeased by the oration of Themistus 

the philosopher, mitigates his persecution of the Chris- 
tians 355 

Chap.XXXIII. The Goths, under the reign of Valens, embrace Christianity 356 

Chap. XXXIV. Admission of the fugitive Goths into the Roman terri- 
tories, which caused the emperor's overthrow, and 
eventually the subversion of the Roman empire - - 357 

Chap. XXXV. Remission of persecution against the Christians because 

of the war with the Goths 358 

Chap.,XXXVI. The Saracens under Mavia their queen, embrace Chris- 
tianity ; and Moses, a pious monk, is ordained their 
bishop 359 

Ch. XXXVII. After the departure of Valens from Antioch, the Alex- 
andrians eject Lucius, and restore Peter - - - 361 

Ch. XXXVIII. The emperor Valens is slain in an engagement with the 

Goths near Adrianople 361 

The HisTOKY.— book V. Paget 364—417. 

The Prefkce to Book V. » 364 

CuAPTxa I. The Gtoths again attack Constantinople, and are repulsed 

by the citizens, aided by some Saracen auxiliaries - 365 

Chap. II. The emperor Gratian recalls the orthodox bishops, and 

expels the heretics from the churches. He takes 
Theodosius as his imperial colleague - - - - 366 

Chap. III. The principsl bishops who flourished at that time - - 867 

Chap. IV. The Macedonians who had subscribed the Homoousian 

doctrine, return to their former error - - - 368 

Chap. V. Transactions at Antioch in connection with Paulinus and 

Meletius 368 

Chap. VI. Gregory of Nazianzen is translated to the see of Con- 
stantinople. The emperor Theodosius falling sick at 
Thessalonica, is there baptized by Ascholius the bishop 370 

Chap. Vfl. Gregory abdicates the episcopate of Constantinople. The 

emperor orders Demophilus the Arian bishop either to 
assent to the Homoousian faith, or leave the city - 37 1 

Chap. VIII. A Synod convened at Constantinople. Ordination of , 

Nectarius 373 

Chap. IX. The body of Paul bishop of Constantinople is honourably 

transferred from his place of exile. Death of Meletius 375 

Chapter X. 



Chap. XII. 






Chap. XVII. 
Chap. XVIII. 




Chap. XXIII. 

Chap. XXIV. 

Chap. XXV. 

Chap. XXVI. 



The emperor causes a Synod to be convened composed of 
all the various sects. Arcadius is proclaimed Augustus. 
The Novatians permitted to hold their assemblies in the 

dty of Constantinople 376 

The emperor Gratian is slain by the treachery of the 
tyrant Maximus. Justina ceases from persecuting 

Ambrose 381 

While the emperor Theodosius is engaged in military 
preparations against the tyrant, his son Honorius is 
bom. He then proceeds to Milan in order to encoun- 
ter Maximus 382 

The Arians excite a tumult at Constantinople - - 384 

Overthrow and death of the tyrant Maximus - 385 

Of Flavian bishop of Antioch 386 

Demolition of the idolatrous temples at Alexandria; and 

conflict between the Pagans and Christians - - 388 
Of the hieroglyphics found in the Temple of Serapis - 390 
Reformation of abuses at Rome by the emperor Theodo- 
sius 391 

The office of Penitentiary Presbyter abolished - 393 

Divisions among the Arians and other Heretics . 395 

Peculiar schism among the Novatians .... 396 
The Author's views respecting the celebration of Easter ; 
with observations on Baptism, Fasting, Marriage, the 
Eucharist, and other ecclesiastical rites . - 399 

Further dissensions among the Arians at Constantinople 410 
The Eunomians divide into several factions - - - 412 
The tyrant Eugenius compasses the death of Valentin ian 

Junior 414 

Death of the emperor Theodosius - 416 

The History.— book VI. Pag'e* 417— 463. 

Chaptbr I. 

The Preface to Book VI 417 

Theodosius's two sons divide the empire. Rufinus is slain 

at the feet of Arcadius 419 


Chap. II. Death of Nectarius, and ordination of John - 

Chap. III. Birth and education of John bishop of Constantinople - 
Chap. IV. John renders himself odious to his clergy. Of Serapion - 

Ch^ V. John draws down upon himself the displeasure of many 

persons of rank and power. Of the eunuch Eutropius 425 
Chap. VI. Galnas the Goth attempts to usurp the sovereign power, 

and after filling Constantinople with disorder, is slain - 427 
Chap. VII. Dissension between Theophilus bishop of Alexandria and 

the Monks. Condemnation of Origen*s books • - 432 


Chapter VIH. 

































The Arians and Homoousians practise nocturnal alterna- 
tive hymns, a species of composition ascribed to 
Ignatius, samamed Theophorus. Conflict between the 
two parties 436 

Theophilus bishop of Alexandria endeavours to depose 
John bishop of Constantinople 438 

Epiphanius bishop of Cyprus convenes a Synod to 
condemn the books of Origen - - - ' - 439 

Of Severian and Antiochus: their disagreement with 
John 441 

Epiphanius performs ordinations at Constantinople 
without John's permission 445 

The author's defence of Origen 446 

Epiphanius admonished by John concerning his anti- 
canonical proceedings, leaves Constantinople - 448 

John is ejected from his church on account of his 
dispraise of women 449 

Sedition on account of John Chrysostom's banishment. 
He is recalled - - - - • - -451 

Conflict between the Constantinopolitans and Alexan- 
drians. Flight of Theophilus and the bishops of his 
party 453 

Of Eudoxia's silver statue. John is exiled a second time 455 

Ordination of Arsacius as John's successor. Indisposi- 
tion of Cyrin bishop of Chalcedon - - - - 457 

Death of Arsacius, and ordination of Atticus ... 458 

John dies in exile 459 

Of Sisinnius bishop of the Novatians. His readiness at 
repartee 460 

Death of the emperor Arcadius 462 

Chaptbr I. 





















Thi History.— book VII. Paget 462—534. 

Anthemius the Prsetorian Prsefect administers the govern- 
ment of the East, in behalf of young Theodosius - 463 
Character and conduct of Atticus bishop of Constantinople 464 
Of Theodosius and Agapetus bishops of Synada - - 465 
A paralytic Jew healed by Atticus in baptism - - 467 
The Presbyter Sabbatius, formerly a Jew, separates from 

the Novatians 468 

Bishops of the Arian heresy 469 

Cyril succeeds Theophilus bishop of Alexandria - - 470 

Propagation of Christianity among the Persians - - 471 

Bishops of Antioch and Rome 473 

Rome taken and sacked by Alaric .... 474 

Bishops of Rome 475 





Chapter Xll. 
Chap. XIII. 

Chap. XIV. 

Chap. XV. 

Chap. XVI. 

Chap. XVII. 

Chap. XVIII. 

Chap. XIX. 

Chap. XX. 

Chap. XXI. 

Chap. XXII. 

Chap. XXIII. 

Chap. XXIV. 
Chap. XXV. 

Chap. XXVI. 
Chap. XXVII. 


Chap. XXIX. 

Chap. XXX. 
Chap. XXXI. 
Chap. XXXII. 

Chap. XXXIII. 
Chap. XXXIV. 
Chap. XXXV. 
Chap. XXXVI. 

Chap. XXXIX. 
Chap. XL. 
Chap. XLI. 
Chap. XLII. 
Chap. XLIII. 

Of Cbrysanthos bishop of the Novatians at Constan- 
tinople 476 

Conflict between the Christians and Jews at Alexandria : 
and breach between Cyril the bishop and Orestes the 

prefect 478 

Sedition of the monks against the praefect of Alexandria - 480 

Of Hypatia the female philosopher .... 482 

The Jews commit another outrage upon the Christians - 483 

Miracle at the baptism of a Jewish impostor - - - 484 
Renewal of hostilities between the Romans and Persians 

after the death of Isdigerdes 486 

Of Palladius the courier - - - - - -489 

A second overthrow of the Persians by the Romans - 490 
Singular charity of Acacius bishop of Amida toward the 

Persian captives 492 

Virtues of the emperor Theodosius Junior ... 494 
Tyranny of John after the death of the emperor Honorius. 
He is destroyed through the prayers of Theodosius 

Junior 497 

Valentinian proclaimed emperor 499 

Christian benevolence of Atticus bishop of Constanti- 
nople. His foreknowledge of his own death - - 500 
Sisinnius is chosen to succeed Atticus . • - - 503 
Voluminous productions of Philip, a presbyter bom at 

Side 504 

Proclus ordained bishop of Cyzicum by Sisinnius, but re- 
jected by the people ------ 506 

Nestorius promoted to the see of Constantinople. His 

persecution of the heretics 507 

The Burgundians embrace Christianity - - 509 
Nestorius harasses the Macedonians - - - - 510 
Of the presbyter Anastasius, by whom the faith of Nes- 
torius was perverted -511 

Desecration of the altar of the great church - - - 514 

Synod at Gphesus against Nestorius. His deposition - 515 

Election of Maximian to the episcopate of Constantinople 517 
The author's opinion of the validity of translations from 

one See to another 518 

Miracle performed by Silvanus bishop of Troas - - 520 

Many of the Jews in Crete embrace the Christian faith - 522 

Preservation of the church of the Novatians from fire - 524 

Proclus succeeds Maximian bishop of Constantinople - 525 

Excellent qualities of Proclus 526 

Eulogium of the Emperor Theodosius Junior - - 527 
Calamities of the barbarians who had been the tyrant 

John's auxiliaries ..-.-.- 527 



ChapterXLTV. Marriage of the emperor Valentinian with Eudozia the 

daughter of Theodosius 529 

Chap. XLV. The body of John Chrysostom transferred to Constanti- 
nople 529 

Chap. XLVI. Death of Paul bishop of the Novatians, and election of 

Marcian as his successor 530 

Chap. XLVII. The empress Eudocia goes to Jerusalem ... 532 

Chap. XLVIII. Thalassfus is ordained bishop of Csesarea in Cappadocia - 533 







EusEBius, sumamed Pamphilus, (i. e. universally 
beloved) has composed a History of the Church in ten 
books, brought down to the time of the emperor 
Constantine, when the persecution ceased which Dio- 
cletian had commenced against the Christians. But, 
in ^vriting the life of Constantine, this author has 
very slightly treated of the Arian controversy, being 
evidently more intent on a highly wrought eulogium 
of the emperor, than an accurate statement of facts. 
We therefore propose to ^vrite at large the details 
S of what has taken place in the Churches, beginning 
with a relation of those particulars which he has 
passed over, and bringing down subsequent events 
to our own times : nor shall we be very solicitous to 
display an empty parade of words, but to lay faith- 
fully before the reader what we have been able to 
collect from the best authenticated records, and such 
information as has been communicated to us by those 
who were themselves identified with the transactions 
to which they bear testimony. And since it has an 



important bearing on the matter in hand, it; will be 
proper to enter into some account of Constantine's 
conversion to Christianity. 




AViiEN Diocletian and Maximian, sumamed Iler- 
cidius, had by mutual consent laid aside the imperial 
dignity, and retired into private life, Maximian, sur- 
named Galerius, who had been a sharer vdth them in 
the government, came into Italy and appointed two 
Cajsars, Maximin in the eastern division of the em- 
pire, and Severus in the Italian or western. In Britain 
however Constantine was proclaimed emperor, instead 
of his father Constantius, who died in the first year of 
the two hundred and seventy-first Olympiad, on the 
25th of July. But at Rome Maxentius, the son of 
Maxunian Herculius, was raised by the Pnetorian 
soldiers to be a tyrant rather than an emperor. In 
this state of things Herculius, impelled by an eager 
desire of regaining the sovereign power, attempted to 
destroy his son Maxentius : but this he was prevented 
by the soldiery from effecting, and he soon aftenvards 
died at Tarsus in Cilicia. Severus Caisar was sent 
to Rome by Galerius Maximian, in order to sieze 
Maxentius, but his OAvn soldiers liaving betrayed 
him, he was slain. At length Galerius Maximian, 
who as senior Augustus had exercised the chief au- 
thority, also died, having previously appointed as his 
successor, his old friend and companion in arms, 


Licinius, a Dacian by birth. Meanwhile Maxeiitius 
tyrannically trampled on the rights and liberties of 
the Roman people, shamelessly violating the wives of 
the nobles, putting many innocent persons to death, 
and perpetrating other atrocities. The emperor Con- 
stantine being informed of these things, exerted him- 
self to free the Romans from the slavery under which 
they were groaning; and began immediately to con- 
sider by what means he might overwhelm the tyrant. 
While his mind was occupied on this subject, and he 
was hesitating what divinity's aid he should invoke 
for the successful conduct of the war, it occurred to 
him that Diocletian had profited but little by the 
Pagan deities, whom he had so sedulously sought to 
propitiate; but that his own father Constantius, who 
had renounced the idolatrous worship of the Greeks, 
had passed through life far more prosperously. In 
this state of uncertainty, a preternatural vision, 
which transcends all description, appeared to him as 
he was marching at the head of his troops : he saw, 
about that part of the day when the sun after passing 
the meridian begins to decline towards the west, a 
pillar of light in the heavens, in the form of a cross, 
on which were inscribed these words. By this con- 
quer.* Struck with amazement at the appearance of 
this sign, and scarcely believing his own eyes, the 
emperor asked those around him if they beheld the 
same spectacle; and they all declaring that they did, 
the emperor's mind was strengthened by this divine 
and extraordinary apparition. In his slumbers on the 
following night he saw Christ, who directed him to 
prepare a standard according to the pattern of that 

* *El' TOVTti} VIKa, 


which had been seen ; and to use it against his enemies 
as an assured trophy of victory. In obedience to this 
divine oracle, he caused a standard in the form of a 
cross to be prepared, which is preserved in the palace 
even to the present time : and proceeding in his mea- 
sures with greater confidence, he attacked the enemy 
and vanquished him before the gates of Rome, near 
the IVIilvian bridge, Maxentius himself being drowned 
in the river. This victory was achieved in the seventh 
year of the conqueror's reign. After this, while 
Licinius, who shared the government with him, and 
was his brother-in-law, having married his sister Con- 
stantia, was residing in the East, the emperor Con- 
stantine offered grateful thanksgivings to God as his 
benefactor, for the signal blessings he had received, by 
such actions as these: — ^he relieved the Christians 
from persecution, recalled those who were in exile, 
liberated such as were imprisoned, and caused the 
confiscated property of the proscribed to be restored 
to them; he moreover rebuilt the churches, and 
performed all these things Avith the greatest ar- 
dour. About this time Diocletian, who had ab- 
dicated the imperial authority, died at Salona in 



The emperor Constantine, having thus embraced 
Christianity, conducted himself in a manner worthy 


of his profession, building churches, and enriching 
them with splendid offerings: he also either closed 
or destroyed the idolatrous temples, and exposed the 
images which were in them to popular contempt. 
But his colleague Licinius, retainhig his Pagan super- 
stitions, hated Christians; and although for a while, 
from dread of Constantine, he avoided exciting per- 
secution openly, yet he managed to plot against them 
covertly, and at length proceeded to acts of undis- 
guised malevolence. Thi^ persecution, however, was 
local, not extending beyond those districts where 
Licinius himself was: but these and other public 
outrages could not long remain concealed from Con- 
stantine, and knowing that he was indignant at his 
conduct^ Licinius had recourse to an apology. Having 
l)y this obsequiousness propitiated him, he entered 
into a specious league of friendship, pledging himself 
by many oaths, neither to act again tyrannically, nor 
to persecute Christians. Notwithstanding the solemn 
obligations under which he had bound himself, his 
perjury soon became apparent; for he ceased not to 
prejudice in every possible way the interests of Con- 
stantine, and to exercise the greatest severities on 
Christians. He even prohibited the bishops by law 
from \dsiting the unconverted Pagans, lest it should 
be made a pretext for proselyting them to the Chris- 
tian faith. Hence while in word he concealed the 
bitterness of his hostility, the reality of it was too 
keenly felt to be screened from the public eye; for 
those who were exposed to his persecution, suffered 
most severely both in their persons and property. 





By tliis perfidy he drew upon himself the emperor 
ConstaiitHie's heaviest displeasure ; and the pretended 
treaty of friendship having been so flagrantly violated, 
it was not long before they took up arms against each 
other as declared enemies. After several engage- 
ments both by sea and land, Licinius was at last 
utterly defeated near Chrysopolis in Bithynia, a port 
of the Chalcedonians, and surrendered himself to Con- 
stantine; who having taken him alive, treated him 
with the utmost humanity, and would by no means 
put him to death, but ordered him to take up his 
abode and live in tranquillity at Thessalonica. He 
could not however remain inactive; and having in a 
short time managed to collect some barbarian merce- 
naries, he made an effort to repair his late disaster by 
a fresh appeal to arms : and the emperor being made 
acquainted with his proceedings, directed that he 
should be slain. On this being carried into effect, 
Constantine became possessed of the sole dominion, 
and was accordingly proclaimed sovereign Autocrat; 
a circumstance which secured to Christians the peace- 
ful profession of their faith, — this monarch seeking still, 
in a variety of ways, to promote their welfare. But 
unhappily this state of repose was of short duration, 
owing to dissensions among themselves, the nature 
and origin of which I shall now endeavour to describe. 


CHAP, v.] HERESY OF ARIUS. — A.J). 324. 



After Peter bishop of Alexandria had suflfered 
martyrdom under Diocletian, Achilles was inst^ed 
in the episcopal office, whom Alexander succeeded, 
during the period of peace above referred to. He in 
the fearless exercise of his functions for the instruc- 
tion and government of the Church, attempted one 
day in the presence of tlie presbjrtery and the rest of 
his clergy, to explain, with perhaps too philosophical 
minuteness, that great theological mystery — the Unity 
of the Holy Trinity, A certain one of the presbyters 
under his jurisdiction, whose name was Arius, pos- 
sessed of no inconsiderable logical acumen, imagining 
that the bishop entertained the same view of this sub- 
ject as Sabellius the Libyan, controverted his state- 
ments Avitli excessive pertinacity, advancing another 
error which was directly opposed indeed to that 
which he supposed himself called upon to refute. 
" If," said he, " the Father begat the Son, he that 
was begotten had a beginning of existence : and from 
this it is evident, that there was a time when the Son 
was not in l)eing. It therefore necessarily follows, 
that lie had his existence* from nothing." 

* 'YttcJotoo'ii'. 




Having drawn this inference from his novel train 
of reasoning, he excited many to a consideration of 
the question ; and thus from a little spark a large fire 
was kindled: for the evil which commenced in the 
Church at Alexandria, ran throughout all Egypt, 
Libya, and the upper Thebes, and at length diffused 
itself over the rest of the provinces and cities. Many 
others also adopted the opinion of Arius; but Euse- 
bius in particular was a zealous defender of it : not he 
of Caesarea, but the one who had before been bishop 
of the church at Berytus, and was then in the surrep- 
titious possession of tlie bishopric of Nicomedia in 
Bithynia. When Alexander became conscious of the 
spread of this leaven, both from his own observation 
and report, being exasperated to the highest degree, 
he convened a coimcil of many prelates ; and having 
cxcommimicated Arius and the abettors of his heresy, 
he wrote as follows to the bishops constituted in the 
several cities. 


" To our beloved and most honoured fellow- Minis- 
ters of the Catholic Church everywhere, Alexander 
sends greeting in the Lord. 

" Inasmuch as the Catholic Church is one body, 
and we are commanded in the holy Scriptures to 

CHAP. VI.] Alexander's letter. — a.d. 324. 9 

maintain the bond of unanimity and peace ; it conse- 
quently becomes us to Avrite, and mutually acquaint 
ope another with the condition of things among each 
of us, in order that if one member suflfers or rejoices, 
we may either sympathise ^dth each other, or rejoice 
together. Know therefore that there have recently 
arisen in our diocese lawless and anti-christian men, 
teaching apostasy such as one may justly consider and 
denominate the forerunner of Antichrist. I wished 
indeed to consign this disorder to silence, that if 
possible the evil might be confined to the apostates 
alone; and lest going forth into other districts, it 
should contaminate the ears of some of the simple. 
But since Eusebius, who after deserting his charge at 
Berytus, and assuming with impunity the episcopal 
authority over the church at Nicomedia, seems to ima- 
gine that the affairs of the church are under his control, 
has undertaken the patronage of these apostates, daring 
even to send commendatory letters in all directions 
concerning them, if by any means he might inveigle 
some of the ignorant into this most impious and anti- 
christian heresy ; I felt imperatively called on to be 
silent no longer, knoAving what is written in the law, 
but to inform you all of these things, that ye might 
understand both who the apostates are, and also the 
execrable character of their heresy. I am constrained 
at the same time to warn you to pay no attention to 
his communications, if Eusebius should write to you ; 
for now wishing to renew his former malevolence, 
which seemed to have been buried in oblivion by time, 
he affects to write in their behalf; while the fact itself 
[Jainly shows that he does this for the promotion of 
his own purposes. These then are tliose who have 


become aix)states : — Anus, Achillas, Aithales, and Car- 
pones, another Anus, Sannates, Euzoi'us, Lucius, Ju- 
lian, Menas, Helladius, and Gaius; with these also 
must be reckoned Secundus and Theonas, who once 
were called bishops. The dogmas they assert in 
utter contrariety to the Scriptures, and wholly of 
their OAvn devising, are these: — that God was not 
always a father, but that there was a period when he 
was not a father; that the Word of God was not from 
eternity, but was made out of nothing ; * for that the 
ever-existing God (the I AM — the eternal One) made 
him who did not previously exist, out of nothing. 
Thus they conclude there was a time when he did not 
exist, inasmuch as, according to their philosophy, the 
Son is a creature and a work ; that he is neither like 
the Father as it regards his essence^ nor is by nature 
either the Father's true Word, or true Wisdom, but 
indeed one of his works and creatures, being erro- 
neously called Word and Wisdom, since he was him- 
self made by God's own Word and the Wisdom which 
is in God, whereby God both made all things and him 
also. ' Wherefore,' say they, ' he is as to his nature 
mutable and susceptible of change, as all other rational 
creatures are : hence the Word is alien to and other 
than the essence of God; and the Father is inex- 
plicable by the Son, and invisible to him, for nei- 
ther does the Son perfectly and accurately know the 
Father, neither can he distinctly see him. Tlie 
Son knows not the nature of his OAvn essence: 
for he was made on our account, in order that God 
might create us l)y him, as l)y an instrument; nor 
would ho over have existed, unless God had Avishod 

* 'Kt ovK ovTMr yiyni'ir. 

cuAi'-vi.] Alexander's letter. — a.d. 324. 11 

to create us.' Some one accordingly asked them 
whether the Word of God could be changed, as the 
devil has been ? and they feared not to say, ' Yes, he 
could ; for being begotten and created, he is sus- 
ceptible of change.' We then with the bishops of 
Egypt and Libya, being assembled together to the 
number of nearly a hundred, have anathematised 
Arius for his shameless avowal of these heresies, 
together with all such as have countenanced them. 
Yet the partisans of Eusebius have received them; 
endeavouring to blend falsehood Avith truth, and that 
which is impious Avith what is sacred. But they shall 
not prevail, for the truth must triumph; and light 
has no fellowship with darkness, nor has Christ any 
concord with Belial. Who ever heard such bias- 
phenues? or what man of any piety is there now 
hearing them that is not horror-struck, and stops his 
tors, lest the filth of these expressions should pollute 
his sense of hearing? Who that hears John saying, 
'//i the beginning was the Wardj^ does not condenm 
those that dare affirm there was a period when the 
Word was not? or who hearing in the gospel of 
' tlie only-begotten Son^^ and that ^all things were made by 
hirn^^ will not abhor those that pronounce the Son to 
be one of the tilings made? But how can He be put 
on a level with, or regarded as one of the things 
which were made by himself ? Or how can he be the 
only-begotten, if he is reckoned among created things ? 
And how could he have had his existence from non- 
entities, since the Father has said, ' My heart has 
indited a good matter' (Ps. xlv. 1); and ^ I begat thee 
out of my bosom before the dawn'* (Ps. ex. 3; see 

* 'EwtrtpofHWf the morning- star. 


LXX. quoted from Ps. Ixxii). Or how is he unlike 
the Father in essence, who is ''his perfect image^ (Col. 
i. 15), and ' the brightness of his glory^ (Heb. i. 3); he 
himself also declaring, ' He that hath seen me^ hath seen 
the Father^ ? Again, how is the Son the Word and 
Wisdom of God, if there was a period when he 
did not exist? for that is equivalent to their saying, 
that God was once destitute both of Word and 
Wisdom. How can he be mutable and susceptible of 
change, who says of himself, ' / am in tlie Father^ and 
the Father in me^ (John xiv. 10); and '/ and the 
Father are one^ (John x. 30); and again by the 
Prophet (Mai. iii. 6), *' Behold me because I am^ and 
have not changed^ ? But if any one may also apply 
the expression to the Father himself, yet would it 
now be even more fitly said of the Word ; because he 
was not changed by having become man, but as the 
Apostle says (Heb. xiii. 8), ^ Jesus Christy the same 
yesterday^ to-day^ and for ever.^ But what could per- 
suade them to say that he was made on our account, 
when Paul has expressly declared (Heb. ii. 10), that 
' all things are for him^ and by him ' ? One need not 
wonder then indeed at their blasphemous assertion, 
that the Son does not perfectly know the Father ; for 
having once determined to fight against Christ, they 
reject even the words of the Lord himself, when he 
says (John x. 15), *' As the Father knows me^ even so 
know I the Father.' If therefore the Father but 
partially knows the Son, it is manifest that the Son 
also knows the Father but in part. But if it would 
be impious to affirm this, and it be admitted tliat the 
Father perfectly knows the Son, it is evident that as 
the Father knows his o^vn Word, so also does the 

CHAP, vl] Alexander's letter. — a.d. 324. 13 

Word know his own Father, whose Word he is. And 
we by stating these things, and unfolding the divine 
Scriptures, have often confuted them: but again as 
chameleons they were changed, striving to apply to 
themselves that which is -written (Pro. xviii. 3 ; LXX. ) 
* When the ungodly has reached the depths of iniquity^ 
he becomes contemptiioti^s.^ Many heresies have arisen 
before these, which exceeding all bounds in impious 
daring, have lapsed into complete infatuation: but 
these persons, by attempting in all their discourses to 
subvert the Divinity of the Word, as having made a 
nearer approach to Antichrist, have comparatively 
lessened the odium of former heresies. Wherefore 
they have been publicly repudiated by the Church, 
and anathematized. We are indeed grieved on ac- 
count of the perdition of these persons, and especially 
so because after having been previously instructed in 
the doctrines of the Church, they have now apos- 
tatized from them. Nevertheless we are not greatly 
surprised at this, for Hymena^us and Philetus ( 2 Tim. 
ii. 17, 18) fell in like manner; and before them 
Judas, who though he had been a follower of the 
Saviour, yet afterwards deserted him and became his 
betrayer. Nor were we without premonition re- 
specting these very persons: for the Lord himself 
forewarned us (Mat. xxiv. 4), * Take heed tliat no man 
deceive you : for many shall come in my name^ saying^ 
I am Christ: and shall deceive many^ (Luke xxi. 8); 
and ^the tims is at hand; Go ye not therefore after 
them.' And Paul having learned these things from 
the Saviour, wrote (1 Tim. iv. 1), ' That in the latter 
times some should apostatize from the faith^ giving heed 
to deceiving spirits ^ and doctrines of deinh^^ who pervert 


the truth. Seeing then that our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ has himself enjoined this, and has 
also by the apostle given us inthnation respecting 
such men, we having ourselves heard their impiety, 
have in consequence anathematized them, as we 
before said, and declared them to be alienated from 
the Catholic Church and faith. Moreover we have 
intimated this to your piety, beloved and most 
honoured fellow-AIinisters, in order that ye might 
neither receive any of them, if they should presume 
to come to you, nor be induced to put confidence in 
Eusebius, or any other who may write to you about 
them. For it is incumbent on us who are Christians, 
to withdraw ourselves from all those who speak or 
entertain a thought against Christ, as from those who 
are resisting God, and are destroyers of the souls of 
men : neither does it become us even ' to salute 
such men^ (2 John 10, 11), as the blessed Apostle 
has prohibited, ' lest we should at any time be made 
partakers of their siiis.^ Greet the brethren which 
are Avith you: those who are >vith us salute you." 

By Alexander's thus addressing the bishops in 
every city, the evil only became worse ; for those to 
whom he made tliis communication were therel^v 
excited to contention, some fully concurring in and 
subscribing to the sentiments expressed in this letter, 
while others did the reverse. But Eusebius bishop 
of Nicomedia, was beyond aU others incited to con- 
troversy, inasmuch as Alexander had in his letter 
made a personal and censorious allusion to him. Now 
at this juncture Eusebius possessed great influence, 
because the Em}x^ror resided at Nicomedia, Dio- 

CHAP. VI.] Alexander's letter. — a.d. 324. 15 

cletian having a short tune previously built a palace 
there. On this account therefore many of the 
bishops paid their court to Eusebius : and he himself 
was incessantly writing both to Alexander, that he 
might set aside the discussion which had been excited, 
and again receive Arius and his adherents into com- 
munion; and also to the bishops in each city, that 
they might not concur in the proceedings of Alex- 
ander. By these means confusion every where pre- 
vailed: for one saw not only the prelates of the 
churches engaged in contention, but the people also 
divided, some siduig with one party, and some with 
the other. To so disgraceful an extent was this 
affair carried, that Christianity became a subject of 
popular ridicule, even in the very theatres. Those 
who were at Alexandria sharj^ly disputed about the 
highest points of doctrine, and sent deputations to 
the bishops of the sevend dioceses ; while those 
who were of the opposite faction created a similar 

With the Arians the Melitians mingled themselves, 
who a little while before had been separated from the 
Church : but who these Melitians are must now be 

By Peter bishop of Alexandria, who in the reign 
of Diocletian suffered martyrdom, an individual 
named Melitius, a bishop of one of the cities in 
Egypt, was degraded in consequence of many other 
charges indeed, but on this account more especially, 
that during the persecution he had denied the faith 
and sacrificed. This j)erson after being stripped of 
his dignity, had nevertheless many followers, and 
l^ecame the leader of the heresy of those who are now 


called from him Melitians throughout Egypt. And 
as there was no rational excuse for his separation 
from the Church, he pretended that he as an innocent 
man had been unjustly dealt with, loading Peter with 
calumnious reproaches. After the martyrdom of 
Peter, he transferred his abuse first to Achillas, 
who succeeded Peter in the bishopric, and afterwards 
again to Alexander, the successor of Achillas. In 
this state of things among them, the discussion in 
relation to Arius arose; and Melitius with his ad- 
herents took part Avith Arius, entering into a con- 
spiracy against the bishop : but as many as regarded 
the opinion of Arius as untenable, justified Alex- 
ander's decision against him, and thought that those 
who favoured his views were justly condemned. 
Meanwhile Eusebius of Nicomedia and his partisans, 
with such as embraced the sentiments of Arius, 
demanded by letter that the sentence of excommuni- 
cation which had been pronounced against him should 
be rescinded ; and that those who had been excluded 
should be readmitted into the Church, as they held 
no unsound doctrine. Thus letters from the opposite 
parties were sent to the bishop of Alexandria; and 
Arius made a collection of those which were favour- 
able to himself, while Alexander did the same with 
those which were adverse. This therefore afforded 
a plausible opportunity of defence to the sects, whicli 
are now so very numerous, of the Arians, Eunomians, 
and such as receive their name from Macedonius ; who 
severally make use of these epistles in vindication of 
their heresies. 





When the Emperor was made acquainted with these 
disorders, he was very deeply grieved; and regarding 
the matter as his own misfortune, immediately exerted 
himself to extinguish the conflagration which had 
been kindled. To this end he sent a letter to Alex- 
ander and Alius by a trustworthy person named 
Hosius, who was bishop of Cordova in Spain, and 
whom the emperor greatly loved and held in the 
highest estimation. It will not be out of place to 
introduce here a portion of this letter, the whole of 
which is given in the life of Constantine by Eusebius. 



"Your present controversy, I am informed, ori- 
ginated thus. When you, Alexander, inquired of 
your Presbyters what were the sentiments of each 
on a certain inexplicable passage of the icritten Wardj 
thereby mooting a subject improper for discussion; 
you, Arius, rashly gave expression to a view of the 
matter such as ought either never to have been con- 
ceived, or if indeed it had been suggested to your 
mind, it became you to bury in silence. Dissension 
having thus been excited among you, communion* 



has been denied ; and the most holy people bemg rent 
into two factions, have departed from the harmony of 
the common body. Wherefore let each reciprocally 
pardoning the other, listen to the impartial exhorta- 
tion of your fellow-servant. And what counsel does 
he offer? It was neither prudent at first to agitate 
such a question, nor to reply to such a question when 
proposed: for the claim of no law demands the in- 
vestigation of such subjects, but the disputatious 
cavilling of ill-employed leisure puts them forward. 
And even admitting them to be calculated to exercise 
our natural abilities, yet ought we to confine them to 
our own consideration, and not incautiously bring 
them forth in public assemblies, nor thoughtlessly 
confide them to the ears of everybody. Indeed how 
few are capable either of adequately expounding, or 
even accurately understanding the import of matters 
so vast and profound! And if any one should 
imagine that he can satisfactorily accomplish this, 
how large a portion of the people would he succeed 
in convincing? Or who can grapple with the subtil- 
ties of such investigations without danger of lapsing 
into excessive error? It becomes us therefore on 
such topics to check loquacity, lest either on account 
of the impotence of our nature we should be incom- 
petent to explain the subject proposed; or the duU 
understanding of the audience should incapacitate 
them for clearly apprehending what is attempted to 
be taught : for in the case of one or the other of these 
failures, the people must be necessarily involved either 
in blasphemy or schism. Wherefore let an un- 
guarded question, and an inconsiderate answer, on 
the part of each of you, procure equal forgiveness 


from one another. No cause of difference has been 
started by you bearing on any important precept 
contained in the Law; nor has any new heresy l)een 
introduced by you in connection with the worship of 
Crod ; but ye both hold one and the same judgment 
on these points, so that nothing exists to hinder 
association in communion. Moreover while you thus 
pertinaciously contend with one another about matters 
of small or scarcely the least importance, and espe- 
cially with such virulence of feeling, it is unsuitable 
for you to have charge of so many people of God: 
and not only is it unbecoming, but it is also believed 
to be altogether unlawful. 

" Permit me further to remind you of your duty 
by an example of an inferior kind. You are well 
aware that even the philosophers themselves, while all 
confederated under one Sect, yet often disagree with 
each other on some parts of their theories: but 
although they may differ in their views on the very 
highest branches of science, yet in order to maintain 
the unity of their body, they still agree to coalesce. 
Now if this is done amongst them, how much more 
equitable will it be for you, who have been constituted 
ministers of the Most High God, to become unanimous 
with one another in the same religious profession. 
But let us examme with closer consideration, and 
deeper attention, what has been already stated. Is it 
right on account of insignificant and vain conten- 
tions between you about words, that Brethren should 
be set in opposition against Brethren; and that the 
venerable Assembly should be distracted by unhallowed 
dissension, through your striving with one another 
respecting things so unimportant, and by no means 


essential? These quarrels are indeed derogatory 
to your character, being rather consistent with 
puerile thoughtlessness, than suitable to the intel- 
ligence of Priests and prudent men. We should 
spontaneously turn aside from the temptations of 
the devil. The great God and Saviour of us all, 
has extended to all the common light. Under his 
providence, allow me, his servant, to bring this effort 
of mine to a successful issue; that by my exhorta- 
tion, ministry, and earnest admonition, I may lead 
you, his people, back to unity* of assembly. For 
since, as I have observed, there is but one faith 
among you, and one sentiment respecting religion ;t 
and since the precept of the Law, in all its parts, 
combines all in one purpose of soul, let not this 
diversity of opinion, which has excited among you 
mutual dissension, by any means cause discord and 
schism, inasmuch as the cause of it touches not the 
force of any law. I say these things, not as com- 
pelling you all to see exactly alike on the subject of 
this controversy, of small moment as it is ; since the 
dignityj of the general assembly may be preserved 
unaffected, and the same communion with all be 
retained, although there should exist among you 
some dissimilarity of sentiment on unimportant 
matters. For we do not all desire the same thing 
in every respect ; nor is there one unvarying nature, 
or standard of judgment in us. Therefore in regard 
to Divine providence, let there be one faith, one 
sentiment, and one covenant of the Godhead :§ but 
respecting those minute investigations which ye enter 

* Koiyufyinv, t Alpeaeutt ffvvco'tC) underBtanding of heresy. 

X Tlfiiov. § 'Vov Kptlrrovoiim 


into among yourselves with so much nicety, even if ye 
should not concur in one judgment, it becomes you 
to confine them to your own reflection, and to keep 
them in the secret recesses of the mind. Let then 
an ineffable and select bond of general friendship, 
with faith in the truth, reverence for God, and a 
devout observance of his law, remain unshaken 
among you. Resume the exercise of mutual friend- 
ship and grace ; restore to the whole people their 
accustomed familiar embraces ; and do ye yourselves, 
having purified your own souls, again recognise one 
another: for friendship often becomes sweeter after 
the removal of anhnosity. Return again therefore 
to a state of reconciliation; and by so doing give 
back to me tranquil days, and nights free from care ; 
that to me also there may be some pleasure in the 
pure light, and that a cheerful serenity may be pre- 
served to me during the rest of my life. But if this 
should not be effected, I must necessarily groan, and 
be wholly suffused with tears; neither will the re- 
maining period of my earthly existence be peacefully 
sustained: for while the people of God (I speak of my 
fellow-servants) are dissevered by so unworthy and 
injurious a contest with one another, how is it pos- 
sible for me to maintain my usual equanimity ? But 
in order that you may have some idea of my excessive 
grief on account of this unhappy difference, listen to 
what I am about to state. On my recent arrival at 
the city of Nicomedia, it was my intention imme- 
diately after to proceed into the East: but while I 
was hastening toward you, and had advanced a con- 
siderable distance on my way, intelligence of this 
affair altogether reversed my purpose, lest I should 


be obliged to see with my own eyes a condition of 
things such as I could scarcely bear the report of. 
Open to me therefore by your unanimity henceforth, 
the way into the East, which ye have obstructed by 
your contentions against one another : and permit me 
speedily to behold both you and all the rest of the 
people rejoicing together; and to express my due 
thanks to the Divine Being, because of the general 
unanimity and liberty of all parties, accompanied 
by the cordial utterance of your praise." , 




Such was the admirable and wise counsel contained 
in the emperor's letter. But the evil had become so 
inveterate, that neither the exhortations of the em- 
j)eror, nor the authority of him who was the bearer 
of his letter, availed anything : for neither was Alex- 
ander nor Arius softened by this appeal ; and more- 
over there was incessant strife and tumult among the 
people. But another source of disquietude had pre- 
existed there, which served to trouble the churches, 
though it was confined to the eastern parts. This 
arose from some desiring to keep the Feast of the 
Passover, or Easter, more in accordance with the cus- 
tom of the Jews ; while others preferred its mode of 
celebration by Christians in general throughout the 
world. This difference however did not interfere 
with their communion, although their mutual joy was 

* Niiraif. 

CHAP. VIII.] SYNOD AT NICE. — A. D. 325. 23 

necessarily hindered. When therefore the emperor 
beheld the Church agitated by both of these causes, 
he convoked a Greneral Council,* summoning all the 
bishops by letter to meet him at Nice in Bithynia. 
Accordingly the bishops assembled out of the various 
provinces and cities ; respecting whom Eusebius Pam- 
philus thus writes, in his third book of the life of Con- 
stantine : — 

" Wherefore the most eminent of the ministers of God 
in all the churches which have filled Europe, Africa, and 
Asia, were convened. And one sacred edifice, dilated 
as it were by God, contained within it on the same 
occasion both Syrians and Cilicians, Arabs and Pales- 
tinians, and in addition to these, Egyptians, Thebans, 
Libyans, and those who came from Mesopotamia. At 
this Synod a Persian bishop was also present, neither 
was the Scythian absent from this assemblage. Pon- 
tus also and Galatia, Pamphylia, Cappadocia, Asia, 
and Phrygia, supplied those who were most distin- 
guished among them. Besides there met there Thra- 
cians and Macedonians, Achaians and Epirots, and 
even those who dwelt still more distant than these. 
Hosius, the most celebrated of the Spaniards, took his 
seat among the rest. The prelate of the imi>erial city 
was absent through age ; but his presbyters were pre- 
sent, and filled his place. Such a cro^vn, composed 
as a bond of peace, the emperor Constantine alone 
has ever dedicated to Christ his Saviour, as a thank- 
offering worthy of God for victory over his enemies, 
having appointed this convocation among us in imi- 
tation of the Apostolic Assembly. t For among them 

* OiKovfi€viKf)vi this was called the First CEcumenical Synod, 
t Acts ii. 5. 


it is said were convened ' devout men of every nation 
under heaven ; Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and those 
who dwelt in Mesopotamia, Judaea, Cappadocia, Pon- 
tus, Asia, Phrygia, Pamphylia, Eg3rpt, and the parts 
of Libya, strangers from Rome also, both Jews and 
proselytes, with Cretans and Arabs/ That congrega- 
tion however was inferior in this respect, that all 
present were not ministers of God : whereas in this 
assembly the number of bishops exceeded three hun- 
dred; while the number of the presbyters, deacons, 
and acolyths (or young priests) who attended them 
was almost incalculable. Some of these ministers of 
God were eminent for their wisdom, some for the 
strictness of their life, and patient endurance of per- 
secution, and others united in themselves all these 
distinguished characteristics: some were venerable 
from their advanced age, others were conspicuous 
for their youth and vigour of mind, and others had 
but recently entered on their ministerial career. For 
all these the emperor appointed an abundant supply 
of daily food to be provided." Such is Eusebius's 
account of those who met on this occasion. The 
emperor having completed the festal solemnization of 
his triumph over Licinius, came also in person to Nice. 
There were among the bishops two of extraordinary 
celebrity, Paphnutius, bishop of Upper Thebes, and 
Spyridon, bishop of Cyprus: why I have so par- 
ticularly referred to these two individuals, I shall 
state hereafter. Many of the laity were also present, 
who were practised in the art of reasoning, and each 
prepared to advocate the cause of his own party. 
Eusebius bishop of Nicomedia, as was before said, 
supported the opinion of Arius, together with The- 

CHAP. Vm.] SYNOD AT NICE. — A.D. 325. 25 

ognis bishop of Nice, and Maris bishop of Chalcedon 
in Bithynia. These were powerfiilly opposed by 
Athanasius, a deacon of the Alexandrian church, who 
was highly esteemed by Alexander his bishop, and on 
that account was much envied, as will be seen here- 
after. For a short time previous to the general as- 
sembling of the bishops, the disputants engaged in 
preparatory logical contests with various opponents : 
and when many were attracted by the interest of 
their discourse, one of the laity who was a man of 
unsophisticated understanding, and had stood the 
test of persecution* in his confession of faith, reproved 
these reasoners; telling them that Christ and his 
Apostles did not teach us the Dialectic art, nor vain 
subtilties, but simple-mindedness, which is preserved 
by faith and good works. All present admired the 
speaker, and assented to the justice of his remarks; 
and the disputants themselves, after hearing his 
ingenuous statement of the truth, exercised a far 
greater degree of moderation: thus then was the 
disturbance caused by these logical debates sup- 

On the following day all the bishops were as- 
sembled together in one place ; the emperor arrived 
soon after, and on his entrance stood in their midst, 
declining to take his place, until the bishops by bow- 
ing intimated their desire that he should be seated : 
such was the respect and reverence which the em- 
peror entertained for these men. When a silence 
suitable to the occasion had been observed, the em- 
peror from his seat began to address them, entreating 
each to lay aside all private pique, and exhorting 


them to unanimity and concord. For several of them 
had brought accusations agauist one another, and 
many had even presented petitions to the emperor 
the day before. But he directing their attention to 
the matter before them, and on account of which 
they were assembled, ordered these petitions to be 
burnt ; merely observing that Christ enjoins him who 
is anxious to obtain forgiveness, to forgive his brother. 
When therefore he had strongly insisted on the 
maintenance of harmony and peace, he then sanc- 
tioned their purpose of more closely investigating the 
questions at issue. But it may be well to hear what 
Eusebius says on this subject, in his third book of 
the Life of Constantine. His words are these : — 

" A variety of topics having been introduced by 
each party, and much controversy being excited from 
the very commencement, the emperor listened to all 
with patient attention, deliberately and impartially 
considering whatever was advanced. He in part 
supported the statements which were made on both 
sides, and gradually softened the asperity of those 
who contentiously opposed each other, conciliating 
each by his mildness and affability. Addressing them 
in the Greek language, with which he was well ac- 
quainted, in a manner at once interesting and persua- 
sive, he wrought conviction on the minds of some, 
and prevailed on others by entreaty. Those who spoke 
well he applauded, and incited all to unanimity; 
until at length he succeeded in bringing them into 
similarity of judgment, and confonnity of opinion 
on all the controverted points: so that there was 
not only unity in the confession of faith, but also 
a general agreement as to the time for the celebration 

CHAP. Vm.] SYNOD AT NICE. — A. D. 325. 27 

of the salutary feast of Easter. Moreover the doc- 
trines which had thus the common consent, were 
confirmed by the signature of each individual." 

Such is the testimony respecting these things 
which Eusebius has left us ; and which it was 
thought might not unfitly be introduced here, as 
an authority for the fidelity of this history. With 
this end also in view, that if any one should condemn 
as erroneous the faith professed at this council of 
Nice, we might be unaffected by it, and put no con- 
fidence in Sabinus the Macedonian, who calls all 
those that were convened there idiots and simpletons. 
For this Sabinus, who was bishop of the Macedonians 
at Heraclea in Thrace, having made a collection of 
the canons published by various Synods of bishops, 
has treated those who composed the Nicene council 
in particular with contempt and derision; not per- 
ceiving that he thereby charges Eusebius himself 
with foUy, who made a like confession after the 
closest scrutiny. Some things he has wilfully passed 
over, others he has perverted, and on all he has put 
a construction favorable to his own views. Yet he 
commends Eusebius Pamphilus as a witness worthy 
of credit, and praises the emperor as capable in 
stating Christian doctrines: but he still brands the 
faith which was declared at Nice, as having been set 
forth by idiots, and such as had no intelligence in the 
matter. Thus he voluntarily contemns the testimony 
of a man whom he himself pronounces a wise and true 
witness : for Eusebius declares, that of the ministers 
of God who were present at the Nicene Synod, some 
were eminent for the word of wisdom, others for the 
strictness of their life ; and that the emperor himself 


being present, leading all into unanimity, established 
unity of judgment, and conformity of opinion among 
them. Of Sabinus however we shall make further 
mention as occasion may require. But the agree- 
ment of faith, assented to with loud acclamation 
at the great council of Nice is this : — 

" We believe in one Grod, the Father Almighty, Maker 
of all things visible and invisible : — and in our Lord 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only begotten of 
the Father, that is of the substance* of the Father; 
God of God and Light of light; true God of true God; 
begotten, not made, consubstantialf ^vith the Father : 
by whom all things were made, both which are in 
heaven and on earth : who for the sake of us men, and 
on account of our salvation, descended, became incar- 
nate, and was made man; suffered, arose again the 
third day, and ascended into the heavens, and will 
come again to judge the living and the dead. We 
also believe in the Holy Spirit. But the holy Catholic 
and Apostolic church anathematizes those who say that 
there was a time when the Son of God was not, and 
that he was not before he was begotten, and that he 
was made from that which did not exist; or who 
assert that he is of other substance or essence than the 
Father, or that he was created, or is susceptible of 

This creed was recognised and acquiesced in by 
three hundred and eighteen bishops; and being, as 
Eusebius says, unanimous in expression and sentiment, 
they subscribed it. Five only would not receive it, ob- 
jecting to the term o/ioouaio^, of the same essence^ or con- 
sxibstantial : these were Eusebius bishop of Nicomedia, 

* Ovo'iaf. t *0fUH)v9U}y, 

CHAP. VIII.] SYNOD AT NICE. — ^A.D. 325. 29 

Theognis of Nice, Maris of Chalcedon, Thomas of 
Marmarica, and Secundus of Ptolemais. " For," said 
they, " that is consvbstantial which is from another 
either by partition, derivation or germination; by 
germination, as a shoot from the roots ; by derivation, 
as children from their parents ; by division, as two or 
three vessels of gold from a mass." But they con- 
tended that the Son is from the Father by none of 
these modes : wherefore they declared themselves un- 
able to assent to this creed ; and having scoflFed at the 
word consvbstantial^ they would not subscribe to the 
condemnation of Arius. Upon this the Sjoiod ana- 
thematized Arius, and all who adhered to his opinions, 
prohibiting him at the same time from entering into 
Alexandria. By an edict of the emperor also, Arius 
himself was sent into exile, together with Eusebius 
and Theognis ; but the two latter, a short time after 
their banishment, tendered a written declaration of 
their change of sentiment, and concurrence in the faith 
of the consubstantiality of the Son with the Father, as 
we shall show as we proceed. At the same time 
Eusebius sumamed Pamphilus, bishop of Caesarea in 
Palestine, who had withheld his assent in the Synod, 
after mature consideration whether he ought to receive 
this form* of faith, at length acquiesced in it, and 
subscribed it with all the rest: he also sent to the 
people under his charge a copy of the Creed, with an 
explanation of the word ofwovato^j that no one might 
impugn his motives on account of his previous hesita- 
tion. His address to them was as follows : — " You 
have probably had some intimation, beloved, of the 
transactions of the great council convened at Nice, in 

* "Opoy* 


relation to the faith of the Church, inasmuch as 
rumour generally outruns an accurate statement of 
that which has really taken place. But lest from 
such report alone you might form an incorrect esti- 
mate of the matter, we have deemed it necessary to 
submit to you, in the first place, an exposition of the 
faith propounded by us ; and then a second which has 
been promulgated, consisting of certain additions to 
the expression of ours. The declaration of faith set 
forth by us, and which when read in the presence of 
our most pious emperor, seemed to meet with univer- 
sal approbation, was thus expressed : — 

" ' According as we received from the bishops who 
preceded us, both at our initiation* into the know- 
ledge of the truth, and when we were baptized; as 
also we have ourselves learned from the sacred Scrip- 
tures ; and in accordance with what we have both 
believed and taught while discharging the duties of 
presbyter and the episcopal office itself, so now be- 
lieving, we present to you the distinct avowal of our 
faith. It is this : — 

" * We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, 
Maker of all things visible and invisible : — and in one 
Lord, Jesus Christ, the Word of Grod, God of God, 
Light of light. Life of life, the only-begotten Son, 
born before all creation,t begotten of God the Father, 
before all ages ; by whom also all things were made ; 
who on account of our salvation became incarnate, 
and lived among men ; and who having suflFered and 
risen again on the third day, ascended to the Father, 
and shall come again in glory to judge the living and 
the dead. We believe also in one Holy Spirit. We 

CHAP. Vm.] LETTER OF EUSEBIUS. — A.D. 325. 31 

believe in the existence and subsistence of each of 
these persons : that the Father is truly Father, the 
Son truly Son, and the Holy Spirit truly Holy Spirit ; 
even as our Lord also, when he sent forth his disciples 
to preach the Gospel, said (Mat. xxviii. 19), *Go and 
teach * all nations, baptizing them in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.' These 
doctrines we thus steadfestly maintain, and avow our 
fuU confidence in the truth of; such also have been 
our sentiments hitherto, and such we shall continue to 
hold until death: and in an unshaken adherence to 
this faith, we anathematize every impious heresy. In 
the presence of God Almighty, and of our Lord Jesus 
Christ we testify, that thus we have believed and 
thought from our heart and soul, since we were capa- 
ble of forming a judgment on the matter, and have 
possessed a right estimate of ourselves ; and that we 
now think and speak what is perfectly in accordance 
with the truth. We are moreover prepared to prove 
to you by imdeniable evidences, and to convince you 
that in time past we have thus believed, and so 

" When these articles of faith were proposed, they 
were received without opposition : nay, our most pious 
emperor himself was the first to admit that they were 
perfectly orthodox, and that he precisely concurred in 
the sentiments contained in them ; exhorting all pre- 
sent to give them their assent, and subscribe to these 
very articles, thus agreeing in an unanimous profession 
of them. It was suggested however that the word 
ofLoovaioy (consubstantial) should be introduced, an 
expression which the emperor himself explained, as 

* MaOrjrivaare, disciple. 


not indicating corporeal affections or properties ; and 
consequently that the Son did not subsist from the 
Father either by division or abscision : for, said he, 
a nature which is immaterial and incorporeal can- 
not possibly be subject to any corporeal affection; 
hence our apprehension of such things can only be 
expressed in divine and mysterious terms. Such was 
the philosophical view of the subject taken by our 
most wise and pious sovereign ; and the bishops on 
account of the word ofwovaio^y drew up this formula 
of faith. 


" * We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, 
Maker of all things visible and invisible : — and in one 
Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten 
of the Father, that is of the substancef of the 
Father ; God of God, Light of light, true God of true 
Grod; begotten not made, consubstantialj with the 
Father ; by whom all things were made both which 
are in heaven and on earth ; who for the sake of us 
.-^ men, and on account of our salvation, descended, 
became incarnate, suffered and rose again on the 
third day; he ascended into the heavens, and will 
come to judge the living and the dead. We believe 
also in the Holy Spirit. But those who say that 
there was a time when he was not, or that he did 
not exist before he was begotten, or that he was made 
of nothing, or assert that he is of other substance or 
essence than the Father, or that the Son of God is 
created, or mutable, § or susceptible of change, the 
catholic and apostolic church of God anathematizes.' 

* Mddrifia. f Ohfflag. { *0^oovaiov. § TptirTOV. 


" In forming this declaration of faith, we did not 
neglect to investigate the distinct sense of the ex- 
pressions of the substance of the Father^ and consub- 
stantial with the Father. Whereupon much discussion 
arose, and the meaning of these terms was clearly 
defined ; when it was generally admitted that ovarian 
(of the essence or substance) simply implied that the 
Son is of the Father indeed, but not as a part of the 
Father. To this interpretation of the sacred doctrine 
which declares that the Son is of the Father, but is 
not a part of his substance, it seemed right to us to 
assent. We ourselves therefore concurred in this 
exposition ; nor do we cavil at the word ofwovano^j 
having regard as well to peace, as dreading lest we 
should lose a right understanding of the matter. On 
the same grounds we admitted also the expression 
begotten^ not made :* * for made^^ said they, ' is a term 
which is applied to all the creatures which were made 
by the Son, to whom the Son has no resemblance. 
Consequently he is no creature like those which were 
made by him, but is of a substance far excelling any 
creature; which substance the sacred Oracles teach 
us was begotten of the Father by such a mode of 
generation as can neither be apprehended nor ex- 
plained by any creature.' Thus also the declaration 
that the Son is consubstantial trnth the Father having 
been discussed, it was agreed that this must not be 
understood in a corporeal sense, or in any way 
analogous to mortal creatures; inasmuch as it is 
neither by division of substance, nor by abscission, 
nor by any change of the Father's substance and 
power, since the imderived nature of the Father is 

* rtyyffiiyTa oh woiridijTa, 


inconsistent with all these things. That he is con- 
substantial with the Father then simply implies, that 
the Son of Grod has no resemblance to created things, 
but is in every respect like the Father only who begat 
him ; and that he is of no other substance or essence 
but of the Father. To which doctrine, explained in 
this way, it appeared right to assent, especially since 
we knew that some eminent bishops and learned 
writers among the ancients have used the term 
6/ioov(no9 in their theological discourses concerning 
the nature of the Father and the Son. Such is what 
I have to state to you in reference to the articles of 
faith which have been recently promulgated; and 
in which we have all concurred, not without due 
examination, but according to the senses assigned, 
which were investigated in the presence of our most 
religious emperor, and for the reasons mentioned 
approved. We have ako unhesitatingly acquiesced 
in the anathema pronounced by them after the 
declaration of faith; because it prohibits the use of 
terms which do not occur in Scripture, and from 
which almost all the distraction and commotion of 
the churches have arisen. Accordingly, since no 
divinely-inspired* Scripture contains the expressions, 
of things which do not exist, and there was a time when 
he was not, and such other phrases as are therein sub- 
joined, it seemed unwarrantable to utter and teach 
them: and moreover this decision received our 
sanction the rather from the consideration that we 
have never heretofore been accustomed to employ 
these terms. We deemed it incumbent on us beloved 
to acquaint you with the caution which has charac- 

* Qeoirv€v<rrov, 


terized our examination of these things, as well as 
with what deliberateness our assent has been given, 
and on what justifiable grounds we resisted the in- 
troduction of certain objectionable expressions; and 
finally, that it was only after mature consideration of 
the ftill import of some points to which we demurred 
at first, that we were induced to withdraw our oppo- 
sition, perceiving them in fact to be quite accordant 
with what we had originally proposed as a sound con- 
fession of faith. " 

Such was the letter addressed by Eusebius Pam- 
philus to the Christians at Caesarea in Palestine. 
The Synod itself also, with one accord, wrote the 
following epistle to the church of the Alexandrians, 
and to believers in Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis. 



" To the holy, by the grace of God, and great 
church of the Alexandrians, and to our beloved 
brethren throughout Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis, 
the bishops assembled at Nice, constituting the great 
and holy Synod, send greeting in the Lord. 

" Since, by the grace of Gk)d, a great and holy 
Synod has been convened at Nice, our most pious 
sovereign Constantine having summoned us out of 
various cities and provinces for that purpose, it ap- 
peared to us indispensably necessary that a letter 


should be written to you on the part of the sacred 
Synod; in order that ye may know what subjects 
were brought under consideration, what rigidly in- 
vestigated, and also what was eventually determined 
on and decreed. In the first place then the impiety 
and guilt of Arius and his adherents were examined 
into, in the presence of our most religious emperor 
Constantine: and it was unanimously decided that 
his impious opinion should be anathematized, with all 
the blasphemous expressions he has uttered, in affirm- 
ing that the Son of God sprang from nothing, and 
that there was a time when he was not; saying more- 
over that the Son of God was possessed of free-mil^ so 
a^ to be capable either of vice or virtue; and calling 
him a creature and a work. All these sentiments 
the holy SjTiod has anathematized, having scarcely 
patience to endure the hearing of such an impious 
or rather bewldered opinion and such abominable 
blasphemies. But the conclusion of our proceedings 
against him you must either have been informed of 
already or will soon be apprised of; for we would 
not seem to trample on a man who has received the 
chastisement which his crime deserved. Yet so con- 
tagious has his pestilential error proved, as to involve 
in the same perdition Theonas bishop of Marmarica, 
and Secundus of Ptolemais ; for they have suffered 
the same condemnation as himself. But when, by the 
grace of God, we were delivered from those execrable 
dogmas, with all their impiety and blasphemy, and 
from those persons who had dared to cause discord 
and division among a people previously at peace, 
there still remained the contumacy of Melitius 
to be dealt ^\nth, and those who had been ordained by 


him; and we shall now state to you, beloved 
brethren, what resolution the Synod came to on this 
point. Acting with more clemency towards Melitius, 
although strictly speaking he was wholly undeserving 
of favour, the council permitted him to remain in his 
own city, but decreed that he should exercise no 
authority either to ordain or nommate for ordina- 
tion; and that he should appear in no other dis- 
trict or city on this pretence, but simply retain a 
nominal dignity. That those who had received ap- 
pointments from him, after having been confirmed 
by a more legitimate ordination, should be admitted 
to communion on these conditions : — ^that they should 
continue to hold their rank and ministry, but regard 
themselves as inferior in every respect to all those 
who had been previously ordained and established in 
each place and church by our most-honoured fellow- 
minister Alexander. In addition to these things, 
they shall have no authority to propose or nominate 
whom they please, or to do any thing at all Avithout 
the concurrence of some bishop of the catholic church 
who is one of Alexander's suffragans. Let such as 
by the grace of God and your prayers have been 
found in no schism, but have continued in the 
catholic church blameless, have authority to nominate 
and ordain those who are worthy of the sacred oflBice,* 
and to act in all things according to ecclesiastical law 
and usage. When it may happen that any of those 
holding preferments in the church die, then let such 
as have been recently admitted into Orders be pre- 
ferred to the dignity of the deceased, provided that 
they should appear woi^thy, and tliat the people 

* KA^pov. 


should elect them, the bishop of Alexandria also rati- 
fying their choice. This privilege is conceded to all 
the others indeed, but to Melitius personally we by 
no means grant the same licence, on account of liis 
former disorderiy conduct; and because of the rash- 
ness and levity of his character, he is deprived of all 
authority and jurisdiction, as a man liable again to 
create similar disturbances. These are the things 
which specially affect Egypt, and the most holy 
church of the Alexandrians : and if any other canon 
or ordinance should be established, our lord* and 
most-honoured fellow-minister and brother Alexander 
being present >vith us, will on his return to you 
enter into more minute details, inasmuch as he is 
not only a participator in whatever is transacted, 
but has the principal direction of it. We have also 
gratifying intelligence to communicate to you relative 
to unity of judgment on the subject of the most holy 
feast t of Easter : for this point also has been happily 
settled through your prayers ; so that all the brethren 
in the East who have heretofore kept this festival 
when the Jews did, will henceforth conform to the 
Romans and to us, and to all who from the earliest 
time have observed our period of celebrating Easter. 
Rejoicing therefore in this most desirable conclusion, 
and in the general unanimity and peace, as well as in 
the extirpation of all heresy, receive with the greater 
honour and more abundant love our fellow-minister 
and your bishop Alexander; who has greatly de- 
lighted us by his presence, and even at his advanced 
age has undergone extraordinary exertions in order 
that peace might be re-established among you. Pray 

* Ki/pcou. t nd(Txa« 


on behalf of us all, that the decbions to which we 
have so justly come may be inviolably maintained 
through Almighty God, and our Lord Jesus Christ, 
together with the Holy Spirit ; to whom be glory for 
ever. Amen." 

From this epistle of the S}niod it is manifest, that 
they not only anathematized Arius and his adherents, 
but the very expressions of his tenets ; and that hav- 
ing agreed among themselves respecting the celebration 
of Easter, they readmitted the schismatic Melitius into 
communion, suffering him to retain his episcopal rank, 
but divesting him of all authority to act as a bishop. 
It is for this reason I suppose that even at the present 
time the Melitians in Egypt are separated from the 
church, because the Synod deprived Melitius of all 
power. It should be observed moreover that Arius 
had written a treatise on his own opinion which he 
entitled Thalia ; but the character of the book was 
loose and dissolute, its style and metres not being 
very unlike the songs of Sotades the obscene Maron- 
ite. This production also the Synod condemned at 
the same time. Nor was it a matter of anxiety to the 
Synod only that letters should be written to the 
churches announcing the restoration of peace, but the 
emperor Constantine himself also wrote to the same 
effect, and sent the following address to the church of 
the Alexandrians. 

THE emperor's LETTER. 

" Constantine Augustus, to the Catholic church of 
the Alexandrians. Beloved brethren, hail ! We have 
received from Divine Providence the inestunable 


blessing of being relieved from all error, and united 
in the acknowledgment of one and the same faith. 
The devil will no longer have any power against us, 
since all that which he had malignantly devised for 
our destruction has been entirely overthrown. The 
splendour of truth has dissipated at the command of 
Grod those dissensions, schisms, tumults, and so to 
speak, deadly poisons of discord. Wherefore we all 
worship the one true God, and believe that he is. 
But in order that this might be done, by divine ad- 
monition I assembled at the city of Nice most of the 
bishops; with whom I myself also, who am but one 
of you, and who rejoice exceedingly in being your 
fellow-servant, undertook the investigation of the 
truth. Accordingly all points which seemed in con- 
sequence of ambiguity to furnish any pretext for 
dissension, have been discussed and accurately 
examined. And may the Divine Majesty pardon the 
fearful enormity of the blasphemies which some have 
shamelessly uttered concerning the mighty Saviour, 
our life and hope; declaring and confessing that 
they believe things contrary to the divinely-inspired 
Scriptures. While more than three hundred bishops 
remarkable for their moderation and intellectual supe- 
riority, were unanimous in their confirmation of one 
and the same faith, which according to the truth 
and legitimate construction of the law of God can 
only be the faith ; Arius, beguiled by the subtlety of 
the devil, was regarded as the sole disseminator of 
this mischief, first among you, and afterwards vnth 
unhallowed purposes among others also. Let us 
therefore embrace that doctrine which the Almighty 
has presented to us: let us return to our beloved 


brethren from whom this irreverent agent of the 
devil has separated us : let us go with all speed to the 
common body and our own natural members. For 
this is becoming your penetration, faith and sanctity ; 
that since he has been convicted of error who has 
been proved to be an enemy to the truth, ye should 
return to the Divine favour. For that which has 
commended itself to the judgment of three hundred 
bishops cannot be other than the doctrine of God; 
seeing that the Holy Spirit dwelling in the minds of 
so many dignified persons has effectually enlightened 
them respecting the Divine will. Wherefore let no 
one vacillate or linger, but let all with alacrity 
return to the undoubted path of duty; that when I 
shall arrive among you, which will be as soon as 
possible, I may with you return due thanks to God, 
the inspector of all things, because having revealed 
the pure faith, he has also restored to you that love 
for which ye have prayed. May God protect you, 
beloved brethren." 

Thus wrote the emperor to the Christians of Alexan- 
dria, to assure them that the exposition of the faith 
was neither made rashly nor inconsiderately, but 
that it was dictated with much research, and after 
strict investigation: and not that some things were 
spoken of, while others were suppressed in sUence; 
but that whatever could be fittingly advanced in 
support of any opinion was fully stated. That 
nothing indeed was precipitately determined, but all 
was previously discussed Avith minute accuracy; so 
that every point which seemed to furnish a pretext 
for ambiguity of meaning, or difference of opinion. 


was thoroughly sifted, and its difficiilties removed. 
In short he terms the decision of all those who were 
assembled there the will of God ; and does not doubt 
that the unanimity of so many eminent bishops was 
effected by the Holy Spirit. Sabinus however, the 
chief of the Macedonian heresy, wilfully rejects these 
authorities, and calls those who were convened there 
simpletons and illiterate persons; nay he almost ac- 
cuses Eusebius of CsBsarea himself of ignorance : nor 
does he reflect, that even if those who constituted 
that Synod were idiots, yet as being illuminated by 
God, and the grace of the Holy Spirit, they were 
utterly unable to err from the truth. Nevertheless 
hear farther what the emperor decreed both against 
Arius and those who held his opinions, sending in all 
directions to the bishops and people. 


"Victor Constantine Maximus Augustus, to the 
Bishops and people. — Since Arius has imitated 
wicked and impious persons, it is just that he should 
undergo the like ignominy. Wherefore as Porphyry 
that enemy of piety, for having composed licentious 
treatises against religion, found a suitable recompence, 
and such as thenceforth branded him vnth infamy, 
overwhelming him with deserved reproach, his im- 
pious writings also having been destroyed ; so now it 
seems fit both that Arius and such as hold his senti- 
ments should be denominated Porphyrians, that they 
may take their appellation from those whose conduct 
they have imitated. And in addition to this, if any 
treatise composed by Arius should be discovered, let 
it be consigned to the flames, in order that not only 


his depraved doctrine may be suppressed, but also that 
no memorial of him may be by any means left. This 
therefore I decree, that if any one shall be detected in 
eonoaJiw a book eompaed by Arim, and Aall not 
ins,«n% bring it forw.^ «>db«m it, the p«.dty for 
this offence shall be death ; for mmiediately after con* 
viction the criminal shall suffer capital punishment. 
May God preserve you!" 


" Constantine Augustus, to the Churches. 

"Having experienced from the flourishing con- 
dition of public affairs, how great has been the grace 
of divine power, I judged this to be an object above 
all things claiming my care, that one faith, smcere 
love, and uniform piety toward Almighty God should 
be maintained amongst the most blessed assemblies 
of the Catholic Church. But I perceived this 
could not be firmly and permanently established, 
unless all, or at least the greatest part of the bishops 
could be convened in the same place, and every point 
of our most holy religion should be discussed by 
them in council. For this reason as many as possible 
were assembled, and I myself also as one of you was 
present; for I will not deny what I especially rejoice 
in, that I am your fellow-servant. All points were 
then minutely investigated, until a decision acceptable 
to Him who is the inspector of all things, was pub- 
lished for the promotion of uniformity of judgment 
and practice; so that nothing might be henceforth 
left for dissension or controversy in matters of faith. 
There also the question having been considered 
relative to the most holy day of Easter, it was deter- 


mined by common consent that it would be proper 
that all should celebrate it on one and the same day 
everywhere. For what can be more appropriate, or 
what more solemn, than that this feast from which 
we have received the hope of immortality, should be 
invariably kept in one order, and for an obvious 
reason among all? And in the first place it seemed 
very unsuitable in the celebration of this sacred feast, 
that we should follow the custom of the Jews; 
a people who having imbrued their hands in a most 
hehious outrage, and thus polluted their souls, are 
deservedly blind. Having therefore cast aside their 
usage, it becomes us to take care that the celebration 
of this observance should occur in future in the more 
correct order which we have kept from the first day 
of the Passion until the present time. Let us then 
have nothing in common with that most hostile people 
the Jews. We have received from the Saviour 
another way ; for there is set before us both a legiti- 
mate and accurate course in our holy religion: 
unanimously pursuing this, let us, most honoured 
brethren, withdraw ourselves from that detestable 
association. How truly absurd it is for them to boast 
that we are incapable of rightly observing these 
things without their instruction. For on what sub- 
ject will they themselves be competent to form a 
correct judgment, who after that murder of their 
Lord, having ])een bereft of their senses, are led not 
by any rational motive, but by an ungovernable 
impulse, wherever their innate fury may drive them? 
Thence it is therefore, that even in this particular 
they do not perceive the truth, so that they con- 
stantly erring in the utmost degree, iutitead of making 


a suitable correction, celebrate the Feast of Passover 
a second time in the same year. Why then should 
we follow the example of those who are acknowledged 
to be infected with grievous error ? Surely we should 
never suffer Easter to be kept twice in one and the 
same year! But even if these considerations were 
not laid before you, it became your prudence at all 
times to take heed, both by diligence and prayer, 
that the purity of your soul should in nothing have 
communion, or seem to have accordance with the 
customs of men so utterly depraved. Moreover this 
should also be considered, that in a matter so im- 
portant and of such religious significancy, the slightest 
disagreement is to be deprecated. For our Saviour 
left us but one day to be observed in commemoration 
of our deliverance, that is the day of his most holy 
Passion: he also wished his Catholic Church to be 
one ; the members of which, however much they may 
be scattered in various places, are notwithstanding 
cherished by one Spirit, that is by the will of God. 
Let the prudence consistent with your sacred cha- 
racter consider how grievous and indecorous it is, that 
on the same days some should be observant of fasts, 
while others are celebrating feasts ; and especially 
that this should be the case on the days immediately 
after Easter. On this account therefore Divine Pro- 
vidence directed that an appropriate correction should 
be effected, and uniformity of practice established, as 
I suppose you are all aware. 

" Since then it was desirable that this should be 
so amended that we should have nothing in common 
with that nation of parricides, and of those who 
slew their Lord; and since the order is a becoming 


one which is observed by all the churches of the 
western, southern, and northern parts, and by some 
also in the eastern; from these considerations all 
have on the present occasion thought it to be ex- 
pedient, and I pledged myself that it would be 
satisfactory to your prudent penetration, that what 
is observed with such general unanimity of sentiment 
in the city of Rome, throughout Italy, Africa, all 
Egypt, Spain, France, Britain, Libya, the whole of 
Greece, and the dioceses of Asia, Pontus, and Cilicia, 
your intelligence also would readily concur in. 
Reflect too that not only is there a greater number 
of churches in the places before-mentioned, but also 
that this in particular is a most sacred obligation, 
that all should in common desire whatever strict 
reason seems to demand, and which has no commu- 
nion with the perjury of the Jews. But to sum up 
matters briefly, it was determined by common con- 
sent that the most holy festival of Easter should be 
solemnized on one and the same day ; for in such a 
hallowed solemnity any difference is unseemly: and 
it is more commendable to adopt that opinion in 
which there wiU be no intermixture of strange error, 
or deviation from what is right. These things there- 
fore being thus ordered, do you gladly receive this 
heavenly and truly divine command: for whatever 
is done in the sacred assemblies of the bishops is 
referable to the Divine will. Wherefore when ye 
have indicated the things which have been prescribed 
to all our beloved brethren, it behoves you both to 
assent to the reasoning which has been adduced, and 
to establish this observance of the most holy day: 
that when I arrive at the long and earnestly desired 


view of your order, I may be able to celebrate the 
sacred festival with you on one and the same day; 
and may rejoice with you for all things, in seeing 
Satanic cruelty finistrated by Divine power through 
our efforts, while your faith, peace and concord, are 
everywhere flourishing. May Grod preserve you, 
beloved brethren." 


" Victor Constantine Maximus Augustus, to 

" Since an impious purpose and tyranny have 
even to the present time persecuted the servants of 
Grod our Saviour, I have been credibly informed 
and am ftdly persuaded, most beloved brother, that 
all our sacred edifices have either by neglect gone to 
decay, or from dread of impending danger have not 
been adorned with becoming dignity. But now that 
liberty has been restored, and that persecuting dragon 
Licinius has by the providence of the Most High 
Crod, and our instrumentality, been removed from the 
administration of public affairs, I imagine that the 
divine power has been made manifest to all ; and trust 
that those who either through fear or unbelief fell into 
any sins, having acknowledged the living God, will 
come to the true and right course of life. Wherefore 
enjoin the churches over which you yourself preside, 
as well as the other bishops presiding in various 
places, together with the presbyters and deacons 
whom you know, to be diligent about the sacred 
edifices, either by repairing those which remain 

* Valesius oonsiden this letter misplaced, as having been written 
before the council of Nice. 


standing, or enlarging them, or by erecting new ones 
wherever it may be requisite. And do you yourself 
ask, and the rest through you, the necessary supplies 
both from the governors of the provinces, and the 
officers of the Praetorian Prefecture: for directions 
have been given to them to be strictly attentive to 
the orders of your holiness. May Grod preserve you, 
beloved brother." 

Similar instructions, concerning the building of 
churches were sent by the emperor to the bishops 
in every province : but what he wrote to Eusebius of 
Palestine respecting the preparation of some copies 
of the Scriptures, we may ascertain from the letters 
themselves : — 

" Victor Constantine Maximus Augustus, to 
Eusebius of Caesarea. 

" In the city which derives its name from us, a 
very great multitude of persons, through the assisting 
providence of our Saviour God, have united them- 
selves to the most holy Church, so that it has received 
much increase there. It is therefore requisite that 
more churches should be provided in that place: 
wherefore do you most cordially enter into the pur- 
pose which I have conceived. I have thought fit to 
intimate this to your prudence, that you should order 
to be transcribed on well prepared parchment, by 
competent writers accurately acquainted with their 
art, fifty copies of the Saxjred Scriptures, both legibly 
described, and of a portable size, the provision and 
use of which you know to be needful for the instruc- 
tion of the Church. Letters have also been despatched 


from our clemency, to the Rationalist* of the Diocess, 
in order that he may take care to provide all things 
necessary for the preparation of them. Let this task 
be your responsibility, that these copies may be got 
ready as quickly as possible : and you are authorised, 
on the warrant of this our letter, to use two of the 
public carriages for their conveyance; for thus the 
copies which are most satisfactorily transcribed, may 
be easily conveyed for our inspection. Charge one 
of the deacons of your church with this commission, 
who when he has reached us shall experience our 
bounty. May God preserve you, beloved brother." 


" Victor Constantine Maximus Augustus, to Maca- 
rius of Jerusalem. — Such is the grace of our Saviour, 
that no supply of words seems to be adequate to the 
expression of its present manifestation. For that the 
monument t of his most holy passion, long since hid- 
den under the earth, should have lain concealed for a 
period of so many years, until, through the destruction 
of the common enemy of all, it should shine forth to 
his own servants after their having regained their free- 
dom, exceeds all admiration. Surely if all those who 
throughout the whole habitable earth are accounted 
wise, should be convened in one and the same place, 
desiring to say something worthy of this miracle, they 
would fall infinitely short of the least part of it ; for the 
apprehension of this wonder as far transcends every 
nature capable of human reasoning, as heavenly things 
are mightier than human. Hence therefore this is 

t TvupiiTfia — Our Saviour's sepulchre is here meant. 



always my especial aim, that as the credibility of 
the truth daily demonstrates itself by fresh miracles, 
so the souls of us all should become more anxious 
respecting the holy law, with modesty and unanimous 
ardour. But I desire that you should be fully aware 
of what I conceive is pretty generally known, that 
it is now my chief care, that we should adorn 
with magnificent structures that hallowed spot, which 
by God's appointment I have disencumbered of a 
most disgusting appendage* of an idol, as of some 
grievous burden ; which was consecrated indeed from 
the beginning in the purpose of God, but has been 
more manifestly sanctified since he has brought to 
light the evidence of the Saviour's passion. Where- 
fore it is becoming your prudence both to make such 
arrangements, and provision of every thing neces- 
sary, that not only the Church t itself may be 
superior to any elsewhere, but that the rest of its 
parts also may be such that all the most splendid 
edifices in every city may be excelled by this. With 
regard to the worfananship and chaste execution of 
the walls, know that we have entrusted the care of 
these things to our friend Dracilian, deputy t to the 
most excellent the prefects of the preetorium, and to 
the governor of the province : for our piety has or- 
dered that artificers and workmen, and whatever other 
things they may be informed from your sagacity to 
be necessary for the structure, shaU through their 
care be immediately sent. Respecting the columns 
or the marbles, and whatever you may judge to be 
more precious and useful, do you yourself after having 

* A temple of Venus, built on Mount Calvary by Adrian, 
t Bao'cXcAT^v. J A«€iroiT« to. filpri. 


inspected the model* take care to write to us; that 
when we shall understand from your letter how 
many things and of what kind there may be need of, 
these may be conveyed to you from all quarters : for 
it is but reasonable that the most wonderful place 
in the world, should be adorned in accordance with 
its dignity. But I wish to know from you, whether 
you consider that the inner roof of the Temple should 
be arched, or constructed on some other plan : for if 
it is to be arched, it can also be decorated with gold. 
It remains that your holiness should inform the 
officers before-mentioned as soon as possible, how 
many workmen and artificers, and what money for 
expences you will want : and hasten to report to me 
speedily, not only concerning the marbles and columns, 
but also concerning the arched roof, if indeed you 
should decide this to be the more beautifiil. May 
God preserve you, beloved brother." 

The emperor having also written other letters of a 
more oratorical character against Arius and his ad- 
herents, caused them to be everywhere published 
throughout the cities, exposing him to ridicule, and 
taunting him with the keenest irony. Moreover 
writing to the Nicomedians against Eusebius and 
Theognis, he censures the misconduct of Eusebius, 
not only on account of his Arianism, but because also 
having formerly been well-aflfected to the tyrant, he 
had traitorously conspired against his afiairs. He 
then exhorts them to elect another bishop instead of 
him. But I thought it would be superfluous to insert 
here the letters respecting these things, because of 


their length : those who may wish to see them, will 
be readily able to find them elsewhere and give them 
a perusal. This is sufficient notice of these trans- 




The emperor's diligence induces me to mention 
another circumstance expressive of his mind, and serv- 
ing to show how much he desired peace : for aiming 
at ecclesiastical harmony, he summoned to the council 
Acesius also, a bishop of the Novatian sect. When 
therefore the Synod had written out and subscribed a 
declaration of faith, the emperor asked Acesius whe- 
ther he would also assent to this creed and acquiesce 
in the settlement of the day on which Easter should 
be observed. He replied, " The Synod has determined 
nothing new, my prince: for thus heretofore, even 
from the commencement and times of the apostles, I 
traditionally received the definition * of the faith, and 
the time of the celebration of Easter." When there- 
fore the emperor further asked him, " For what rea* 
son then do you separate yourself from communion 
with the rest of the church?" he related what had 
taken place during the persecution under Decius ; and 
referred to the rigidness of that austere canon which 
declares, that it is right to account unworthy of par- 
ticipation in the divine mysteries persons who after 
baptism have committed a sin, which the sacred Scrip- 
tures denominate " a sin unto death^^ t (1 John v. 16) : 

* "OpoK. t *Afi€ipriay vpo^ Oararoyy deadly sin. 


that they should indeed be exhorted to repentance, 
but were not to expect remission from the priests, 
but from God, who is alone able and has authority 
to forgive sins. When Acesius had thus spoken, the 
emperor said to him, " Place a ladder, Acesius, and 
climb alone into heaven." Neither Eusebius Pam* 
philus nor any other has ever mentioned these things : 
but I heard them from a man who was ty no means 
prone to falsehood, and who simply stated what had 
taken place in the council in his presence. From 
which I conjecture that those who have passed by 
this occurrence in silence, were actuated by motives 
which have influenced many other historians: for 
they frequently suppress important facts, either from 
prejudice against some, or partiality towards others. 



As we have before pledged ourselves to make some 
mention of Paphnutius and Spyridon, it will be sea- 
sonable to speak of them here. Paphnutius then was 
bishop of one of the cities in Upper Thebes : he was 
a man of such eminent piety,* that extraordinary 
miracles were done by hhn. In the time of the per- 
secution he had been deprived of one of his eyes. 
The emperor honoured this man exceedingly, and 
often sent for him to the palace, and kissed the part 
where the eye had been torn out. So devout was 
the emperor Constantine. Having noticed this cir- 
cumstance respecting Paphnutius, I shall explain 

* OeofjuXtiQ. 


another thing which was Wisely ordered in conse- 
quence of his advice, both for the good of the church 
and the honour of the clergy.* It seemed fit to the 
bishops to introduce a new law into the church, that 
those who were in holy orders, I speak of bishops, 
presbyters, and deacons, should have no conjugal in- 
tercourse with the wives which they had married 
prior to their ordination. And when it was pro- 
posed to deliberate on this matter, Paphnutius having 
arisen in the midst of the assembly of bishops, ear- 
nestly entreated them not to impose so heavy a yoke 
on the ministers of religion: asserting that "mar- 
riage is honourable among all, and the nuptial bed 
undefiled;" so that they ought not to injure the 
church by too stringent restrictions. " For all men," 
said he, " cannot bear the practice of rigid conti- 
nence ; t neither perhaps would the chastity i of each 
of their wives be preserved." He termed the inter- 
course of a man with his lawful wife chastity. It 
would be sufficient, he thought, that such as had pre- 
viously entered on their sacred calling should abjure 
matrimony, according to the ancient tradition of the 
church : but that none shoidd be separated from her 
to whom, while yet unordained, he had been legally 
united. And these sentiments he expressed, although 
himself without experience of marriage, and, to speak 
plainly, without ever having known a woman: for 
from a boy he had been brought up in a monastery,} 
and was specially renowned above all men for his 
chastity. The whole assembly of the clergy assented to 
the reasoning of Paphnutius : wherefore they silenced 
all further debate on this point, leavuig it to those 


who were husbands to exercise their own discretion in 
reference to their wives. 



With respect to Spyridon, so great was his sanc- 
tity while a shepherd, that he was thought worthy 
of being made a Pastor of men : and having been 
assigned the bishopric of one of the cities in Cyprus 
named Trimithimtis, on account of his extreme hu- 
mility he continued to feed his sheep during his pre- 
lacy. Many extraordinary things are related of him : 
I diall however record but one or two, lest I should 
seem to wander from my subject. Once about mid- 
night, thieves having clandestinely entered his sheep- 
fold attempted to carry off the sheep. But God who 
protected iJie shepherd preserved his sheep also; for 
the thieves were by an invisible power bound to the 
folds. At day-break, when he came to the sheep and 
found the men with their hands tied behind them, he 
understood what was done : and after having prayed he 
liberated the thieves, earnestly admonishing and ex- 
horting them to support themselves by honest labour, 
and not to take anything unjustly. He then gave 
them a ram, and sent them away, jocosely adding, 
" that ye may not appear to have watched all night 
in vain." This is one of Spyridon's miracles. Another 
was of this kind. He had a virgin daughter named 
Irene, who was a partaker of her father's piety. An 
acquaintance entrusted to her keeping an ornament of 
considerable value : she, to guard it more securely, hid 


what had been deposited with her in the ground, and 
soon afterwards died. Subsequently the o^vner of the 
property came to claim it ; and not finding the virgin, 
he implicated the father in the transaction, sometimes 
accusing him of an attempt to defraud him, and then 
again beseeching him to restore the deposit. The old 
man regarding this person's loss as his own misfor- 
tune, went to the tomb of his daughter, and called 
upon God to show him anticipatively the promised 
resurrection. Nor was he disappointed in his hope : 
for the virgin again reviving appears to her father, 
and having pointed out to him the spot where she had 
hidden the ornament, she once more departed. Such 
characters as these adorned the church in the time 
of the emperor Constantine. These details were com- 
municated to me by many of the inhabitants of Cy- 
prus ; and moreover I found them recorded in a trea- 
tise composed in Latin by the pfesbyter Rufinus, 
from which I have collected these and some other 
things which will be hereafter adduced. 



I HAVE heard extraordinary things also of ]^]uty- 
chian, a devout person who flourished about the siinie 
time; who although of the Novatian church, yet was 
venerated for the performance of miracles similar to 
those just mentioned. I shall unequivocally state my 
authority for this narrative, nor will I attempt to 
conceal it, though I expect it will give umbrage to 
some parties. It was Auxanon, a very aged pi'es- 

CHAP. XIII.] EUTYCHIAN. — A.D. 325. 57 

byter of the Novatian church; who when quite a 
youth accompanied Acesius to the Sjmod at Nice, 
and related to me what I have said concerning him. 
His life extended from that period to the reign of 
Theodosius the younger; and while I was a mere 
stripling he recounted to me the acts of Eutychian, 
enlarging much on the divine grace which was mani- 
fested in him: but one circumstance he alluded to, 
which occurred in the reign of Constantine, peculiarly 
worthy of mention. One of those military atten* 
dants,* whom the emperor calls his domestic or body 
guards, having been suspected of treasonable prac- 
tices, sought his safety in flight. The indignant 
monarch ordered that he should be put to death, 
wherever he might be found: who having been ar- 
rested on the Bithynian Olympus, was heavily f 
ironed and incarcerated near those parts of Oljonpus 
where Eutychian was leading a solitary life, and 
healing both the bodies and souls of many. The 
venerable Auxanon being then very young was with 
him, and was initiated by him into the discipline of 
the monastic life. Many persons came to this Eu- 
tychian, entreating him to procure the release of the 
prisoner by interceding for him with the emperor, 
who had been informed of the miracles done by 
Eutychian. The saint readily promised to go to his 
sovereign ; but as the chains inflicted intolerable suf- 
fering, those who interested themselves on his behalf 
declared that it was to be feared death accelerated by 
the eflect of his chains would both anticipate the em- 
peror's vengeance, and render nugatory any interces- 
sion that might be made for the prisoner. Accordingly 

* Aopv^opoiV) spearmen or laucers. t BupvTUToic (iicrifMuj, 


Eutychian sent to the jailors, requesting them to 
release the man; but they having answered that 
they should bring themselves into danger by liberating 
a criminal, he went himself to the prison attended 
by Auxanon ; and on their refusal to admit him, the 
grace which rested on Eutychian was rendered more 
conspicuous: for the gates of the prison opened of 
their own accord, while the jailors had the keys in 
their custody. As soon as Eutychian together with 
Auxanon had entered the prison, to the great as- 
tonishment of all then present the fetters spon- 
taneously fell from the prisoner's limbs. He then 
proceeded with Auxanon to the city which was 
anciently called Byzantium but afterwards Constan- 
tinople, where having been ushered into the Imperial 
palace, he obtained remission of the sentence of death 
for the prisoner ; for the emperor, entertaining great 
veneration for Eutychian, readily granted his request. 
This indeed occurred some time after the period to 
which this part of our history refers. 

The bishops who were convened at the council of 
Nice, after having drawn up and enrolled certain 
other ecclesiastical regulations which they are accus- 
tomed to term canons, again departed to their re- 
spective cities: and as I conceive it will be appre- 
ciated by lovers of history, I shall here subjoin the 
names of such as were present, as far as I have been 
able to ascertain them, with the province and city 
over which they severally presided, and likewise the 
date at which this assembly took place. Hosius was 
I believe bishop of Cordova in Spain, as I have before 
stated. Vito and Vicentius presbyters of Kome, 
Alexander bishop of Egypt, Eustathius of Antiochia 


Magna, Macarius of Jerusalem, and Harpocration of 
Cynopolis : the names of the rest are fully reported 
in The Synodicon of Athanasius bishop of Alexandria. 
This Synod was convened (as we have discovered from 
the notation of the date prefixed to the record of the 
Synod) in the consulate of Paulinus and Julian, on 
the 20th day of May, and in the 636th year from the 
reign of Alexander the Macedonian. And when the 
council was dissolved, the emperor went into the 
western parts of the empire. 



EusEBius* and Theognis having sent a penitential 
confession to the principal bishops, were by an im- 
perial edict recalled from exile and restored to their 
own churches, those who had been ordained in their 
places being removed ; Eusebius displacing Amphion, 
and Theognis Chrestus. This is a copy of their 
written retraction : — 

" We having been sometime since condemned by 
your piety, without our cause having been pleaded, 
ought to bear in silence the decisions of your sacred 
adjudication. But since it is unreasonable that we by 
silence should countenance calumniators against our- 
selves, we on this account declare that we entirely 

* Chronological order has been disregarded here ; for this occurred 
in 328. 


concur with you in the faith; and also that, after 
having closely considered the import of the term 
consubstantial^ we have been wholly studious of peace, 
having never followed any heresy. After suggesting 
Avhatever entered our thought for the security of the 
churches, and fully assuring those under our in- 
fluence, we subscribed the declaration of faith, but 
did not subscribe the anathematizing; not as ob- 
jecting to the creed, but as disbelieving the party 
accused to be such as was represented, having been 
satisfied on this point, both from his own letters to 
us, as well as from his discourses in our presence. 
But if your holy council was convinced, we not 
opposing but concurring in your decisions, by this 
statement give them our ftdl assent and confirmation : 
and this we do not as wearied with our exile, but to 
avoid the suspicion of heresy. If therefore ye should 
now think fit to restore us to your presence, ye ^viU 
have us on all points conformable, and acquiescent in 
your decrees. For since it has seemed good to your 
piety to deal tenderly with and recall even him who 
was primarily accused; it would be absurd for us to 
be silent, and thus submit to presumptive evidence 
against ourselves, when the one who was arraigned 
has been i^ennitted to clear liimself from the charges 
brought against him. Vouchsafe then, as is consist- 
ent mth that piety of yours, dear to Christ, to remind 
our most religious emperor, to present our petitions, 
and to detennuie speedily concerning us in a way be- 
coming yourselves." 

Such was the language of the recantation* of Euse- 
bius and Theognis ; from which I infer that they had 

CHAP. XV.] ATHANA8TUS. — A.D. 326. 61 

subscribed the articles of faith wliich had been set 
forth, but would not become parties to the condemna- 
tion of Arius. It appears also that Arius was recalled 
before them ; but, although this may be true, yet he 
had been forbidden to enter Alexandria. This is 
evident from the fact that he afterwards devised a way 
of return for liimself, both into the church and into 
Alexandria, by having made a fictitious rejxintance,* 
as we shall show in its proper place. 



Alexander bishop of Alexandria having died a 
little sStQT this, Athanasius was immediately set over 
that church. Rufinus relates, that this person when 
quite a boy, played ^vith others of his own age at a 
sacred game : this was an imitation of the priesthood 
and the order of consecrated persons. In this game 
therefore Athanasius was allotted the episcopal dig- 
nity, and each of the other lads personated either a 
presbyter or a deacon. The children engaged in this 
sport on the day in which the memory of the martyr 
and bishop Peter wate celebrated; and at that time 
Alexander bishop of Alexandria happening to pass 
by, observed the play in which they were engaged, 
and having sent for the children, enquired from them 
the part each had been assigned in the game, conceiv- 
ing that something might be portended by that which 
had been done. He then gave directions that the 

* Meravoia, 


children should be educated for the church, and in- 
structed in learning, but especially Athanasius ; and 
having afterwards ordained him deacon on his becom- 
ing of adult age, he brought him to Nice to assist him 
in the disputations there when the Synod was con- 
vened. Rufinus in his writings has given this account 
of Athanasius ; nor is it improbable that it took place, 
for many transactions of this kind have often occurred. 



After the Synod the emperor spent some time in 
recreation, and after the public celebration of his Vicen- 
nalia (i. e. the completion of the twentieth year of his 
reign), he immediately devoted himself to the reparation 
of the churches. This he carried into effect in other 
cities as well as in the city named after him, which 
being previously called Byzantium, he enlarged, sur- 
rounded with massive walls, and adorned with various 
edifices; and having rendered it equal to imperial 
Rome, he named it Constantinople, establishing by 
law that it should be designated New Rome. This 
law was engraven on a pillar of stone erected in pub- 
lic view in the Strategium,* neaf the emperor's eques- 
trian statue.t He built also in the same city two 
churches, one of which he named Irene^X and the other 
The Apostles. Nor did he only improve the affairs of 
the Christians, as I have said, but he also destroyed 

* A public edifice for the two principal magistrates. 

t The city was solemnly dedicated as the seat of empire in 330. 

X Eipijriyi', peace. 

CHAP. XVII.] HELEN. — A.D. 326. 63 

the superstitions of the heathens;* for he brought 
forth their images into public view to ornament the 
city of Constantinople, and set up the Delphic tripods 
publicly in the Hipj)odrome. It seems now indeed 
superfluous to mention these things, since they are 
seen before they are heard of. But at that time the 
Christian cause received its greatest augmentation; 
for Divine Providence reserved this among other 
things for the times of the emperor Constantine. 
Eusebius Pamphilus has in magnificent terms recorded 
the praises of the emperor ;t and I considered it would 
not be ill-timed to advert thus to them as concisely 
as possible. 



Helen the emperor's mother (from whose name 
Drepanum once a village, having been made a city by 
the emperor was called Helenopolis), being divinely 
directed by dreams went to Jerusalem. Finding that 
which was once Jerusalem, desolate as a Preserve I for 
autumnal fruits, according to the prophet, she sought 
carefully the sepulchre of Christ, from which he 
arose after his burial ; and after much difficulty, by 
God's help she discovered it. Wliat the cause of the 

* 'EXXiit^wv. 

f See the life of Constantine, by Eusebius, recently translated : a 
Volume of this Scries. 

X *Oirwpo<^v\aKioyf to which ly triinnipaT^ is added in LXX., which 
in our version is " a lodge in a garden of ciicumbers," according to 
the Hebrew. 


difficulty was I will explain in few words. Those 
who embraced the Christian faith, after the period of 
his passion, greatly venerated this tomb; but those 
who hated Christianity, having covered the spot 
with a mound of earth, erected on it a temple to 
Venus, and set up her image* there, endeavouring to 
abolish the recollection of the place. Tliis succeeded 
for a long time ; but it at length became kno^^^l to 
the emperor's mother, who ha\dng caused the statue t 
to be thro^vn down, the earth to be removed, and the 
ground entirely cleared, found three crosses in the 
sepulchre: one of these was that blessed cross on 
which Christ had hung, the other two were those on 
which the two thieves that were crucified ^vith him 
had died. With these was also found the tablet* of 
Pilate, on which he had inscribed in various charac- 
ters, that the Christ who was crucified was king of 
the Jews. Since however it was doubtful which was 
the cross they were in search of, the emperor's mother 
was not a little distressed ; but from this trouble she 
was shortly relieved by Macarius bishop of Jerusalem, 
whose faith solved the doubt, for he sought a sign 
from God and obtained it. The sign was this : — a 
certain woman of the neighbourhood, who had been 
long afflicted with disease, was now just at the point 
of death; the bishop therefore ordered that each of 
the crosses should be applied to the dying woman, 
believing that she would be healed on being touched 
by the precious cross. Nor was he disappointed in his 
expectation : for the two crosses having been applied 
which were not the Lord's, the woman still continued 
in a dying state ; but when the third, which was the 

* "AyaX/ia. f tBJoaroy (from Jew, to polish). J 2av(c* 

CHAP. XVII.] HELEN. — A.D. 326. 65 

true cross, touched her, she was immediately healed, 
and recovered her former strength. In this manner 
then was the genuine cross discovered. The emperor's 
mother erected over the place of the sepulchre a mag- 
nificent church,* and named it New Jerusalem^ having 
buUt it opposite to that old and deserted city. There 
she left a portion of the cross, enclosed in a silver 
case, as a memorial t to those who might wish to see 
it : the other part she sent to the emperor, who 
being persuaded that the city would be perfectly 
secure where that relic should be preserved, privately 
enclosed it in his own Statue,* which stands on a 
large column of porphyry in the forum called Con- 
stantine's at Constantinople. I have written this 
from report indeed ; but almost all the inhabitants 
of Constantinople affirm that it is true. Moreover 
Constantine caused the nails with which Christ's 
hands were fastened to the cross (for his mother 
having found these also in the sepulchre had sent 
them) to be converted into bridle-bits and a helmet, 
which he used in his military expeditions. The 
emperor supplied all materials for the construction 
of the churches, and wrote to Macarius the bishop 
to expedite these edifices. When the emperor's 
mother had completed the New Jerusalem^ she reared 
another church not at all inferior, over the cave at 
Bethlehem where Christ was bom according to the 
flesh : nor did she stop here, but built a third on 
the mount of his Ascension. So devoutly was she 
affected in these matters, that she would pray in the 
company of women ; and inviting the virgins enrolled 
in the register^ of the churches to a repast, serving 

* OJkov ivKTffpioy, t Myrffiotrvyoy. X ^Ayhpiam. § Kayoyi, 



them herself, she brought the dishes to table. She 
was also very munificent to the churches and to the 
poor ; and having completed a life of piety, she died 
when about eighty years old. Her remains were 
conveyed to New Rome, and deposited in the imperial 



After this the emperor became increasingly atten- 
tive to the interests of Christianity, and turned with 
disgust from the heathen superstitions. He abolished 
the combats of the gladiators, and set up his own 
statues in the temples. And as the heathens affirmed 
that it was Serapis who brought up the Nile for the 
purpose of irrigating Egypt, because a cubit was 
usually carried into his temple, he directed Alexander 
to transfer the cubit to the church. It was then 
asserted that the Nile would not overflow because of 
the displeasure of Serapis ; nevertheless there was an 
inundation in the following year, and has been every 
subsequent one : thus it was proved by fact that the 
rising of the Nile was not in consequence of their 
superstition, but by reason of the decrees of Provi- 
dence. About the same time those barbarians the 
Sarmatians and Goths made incursions on the Roman 
territory; yet the emperor's earnestness respecting 
the churches was by no means abated, but he made 
suitable provision for both these matters. Placing 

CHAP. XVin. ] C0N8TANTINE. — A. D. 33 1 . 67 

his confidence in the Christian banner,* he completely 
vanquished his enemies, so as even to cast off the 
tribute of gold which preceding emperors were accus- 
tomed to pay the barbarians : while they themselves, 
being terror-struck at their unexpected defeat, then 
for the first time embraced the Christian religion, by 
means of which Constantine had been protected. 
Again he built other churches, one of which was 
erected near the Oak of Mamre, under which the 
sacred oracles declare that Abraham entertained 
angels. For the emperor having been informed that 
altars had been reared under that oak, and that pagan 
sacrifices were performed there, severely censured by 
letter Eusebius bishop of Csesarea, and ordered that 
the altars should be demolished, and a house of 
prayer t erected beside the oak. He also directed 
that another church should be constructed in Helio- 
polis in Phoenicia, for this reason. Who originally 
legislated for the inhabitants of this city I am unable 
to state, but his character and morals may be judged 
of from the practice of that city ; for the la^vB of the 
country ordered the women among them to be com- 
mon, and therefore the children born there were 
of doubtful descent, so that there was no distinction 
of fathers and their oflFspring. Their virgins also 
were presented for prostitution to the strangers who 
resorted thither. The emperor undertook the correc- 
tion of these impure and disgraceful customs which had 
long prevailed among them, by the establishment of a 
solemn law of chastity, which provided for the 
mutual recognition of families: and when churches 
had been built there, he took care that a bishop and 

* TpoTral^. t Oijcoi' evicnipioy. 


sacred clergy should be ordained, by whose means 
the corrupt manners of the people of Heliopolis 
might be reformed. He likewise demolished the 
temple of Venus at Aphaca on Mount Libanus, and 
abolished the obscene mysteries which were there 
celebrated. Why need I describe his expulsion of 
the Pythonic demon from Cilicia, by commanding the 
mansion in which he was lurking to be razed from its 
foimdations? So great was the emperor's devotion 
to Christianity, that when he was about to enter on a 
war with Persia, he prepared a tabernacle formed of 
embroidered linen on the model* of a church, just as 
Moses had done in the wilderness ; and this he adapted 
to conveyance from place to place, in order that he 
might have a house of prayer even in the most desert 
regions. But the war was suppressed at that time, 
being prevented through dread of the emperor. It 
would, I conceive, be out of place here to describe the 
emperor's diligence in rebuilding cities and converting 
many villages into cities ; as for example Drepane, to 
which he gave his mother's name, and Constantia in 
Palestine, so called from his sister : for my purpose 
is to confine my narration of the emperor's actions 
chiefly to such as are connected mth Christianity, and 
especially those which relate to the churches. Where- 
fore I leave to others more competent to detail such 
matters, the emperor's glorious acliievements, inas- 
much as they belong to a different subject, and require 
a distinct treatise. But I myself should have been 
silent, if the church had remained undisturbed by 
divisions: for where the subject does not supply 
matter for relation, there is no necessity for a narrator* 

* Tvirop* 



Since however the apostolic faith of Christianity has 
been disturbed and at the same time frittered away 
by a vain and subtile mode of disputation, I thought 
it desirable to record these things, in order that the 
transactions of the churches might not be lost in 
obscurity. Accurate information on these points, 
while it procures celebrity among the many, renders 
him who is acquainted >vith them more secure from 
error, and instructs him not to be agitated by any 
empty sound of sophistical argumentation which he 
may chance to hear. 



We must now mention by what means the pro* 
fession of Christianity was extended in this emperor's 
reign : for it was in his time that the nations both of 
the Indians in the interior, and of the Iberians first 
embraced the Christian faith. But it may be needful 
briefly to explain why the expression in the interior 
is appended. When the Apostles went forth by lot 
among the nations, Thomas received the apostlcship 
of the Parthians; Matthew was allotted Ethiopia; 
and Bartholomew the part of India contiguous to 
that country: but the interior of India, which was 
inhabited by many barbarous nations using different 
languages, was not enlightened by Christian doctrine 
before the time of Constantine. I now come to speak 
of the cause which led them to become converts to 


Christianity. Meropius, a Tyrian philosopher, deter- 
mined to visit the country of the Indians, being 
stimulated to this by the example of the philosopher 
Metrodorus, who had previously travelled through 
that region. Having taken with him therefore two 
youths to whom he was related, who were by no 
means ignorant of the Greek language, Meropius 
arrived at that country by ship; and when he had 
inspected whatever he wished, he touched at a certain 
place which had a safe harbour, for the purpose of 
procuring some necessaries. It so happened that the 
treaty between the Romans and Indians had been 
violated a little before his arrival. The Indians 
therefore having seized the philosopher and those 
who sailed with him, killed them all except his two 
young kinsmen; but sparing them from compassion 
for their tender age, they sent them as a gift to the 
king of the Indians. He being pleased with the 
personal appearance of the youths, constituted one 
of them, whose name was Edesius, cup-bearer at his 
table ; to the other, named Frumentius, he en- 
trusted the care of the royal records. The king 
dying soon after, left them free, the government 
devolving on his wife and infant son ; and the queen 
seeing her son thus left in his minority, begged the 
young men to undertake the charge of him, until he 
should become of adult age. They therefore accepted 
this commission, and entered on the administration of 
the kingdom ; but the chief authority was in the 
hands of Frumentius, who began anxiously to enquire 
whether among the Roman merchants trafficking 
with that country, there were any Christians to be 
found : and having discovered some, he informed 

CHAP. XIX, ] INDIANS CONVERTED. — ^A. D. 33 1 . 71 

them who he was, and exhorted them to select some 
appropriate places for the celebration of Christian 
worship* In the course of a little while he built a 
house of prayer; and having instructed some of the 
Indians in the principles of Christianity, they were 
admitted to participation in the worship. On the 
young king's reaching maturity, Frumentius resigned 
to him the administration of public affairs, in the 
management of which he had honourably acquitted 
himself^ and besought permission to return to his 
own country. Both the king and his mother en- 
treated him to remain; but he being desirous of 
revisiting his native place, could not be prevailed 
on, and consequently they both departed. Edesius 
hastened to Tyre to see his parents and kindred : but 
Frumentius arriving at Alexandria, relates his whole 
story to Athanasius the bishop, who had but recently 
been invested with that dignity ; and acquainting him 
with the particulars of his residence abroad, ex- 
pressed a hope that measures would be taken to 
convert the Indians to Christianity. He also begged 
him to send a bishop and clergy there, and by no 
means to neglect those who might thus be brought 
to the knowledge of salvation. Athanasius having 
considered how this could be most profitably effected, 
requested Frumentius himself to accept the bishopric, 
declaring that he could appoint no one more suitable 
than he. He was accordingly ordained, and again 
returning to India with episcopal authority, became 
there a preacher of the gospel, and built several 
Oratories:* being aided also by divine grace, he 
performed various miracles, healing diseases both of 

* Evjcrifpca. 


the souls and bodies of many, Rufinus assures us 
that he heard these facts from Edesius, who was 
afterwards inducted into the sacred oflSlce at Tyre. 




It is now proper to relate how the Iberians about 
the same time became proselytes to the faith. A 
certain woman distinguished by her devout and 
chaste life, was, in the providential ordering of God, 
taken captive by the Iberians, who dwell near the 
Euxine sea, and are a colony of the Iberians of 
Spain. She accordingly in her captivity exercised* 
herself* among the barbarians in the practice of 
virtue: for she not only maintained the most rigid 
continence, but spent much time in fastings and 
prayers ; which extraordinary conduct the barbarians 
observing, were very greatly astonished at. The 
king's son then a mere babe, happening to be attacked 
mth disease, the queen, accordmg to the custom of 
the countr}'^, sent the cliild to other women to be 
cured, in the hope that their experience would sup- 
ply a remedy. After the infant had been carried 
around by its nurse without obtaining relief from 
any of the women, he was at length brought to this 
captive. She having no knowledge of the medical 
art, applied no material remedy ; but taking the child 
and laying it on her bed which was made of horse- 
cloth, in the presence of other females, she simply said, 

* 'E^cXoer^^cc (this sense was adopted by later writers). 


" Christ who healed many, will heal this child also :" 
then having prayed in addition to this expression 
of faith, and called upon God, the boy was imme- 
diately restored, and continued well from that period. 
The report of this miracle spread itself far and wide 
among the barbarian women, and soon reached the 
queen, so that the captive became very celebrated. 
Not long afterwards the queen herself having fallen 
sick, sent for this woman, who being a person of 
modest and retiring manners excused herself from 
going ; on which the queen was conveyed to her, and 
received relief in like manner as her son had, for the 
disease was at once removed. But when the queen 
thanked the stranger, she replied, " this work is not 
mine, but Christ's, who is the Son of God that made the 
world :" she therefore exhorted her to call upon him, 
and acknowledge the true God. Amazed at his wife's 
sudden restoration to health, the king of the Iberians 
wished to requite her with gifts whom he had under- 
stood to be the means of effecting these cures: she 
however declined their acceptance, telling him that 
she needed not riches, inasmuch as she possessed 
abundance in the consolations of religion; but that 
she would regard as the greatest present he could 
offer her, his recognition of the God whom she wor- 
shipped and declared. This answer the king trea- 
sured up in his mind, and going forth to the chase 
the next day, the following circumstance occurred : a 
mist and thick darkness covered the mountain tops 
and forests where he was hunting, so that their sport 
was embarrassed, and their path became inextricable. 
In this perplexity the prince earnestly invoked the 
gods whom he worshipped, but finding that it profited 


him nothing, he at last determined to implore the 
assistance of the captive's God ; when scarcely had he 
begun to pray, ere the darkness arising from the mist 
was completely dissipated. Wondering at that which 
was done, he returned to his palace rejoicing ; and re- 
lating to his wife what had happened, he immediately 
sent for the captive stranger, and begged her to 
inform him who that God was whom she adored. 
The woman on her arrival caused the king of the 
Iberians to become a preacher of the Gospel: for 
having believed in Christ through the faithfulness of 
this devoted woman, he convened all the Iberians who 
were under his authority ; and when he had declared 
to them what had taken place in reference to the cure 
of his wife and child, as well as the circumstances 
connected with the chase, he exhorted them to wor- 
ship the God of the captive. Thus therefore both the 
king and queen were made preachers of Christ, the 
one addressing their male, and the other their female 
subjects. Moreover the king having ascertained from 
his prisoner the plan on which churches were con- 
structed among the Romans, ordered an Oratory to be 
built, providing all things necessary for its immediate 
erection ; and the edifice was accordingly commenced. 
But when they came to set up the pillars. Divine 
Providence interposed for the confirmation of the in- 
habitants in the faith, for one of the columns remained 
immoveable; and the workmen disheartened by the 
fracture of their ropes and machinery, at length gave 
up all further efibrt. Then was proved the reality of 
the captive's faith in the following manner : going to 
the place at night without the knowledge of any one, 
she spent the whole time in prayer ; and the power of 


God was manifested by the pillar's being raised, and 
caused to stand erect in the air above its base, yet so 
as not to touch it. At day-break the king, who was 
an intelligent person, came himself to inspect the 
work, and seeing the pillar suspended in this position 
without support, both he and his attendants were 
amazed ; but shortly after, while they stood gazing on 
this wonder, the pillar descended on its own pedestal, 
and there remained fixed. Upon this the people 
shouted, attesting the truth of the king's faith, and 
hymning the praise of the God of the captive. Their 
belief being thus established, the rest of the columns 
were easily reared, and the whole building was soon 
completed. An embassy was afterwards sent to the 
emperor Constantine, requesting that henceforth they 
might be in alliance with the Romans, and receive 
from them a bishop and consecrated clergy, since they 
sincerely believed in Christ. Rufinus says that he 
learnt these facts from Bacurius, formerly one of the 
petty princes* of the Iberians, who subsequently went 
over to the Romans, and was made a captain of the 
military force in Palestine : being at length entrusted 
with the supreme command in the war against the 
tyrant Maximus, he greatly assisted the emperor 
Theodosius. In this way then, during the reign of 
Constantine, were the Iberians converted to Chris- 

* BatriXiiTKOQ. 




What sort of a character the monk Antony was, 
who lived in the same age, in the Egjrptian desert, it 
would be superfluous for us to describe ; and how he 
openly contended with devils, clearly detecting their 
devices, and wily modes of warfare ; or to enumerate 
the many miracles he did : for Athanasius bishop of 
Alexandria has anticipated us, having devoted an 
entire book to his biography. The mention of his 
name among others, will however serve to show the 
abundance of good men that flourished contempo- 
raneously with the emperor Constantine. 



But amidst the good com, tares are accustomed to 
spring up ; for Satan's envy loves to plot insidiously 
against the good. Hence it was that a little while 
before the time of Constantine, a species of heathenish 
Christianity made its appearance together with that 
which was real: just as false prophets and false 
apostles heretofore insinuated themselves amongst 
those who were constituted of God. For at that time 
a dogma of Empedocles the heathen philosopher, was 
by ManichaBus attempted to be amalgamated with 
Christian doctrine. Eusebius Pamphilus indeed has 

CHAP. XXII.] MANICHJEUS. — A. D. 331. 77 

mentioned this person in the seventh book of his 
Ecclesiastical History; but since he did not enter 
into minute details concerning him, I deem it incum- 
bent on me to supply some particulars which he has 
left unnoticed : thus it will be known who this Mani- 
chseus was, whence he came, and what was the nature 
of his presumptuous daring. 

A Saracen named Scythian having married a cap- 
tive from the Upper Thebes, dwelt on her account in 
Egypt, where after studying the learning of the 
Egj^tians, he introduced the theory of Empedocles 
and Pjrthagoras among the doctrines of the Christian 
faith. Asserting that there were two natures, a good 
and an evil one, he termed, as Empedocles had done, 
the latter Discord^ and the former Friendship. Of 
this Scythian, Buddas who had been previously called 
Terebinthus, became a disciple; and he having pro- 
ceeded to Babylon, which the Persians inhabit, made 
many extravagant statements respecting himself, de- 
claring that he was bom of a virgin, and brought up 
in the mountains. The same man afterwards com- 
IX)sed four books, one he entitled The Mysteries^ ano- 
ther The Gospel^ a third The Treasure^ and the fourth 
Heads : but pretending to perform some mystic rites, 
he was hurled down a precipice by the devil, and so 
perished. He was buried by a woman at whose house 
he had lodged, who taking possession of his property, 
bought a boy about seven years old whose name was 
Cubricus : this lad she enfranchised, and having given 
him a liberal education, she soon after died, leaving 
him all that belonged to Terebinthus, including the 
books he had written on the principles inculcated by 
Scythian. Cubricus, now free, takuig these things 


with him travelled into Persia, where he changed his 
name, calling himself Manes; and disseminated the 
books of Buddas or Terebinthus among his deluded 
followers, as his own. Now the contents of these 
treatises are apparently accordant with Christianity 
in expression, but thoroughly Pagan in sentiment: 
for Manicha^us being an impious person, incited his 
disciples to acknowledge a plurality of gods, and 
taught them to worship the sun. He also introduced 
Fatalism* taking away human t free-will; and dis- 
tinctly affirmed a transmutation! of bodies, a notion 
which closely approximates to, and was doubtless 
borrowed from the opinions of Empedocles, Pythagoras, 
and the Egyptians, respecting the transmigration^ of 
souls. He denied that Christ existed in the flesh, 
asserting that he was an unsubstantial apparition ;ll 
and rejected moreover the Law and the Prophets, call- 
ing himself the Comforter :% — all of which dogmas are 
totally repugnant to the orthodox faith of the church. 
In his epistles he even dared to assume the title of 
Apostle ; but a pretension so unfounded brought upon 
him merited retribution in the following manner. 
The son of the Persian monarch having been attacked 
with disease, his father became anxious for his reco- 
very, and left no means** untried in order to effect it ; 
and as he had heard of the specious tt deceptions of 
Manichaeus, under the impression that these miracles 
were real, he sent for him as an apostle, trusting that 
through him his son might be restored. The impostor 
accordingly presented himself at court, and with well- 

* Eifiapfxiyriv, f To e^' h^^^' t Mertj/cw/iarw^iK. 

§ Mere/ii/zvxd'O'cc- II ^ayraafta, % U.apaK\iiTov, 

** WavTa \idoy iKtvu, W Tepaniag. 

CHAP. XXII.] MANICHiEUS A. D. 331 . 79 

dissembled* mysticism of manner undertook the cure 
of the young prince : the child however died under 
his hands, and the ^king seeing his hope thus painfully 
frustrated, shut up the deceiver in prison, with intent 
to put him to death. Manicha^us contriving to escape, 
fled into Mesopotamia, and so for a time saved him- 
self; but the king of Persia having discovered where 
he was secreted, caused him to be brought thence by 
force, and after having flayed him alive, he stuffed his 
skin with chaff, and suspended it in front of the 
gate of the city. These are no fabrications of ours, 
but facts which we collected from a book entitled 
" The disputation of Archelaus bishop of Cascharum," 
(one of the cities of Mesopotamia) ; in which the author 
states that he disputed with Manichaeus face to face, 
and mentions the circumstances connected with his 
life to which we have now alluded. The envy of 
Satan thus delights, as we before remarked, to be 
insidiously at work in the midst of a prosperous con- 
dition of affairs. But for what reason the goodness 
of God permits this to be done, whether he wishes 
thereby to bring into activity the excellence of the 
principles of the church, and to utterly break 
down the self-importance which is wont to unite 
itself with faith ; or for what other cause, is too diffi- 
cult a question for present discussion. Nor would 
it be consistent with the object here proposed, which 
is neither to examine the soundness of doctrinal 
views, nor to analyse the mysterious puriK)ses of the 
providential arrangements of God ; but to detail as faith- 
fully as possible the transactions which have taken 
place in the churches. Having then described the 


way in which the corrupt superstition of the Mani- 
chaeans sprang up a little before the time of Constan- 
tine, we will return to the series of events which are 
the proper subjects of this history. 



On the return of Eusebius and Theognis from their 
exile, they were reinstated in their churches, having 
expelled, as we observed, those who had been ordained 
in their stead. Moreover they came into great con- 
sideration Avith the emperor, who honoured them 
exceedingly, as those who had returned from damna- 
ble error to the orthodox faith. They however abused 
the licence thus afforded them, by exciting greater 
commotions in the world than they had done before ; 
being instigated to this by two causes — the Arian 
heresy with wliich they had been previously infected 
on the one hand, and bitter animosity against Atha- 
nasius on the other, because he had so vigorously 
withstood them in the Synod while the articles of 
faith were under discussion. And in the first place 
they objected to his ordination, as a person unworthy 
of the prelacy, alleging that he had been elected by 
disqualified persons. But when Athanasius had sho^vn 
himself superior to this calumny, and possessing the 
confidence of the Church of Alexandria, ardently con- 
tended for the Nicene Creed, then Eusebius exerted 

CHAP. XXIII.] EUSEBIUS. — A. D. 331. 81 

himself to the utmost in insidious plots against him, 
and efforts to bring Arius back to Alexandria : for he 
thought that thus only could the doctrine of con- 
substantiality be eradicated, and Arianism introduced. 
Eusebius therefore ^vrote to Athanasius, desiring him 
to re-admit Arius and his adherents into the church : 
the tone of his letter indeed being that of entreaty, 
while openly he menaced him. When Athanasius 
would by no means accede to this, he endeavoured to 
induce the emperor to give Arius an audience, and 
then permit him to return to Alexandria: but by 
what means he attained his object, I shall mention 
in its proper place. Before however this was effected, 
another commotion was raised in the church, her 
peace being again disturbed by her own children. 
Eusebius Pamphilus says, that immediately after the 
Synod, Egypt became agitated by intestine divi- 
sions : but as he does not assign the reason for this, 
some have accused him of disingenuousness, and have 
even attributed his avoiding to specify the causes of 
these dissensions, to a determination on his part not 
to give his sanction to the proceedings at Nice. Yet 
as we ourselves have discovered from various letters 
which the bishops wrote to one another after the 
Synod, the term ofioovaio? troubled some of them. 
But while they occupied themselves in a too minute 
investigation of its import, the discussion assumed 
a polemical character, though it seemed not unlike 
a contest in the dark ; for neither party appeared 
to understand distinctly the grounds on which they 
calumniated one another. Those who objected to 
the word consubstantialj conceived that those who 
approved it, favoured the opinion of Sabellius and 



Montanus; they therefore called them blasphemers, 
as subverters of the existence of the Son of God. 
And again the advocates of this term, charging their 
opponents ^vith polytheism,* inveighed against them 
as introducers of heathen superstitions. Eustathius 
bishop of Antioch, accuses Eusebius Pamphilus of 
perverting the Nicene Creed : but Eusebius denies 
that he violates that exposition of the faith, and 
recriminates, sajdng that Eustathius was a defender 
of the opinion of Sabellius. In consequence of these 
misuuderstandino^s, each of them wrote volumes as if 
contending against adversaries : and although it was 
admitted on both sides that the Son of God has a 
distinct person and existence, and all acknowledged 
that there is one God in a Trinity of Persons, yet 
from what cause I am unable to divine, they could 
not agree among themselves, and therefore were 
never at peace. 



Having therefore convened a Synod at Antioch, 
they degrade Eustathius, as a supporter of the Sa- 
bellian heresy, rather than of the tenets which had 
been recognised at the council of Nice. There are 
some who affirm that his deposition arose from less 
justifiable motives, though none other have been 
openly assigned : but this is a matter of common 

* IhtXvOeinv, 


occurrence, for the bishops frequently load with op- 
probrious epithets, and pronounce impious those 
whom they depose, without explaining their warrant 
for so doing. George bishop of Laodicea in Syria, 
one of the number of those who abominated the 
term consubstantial^ assures us in his Encomium of 
Etisebius Emisenus^ that they deposed Eustathius as a 
favourer of Sabellianism, on the impeachment of 
Cjnrus bishop of Beroea. Of Eusebius Emisenus we 
shall speak elsewhere in due order : but there seems to 
be something contradictory in the report George has 
given of Eustathius; for after asserting that he was 
accused by Cyrus of maintaining the heresy of Sa- 
bellius, he tells us again that Cyrus himself was con- 
victed of the same error, and degraded for it. Now 
how could it happen that Cyrus should be the accuser 
of Eustathius as a Sabellian, when he entertained 
similar opinions? It appears likely therefore that 
Eustethius must have been condemned on other 
grounds. That circumstance however gave rise to 
a dangerous sedition at Antioch : for when they pro- 
ceeded to the election of a successor, so fierce a dis- 
sension was kindled, as to threaten the whole city 
with destruction. The populace was divided into 
two factions, one of wliich vehemently contended 
for the translation of Eusebius Pamphilus from 
Csesarea in Palestine to Antioch; the other equally 
insisted on the reinstatement of Eustathius. And 
as all the citizens were infected with the spirit of 
partisanship in this quarrel among the Christians, a 
military force was arrayed on both sides with hostile 
intent, so that a bloody collision would have taken 
place, had not God and the dread of the emperor 


repressed the violence of the multitude. But the 
emperor's letters, together with the refusal of Euse- 
bius to accept the bishopric, served to allay the 
feiTTient: on which account that prelate was exceed- 
ingly admired by the emperor, who wTote to him 
commending his prudent detennination, and con- 
gratulating him as one who was considered worthy 
of being bishop not of one city merely, but of almost 
the whole world. It is said that the episcopal chair* 
of .the church at Antioch was vacant for eight years 
after this period ; but at length by the exertions of 
those who aimed at the subversion of the Nicene 
creed, Euphronius was duly installed. This is the 
amount of my information respecting the Synod held 
at Antioch on account of Eustathius. Immediately 
after these events Eusebius, who had long before left 
Berytus, and was at that time presiding over the 
church at Nicomedia, strenuously exerted himself in 
connection with those of his party, to bring back 
Arius to Alexandria. But how tliey managed to 
effect this, and by what means the emperor was 
prevailed on to admit both Arius and Euzoi'us into 
his presence must now be related. 




The emperor Constantine had a sister named 
Constantia, formerly the wdfe of Licinius who, after 
having for some time shared the imperial dignity 
with Constantine, was put to death in consequence 

* Qpuvor* 



of his tyranny and ambition. This princess main- 
tained in her household establishment a certain con- 
fidential presbyter, tinctured with the dogmas of 
Arianism; who being prompted by Eusebius and 
others, took occasion in his familiar conversations 
with Constantia^ to insinuate that the Synod had 
done Arius injustice, and that his senthnents were 
greatly misrepresented. Constantia gave full cre- 
dence to the presbyter's assertions, but durst not 
report them to the emperor ; until at length she 
became dangerously ill, which caused her brother to 
visit her daily. When the disease had reduced her 
to such a state that her speedy dissolution seemed 
inevitable, she commended this presbyter to the 
emperor, testifying to his diligence and piety, as well 
as his devoted loyalty to his sovereign. On her death, 
which occurred soon after, the presbyter became one 
of the most confidential persons alx)ut the emperor; 
and having gradually increased in freedom of speech, 
he repeated to the emperor what he had before stated 
to his sister, affirming that the opinions of Arius 
were perfectly accordant Avith the sentiments avowed 
by the Synod ; and that if he were admitted to the 
imperial presence, he would give his full assent to 
what the S3niod had decreed: he added moreover 
that he had been falsely accused without the slightest 
reason. The emperor was astonished at the pres- 
byt<3r's discourse, and replied, "If Arius subscribes 
to the Synod's determination, and his views cor- 
respond with that, I will both give him an audience, 
and send him back to Alexandria with honour." 
Having thus said, he immediately wrote to him in 
these words : — 



" It was intimated to your reverence* some time 
since, that you might come to my court, in order to 
your being admitted to the enjoyment of our presence. 
We are not a little surj^rised that you did not imme- 
diately avail yourself of this permission. Wherefore 
having at once mounted a public vehicle, hasten to 
arrive at our court ; that when you have experienced 
our clemency and regard for you, you may return to 
your own country. May God protect you, beloved." 

This letter was dated the twenty-fifth of November. 
And one amnot but be struck ^vith the ardent zeal 
wliich this prince manifested for religion : for it 
appears from this document that he had often before 
exliorted Arius to retract^ his opinions, inasmuch 
as lie censures his delaying to return to the truth, 
although he had himself written frequently to him. 
Not long after the receipt of this letter, Arius came 
to Constantinople accompanied by Euzoius, whom 
Alexander had divested of liis deaconship when 
Arius and his adherents were excommunicated. The 
emperor accordingly admitted them to his presence, 
and asked them whether they would agree to the 
Nicene creed? And when they readily gave their 
assent, he ordered them to deliver to him a Avritten 
statement of their faith. 

* I^TffipoTijTi <rov. This is so harsh an cpUhci, as to make a perfect 
barbarism in Englisli. 


CHAP. XXVI.] RECAL OF AlUUS A. D. 331. 87 



They having drawn up a declaration to the follow- 
ing effect, presented it to the emperor. 

" Arius and Euzoius, to our Most Religious and 
Pious Lord the Emperor Constantine. 

" In accordance with the command of your devout * 
piety, sovereign lord, we declare our faith, and before 
God profess in writing, that we and our adherents 
believe as follows : — 

" We believe in one God the Father Almighty : and 
in the Lord Jesus Christ his Son, who was made ^ of 
him before aU ages, God the Word by whom all things 
were made Avhich are in the heavens and upon the 
earth; who descended, became incarnate, suffered, 
rose again, ascended into the heavens, and will again 
come to judge the living and the dead. We believe 
also in the Holy Spirit, in the resurrection of the 
flesh, in the life of the coming age, in the kingdom of 
the heavens, and in one Catholic Church of God, ex- 
tending over the whole I earth. 

" This faith we have received from the holy gospels, 
the Lord therein saying to his disciples : ' Go and 
teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.' If 

* Geo^iX^c ivaipeia. 

+ Vtytyrifiiyov, not ycycvvv/uVov begotten, 

X \\ir6 vepaTioy cwc Treparioy. 


we do not so believe and truly receive the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Spirit, as the whole Catholic 
Church and the holy Scriptures teach, (in which we 
place implicit faith,) God is our judge both now, and 
in the coming judgment. Wherefore we beseech your 
piety, most devout emperor, that we who are persons 
consecrated to the ministry, and holding the faith and 
sentiments of the church and of the holy Scriptures, 
^^^y hy your pacij&c and devoted piety be reunited 
to our mother, the Church, all superfluous questions 
and disputings being avoided : that so both we and 
the whole church being at peace, may in common 
offer our accustomed prayers for your tranquil reign, 
and on behalf of your whole family." 



Arius having thus satisfied the emperor, returned 
to Alexandria. But his artifice for suppressing the 
truth did not succeed ; for Athanasius would not re- 
ceive him on his arrival at Alexandria, having turned 
away from him as a pest: he therefore attempted 
to excite a fresh commotion in that city by dissemi- 
nating his heresy. Then indeed both Eusebius him- 
self wrote, and prevailed on the emperor also to write, 
in order that Arius and his partisans might be read- 
mitted into the church. Athanasius nevertheless 
wholly refused to receive them, informing the emperor 


in reply, that it was imjx)ssible for those who had 
once rejected the faith, and had been anathematized, 
to be again received into communion on tlieir return. 
But the emperor provoked at this answer, menaced 
Athanasius in these terms. " Since you have been 
apprised of my will, afford unliindcred access into the 
church to all those who are desirous of entering it. 
For if it shall be intimated to me that you have pro- 
hibited any of those claiming to be reunited to the 
church, or have hindered their admission, I ^vill 
forthwith send some one who at my command shall 
deiK)se you, and drive you into exile." 

The emperor wrote thus sternly from a desire of 
promoting the public good, and to prevent division in 
the church ; for he laboured earnestly to bring them all 
into unanimity. Then indeed the partisans of Euse- 
bius, who were most malicious against Athanasius, 
imagining they had found a seasonable opportunity, 
availed themselves of the emperor's displeasure as 
subsidiar}^ to their ovm purpose : they therefore raised 
a great disturbance, endeavouring to eject him from 
his bishopric ; for they had not the slightest hope of 
the prevalence of Arian doctrine, until they could 
effect his removal.* The chief conspirators against 
hhn were Eusebius bishop of Nicomedia, Theognis 
of Nice, Maris of Chalcedon, Ursacius of Singidunum 
in Upper Moesia, and Valens of Mursa in Upper 
Pannonia. These persons suborn by bribes certain 
of the Meletian heresy to fabricate various charges 
against Athanasius ; and first they accuse him through 
the ileletians Ision, Eudsemon and Callinicus, of hav- 
ing ordered the Egyptians to pay a linen garment as 

• *EKvohfoyy get him out of the way. 


tribute to the church at Alexandria. But this ca- 
lumny was immediately refuted by Alypius and Ma- 
carius, presbyters of the Alexandrian church, who 
then happened to be at Nicomedia ; they having con- 
vinced the emperor that these statements to the preju- 
dice of Athanasius were false. Wherefore the em- 
peror by letter severely censured his accusers, but 
desired Athanasius to come to him. The Eusebian 
faction anticipating his arrival, impute to him ano- 
ther crime of a still more serious nature than the 
former; charging Athanasius ^vith plotting against 
his sovereign, and with having sent for treasonable 
purposes a chest full of gold to one Philumenus. 
When however the emperor had himself investigated 
this matter at Psamathia, which is in the suburbs * of 
Nicomedia, and had found Athanasius innocent, he 
dismissed him with honour ; and wrote with his own 
hand to the church at Alexandria to assure them that 
their bishop had been falsely accused. It would indeed 
have been both proper and desirable to have passed 
over in silence the subsequent attacks which the 
Eusebians made upon Athanasius, lest from these cir- 
cumstances the church of Christ should be judged un- 
favourably of by those who are adverse to its inte- 
rests. But since by having been already committed 
to writing, they have become known to everybody, I 
have on that account deemed it necessary to make 
a cursory allusion to these things, the particulars of 
which would require a special treatise. \^Tience these 
accusations originated, and the character of those who 
devised them, I shall now therefore compendiously 
state. Mareotes is a district of Alexandria, contain- 

* Upodfmioy. 


ing very many villages, and an abundant population, 
with numerous splendid churches, which are all under 
the jurisdiction of the bishop of Alexandria, and are 
subject to his city as parishes.* There was in this 
region a person named Ischyras, who had been guilty 
of an act deserving of many deaths ; for although he 
had never been admitted to holy orders, he had the 
audacity to assume the title of presbyter, and to 
exercise the sacred functions. But having been de- 
tected in his sacrilegious career, he made his escape 
thence and sought refuge in Nicomedia, where he 
implored the protection of Eusebius; who from his 
hatred to Athanasius, not only received him as a pres- 
byter, but even promised to confer upon him the dignity 
of the prelacy, if he would frame an accusation against 
Athanasius, listening as a pretext for this to what- 
ever stories Ischyras had invented. For he spread a 
report that he had suffered dreadfully from an assault 
made on him by Macarius, who (he affirmed) rushing 
furiously toward the altar, had overturned the table, 
and broken the mystical cup : he added also that he 
had burnt the sacred books. As a reward for this 
accusation, the Eusebian faction, as I have said, pro- 
mised him a bishopric ; foreseeing that if the charges 
against Macarius could be sustained, the onus would 
equally fall on Athanasius, under whose orders he 
would seem to have acted. But before they brought 
this forward, they devised another calumny full of the 
bitterest malignity, to which I shall now advert. 
Having by some means, I know not what, obtained a 
man's hand ; whether they themselves had murdered 
any one, and cut off his hand, or had severed it from 

^ WapoiKiai* 


some dead body, God knows both the mode, and the 
authors of the deed : but be that as it may, they pub- 
licly exposed it, as the hand of Arsenius a Meletian 
bislioj), though they kept the alleged owner of it con- 
cealed. This hand, they asserted, had been made use 
of by Athanasius in the performance of certain magic 
arts ; and therefore it was made the gravest ground 
of accusation which these calumniators had concerted 
against him : but as it generally happens, all those 
who entertained any pique against Athanasius, came 
forward at the same time with a variety of other 
charges. When the emperor was infonned of these 
proceedings, he wrote to his nephew Dalmatius the 
censor, who then had his residence at Antioch in 
Syria, directing liim to order the accused parties to be 
brought before him, and after due investigation, to 
inflict punishment on such as might be convicted. He 
also sent thither Eusebius and Theognis, that the case 
might be tried in their presence. WHien Atlianasius 
knew that he was to be summoned before the censor, 
he sent into Egypt to make a strict search after Arse- 
nius; for he ascertained that he was secreted there, 
although he was unable to apprehend liim, because he 
often changed his place of concealment. IMeanwliile 
the emperor suppressed the trial whicli was to have 
been held before the censor, on the foUomng account. 




The emperor had ordered a Synod of Bishops 
to be present at the consecration of the church which 
he had erected at Jerusalem. He therefore directed 
that before they met there, they should on their way 
first assemble at Tyre, to examine into the charges 
against Athanasius ; in order that all cause of conten- 
tion being by this means removed, they might the 
more peacefully perform the solemnities^ of religion 
in the dedication of the church to God. It was in the 
thirtieth year of Constantine's reign, that sixty bishops 
were thus convened at Tyre from various places, on 
the summons of Dionysius the consul. Macarius the 
presbyter was conducted from Alexandria in chains, 
under a military escort. But Athanasius was indeed 
unwilling to go thither, not so much from a dread of 
the charges preferred against him, because he was 
conscious of his own innocence ; as that he feared lest 
any innovations should be made on the decisions of 
the council of Nice : he was however constrained to 
be present by the menacing letters of the emperor, in 
which he was told that if he did not come voluntarily, 
he should be brought by force. 

* *£7ri/3ari/f>ia« 






The special pro\ddence of God drove Arsenius also 
to Tyre : for, disregarding the injunctions he had 
received from the accusers by whom he had been 
bribed, he 'went thither disguised, to sec what w^ould 
be done. It by some means happened that the ser- 
vants of Archelaus, the governor of the province, 
heard some persons at an inn affirm, that Arsenius 
w^ho was reported to have been murdered, w^as at that 
very time concealed in the house of one of the 
citizens. Having marked the individuals by Avhom 
this statement was made, they communicated the 
circumstance to their master, who causing strict 
search to be made for the man immediately, dis- 
covered and properly secured him ; after which he 
gave notice to Athanasius that he need not be under 
any alarm, inasmuch as Arsenius ^yas alive and there 
present. Arsenius on being apprehended, at first 
denied that he was the person supposed; but Paul 
bishop of Tyre, who had formerly known him, soon 
established his identity. Divine providence having 
thus disposed matters, Athanasius was shortly after 
summoned by the Synod : and as soon as he presented 
himself, his traducers exhibited the hand, and pressed 
their charge. Managing the affair with great pru- 
dence, he simply enquired of those present, as -well as 
his accusers, whether any of them knew Arsenius? 
and several having answered in the affirmative, he 


caused Arsenius to be introduced, having his hands 
covered by his cloak. Then he again asked them, is 
this the person who lias lost a hand? All were 
astonished at the strangeness* of this procedure, 
except those who knew whence the hand had been 
cut off; for the rest thought that Arsenius was really 
deficient of a hand, and expected that the accused 
would make his defence in some other way. But 
Athanasius turning back the cloak of Arsenius on 
one side shows one of the man's hands: again while 
some were supposing that the other hand was 
wanting, after permitting them to remain a short 
time in doubt, he turned back the cloak on the other 
side and exposed the other hand. Then addressing 
himself to those present he said, "Arsenius, as you 
sec, is found to have two hands: let my accusers 
show the place whence the third was cut off." 



Matters having been brought to this issue with 
regard to Arsenius, the contrivers of this imposture 
were reduced to the utmost perplexity; and Achab, 
who was also called John, one of the principal ac- 
cusers, having slipped out of court, effected his 
escape in the tumult. Thus Athanasius cleared 
himself from this charge, -without having recourse 
to any pleading ; for he was confident that the sight 


only of Arsenius alive, would confound his calum- 



But in refuting the false allegations agamst Maca- 
rius, he took legal exception to Eusebius and his 
party, as his enemies ; protesting against the in- 
equitableness of any man's being tried by his adver- 
saries. He next insisted on its being proved, that 
his accuser Ischyras had really obtained the dignity 
of presbyter; for so he had been designated in the 
indictment. But when tlie judges would not tdlow 
any of these objections, and the case of Macarius 
was entered into, on the infonners being found 
deficient of proofs, the hearing of the matter was 
postponed, until some persons should have gone into 
Mareotis, in order that they might on the spot 
examine into all doubtful points. Athanasius seeing 
that those very individuals were to be sent to whom 
he had taken exception, (for the investigation was 
committed to Theognis, Maris, Theodorus, Macedo- 
iiius, Valens and Ursacius,) exclaimed that their pro- 
cedure was both treacherous and fraudulent; for 
that it was unjust that the presbyter Macarius should 
be detained in bonds, while the accuser together 
with the judges who were his adversaries, were per- 
mitted to go, in order that evidence of the facts 
might be obtained on one side of the question only. 


Having made this protest before the whole Synod 
and Dionysius the governor of the province, but 
finding his appeal wholly disregarded, he privately 
withdrew. Those therefore who were sent to Ma- 
reotes, having registered such circumstances only as 
might serve to countenance the charges of the ac- 
cuser, returned to Tyre. 



ATHANASIUS on his departure hastened immediately 
to the emperor. But the Synod meanwhile con- 
demned him in his absence in the first place for 
deserting his cause: and when the result of the 
inquiry which had been instituted at Mareotes was 
presented, they passed sentence of deposition against 
him; loading him with opprobious epithets in their 
record of this act, but being wholly silent respecting 
the disgraceful defeat of his calumniators * in the ficti- 
tious case of Arsenius. And having received into com- 
munion him who was reported to have been murdered, 
he who had formerly been a bishop of the Meletian 
heresy, was allowed to subscribe to the deposition of 
Athanasius as bishop of the city of Hypselis. Thus 
by an extraordinar}^ course of circumstances, the 
alleged victim of assiissination by Athanasius, was 
found alive to assist in degrading him. 




Letters in the meantime were brought from the 
emperor directing those who composed the Synod to 
hasten to the New Jerusalem : liaving therefore innne- 
diately left Tyre, they set forward with all despatch 
thither, where, after completing the ceremony * of the 
consecration of the place, they readmitted Arius and 
his adherents into communion, in obedience as they 
said, to the wishes of the emperor, who had signified 
in his communication to them, that he was fully 
satisfied respecting the faith of Arius and Euzoius. 
They moreover wrote to the church at Alexandi^ia, 
stating that all envy being now banished, the affairs 
of the churcli were established in peace: and that 
since Arius had by his recantation acknowledged the 
truth, it was but just tliat he should henceforward be 
received by them as a memlxir of the church. No 
other allusion was made to the deposition of Athana- 
sius, tliau what was obscurely couched in their assu- 
rance thnt all envy was now banished. At \\\q same 
time they sent information of w^hat had Ixien done to 
the emperor, in terms nearly to the same effect. l>ut 
whilst tlie bishops were engaged in these transactions, 
other letters came most unexpectedly from the em- 
peror, intimating that Athanasius had fled to him for 


protection; and that it was necessary for them on 
his account to come to Constantinople. This un- 
anticipated communication from the emperor was as 



" Victor Constantine Maximus Augustus, to the 
bishops convened at Tyre. 

" I am indeed ignorant of the decisions which have 
been made by your Council with so much turbulence 
and commotion: but the truth seems to have been 
perverted by some tumultuous and disorderly pro- 
ceedings; while, in your mutual love of contention, 
which you seem desirous of perpetuating, you disre- 
gard the consideration of those things which are 
acceptable to God. It will however, I trust, be the 
work of Divine Providence to utterly dissipate the 
mischiefs resulting from this spirit of jealous rivalry, 
as soon as they shall have been clearly detected ; and 
to make it apparent to us, how much regard ye who 
have been convened have had to truth, and whether 
your decisions on the subjects which have been sub- 
mitted to your judgment have been made apart, from 
partiality or prejudice. Wherefore it is indispensable 
that you should all without delay attend upon my 
Piety, that you may yourselves give a strict account 


of your transactions. The reasons which have in- 
duced me to write thus, and to summon you before 
me, you will learn from what follows. As I was 
making my entry on horseback into the city which 
bears our name, in this our most flourishing country, 
suddenly the Bishop Athanasius, mth certain eccle- 
siastics whom he had around him, presented himself 
so unexpectedly in our path, as to produce a degree 
of consternation. For the Omniscient Being is my 
witness that at first sight I did not recognise him 
until some of my attendants, in answer to my enquiry, 
informed me very properly both who he was, and 
what injustice he had suffered. At that time indeed 
I neither conversed, nor held any communication 
with him: but when he entreated an audience, and 
I had not only refused it, but even ordered that he 
should be removed from my presence, he said with 
greater boldness, that he petitioned for nothing more 
than that you might be summoned hither, in order 
that in our presence, he, driven by necessity to such 
a course, might have a fair opportunity aflbrded him 
of deprecating his Avrongs.* This request seemed so 
reasonable, and so consistent with the equity of my 
government, that I willingly gave instructions for 
writing these things to you. My command therefore 
is, that all, as many as composed the Synod convened 
at Tyre, should forthwith hasten to the Court of our 
Piety, in order that from the facts themselves the 
purity and integrity of your decision may be made 
apparent in my presence, whom you cannot but own 
to be a true t serv^ant of God. It is in consequence 
of the acts of my religious service towards the Deity 

* ^AirodvpaffOai. f Fi'iJ/rtoi', genuine. 


that peace is everywhere reigning ; and that the name 
of God is devoutly had in reverence even among the 
barbarians themselves, who until now were ignorant 
of the Gospel. Now it is evident that he who knows 
not the truth, cannot possibly acknowledge God : yet, 
as I before said, even the barbarians on my account, 
who am a faithful servant of God, have acknowledged 
and learned to worship him, by whose provident care 
they perceive that I am everywhere protected. So 
that from dread of us chiefly, they have been thus 
brought to the knowledge of the true God whom they 
now worship. Nevertheless we who pretend to have a 
religious veneration for (I will not say who guard) 
the holy mysteries of his church, we, I say, do little 
else than what tends to discord and animosity, and to 
speak plainly, to the destruction of the human race. 
Come therefore all of you to us as speedily as possible : 
and be assured that I shall endeavour with all my 
power to cause that what is contained in the Divine 
Law may be preserved inviolate, on which neither 
stigma nor reproach shall be able to be affixed. This 
however can only be efiected by dispersing, crushing 
to pieces, and utterly destroying its enemies, who 
under covert of the sacred profession * introduce nu- 
merous and diversified blasphemies." 

* *Aylov ovofiaroQ* 




This letter created so much alarm in the minds of 
those who constituted the Synod, tliat most of them 
instead of obeying the emperor returned to their 
respective cities. But Eusebius, Theognis, Maris, 
Patrophilus, Ursacius, and Valeiis, having gone to 
Constjmtinople, would not iKjrmit any further enquiry 
to be instituted concerning the broken cup, the 
oA-eilurned Communion Table, and the murder of 
Arjseiiius; but they had recourse to another calunmy, 
informing the emperor that Athanasius had threatened 
to prohibit the sending of the corn wliich Wiis usually 
conveyed from Alexandria to Constantinople. They 
affinned also that these menaces were uttered by Atha- 
nasius in the hearing of the bishops Adamantius, 
Anubion, Arbathion and Peter : for slander is most 
prevalent when the assertor of it appears to be a 
jxjrson worthy of credit. The emperor being deceived, 
and excited to indignation against Athanasius by this 
charge, at once condemned hnn to exile, ordering 
him to reside in the Gallias. Some aiRrm tliat the 
emperor came to this decision with a view to tlie 
estiibhshment of unity in the church, since Athana- 
sius was inexorable in his refusal to hold any commu- 


nioii with Alius and his adherents. lie accordingly 
took up his abode at Treves, a city of Gaul. 




The bishops assembled at Constantinople deposed 
also Marcellus bishop of Ancyra, a city of Galatia 
Minor, on this account. A certain rhetorician of Cap- 
padocia named Asterius having abandoned his art, 
and professed himself* a convert to Christianity, under- 
took the composition of some treatises, which are still 
extant, in which he maintained the dogmas of Arius ; 
asserting that Christ is the power of God, in the same 
sense that the locust and the palmer-worm* are said 
by Moses to be the power of God, with other similar 
blasphemies. This man was in constant association 
with the bishops, and especially with those of their 
number who did not discountenance the Arian doc- 
trine : he also frequently attended their Synods, in the 
hope of insinuating himself into the bishopric of some 
city : but he failed even to obtain ordination, t in con- 
sequence of havuig sacrificed during the persecution. 
Going therefore throughout the cities of Syria, he 
read in public the books which he had composed. 
Marcellus being informed of this, and ^\'islling to 
counteract his influence, in his over anxiety to con- 
fute him, fell into the opposite error ; for he dared to 
say, as Paul of Samosata had done, that Christ was a 
mere man. When the bishops then convened at Jeru- 

* KafjLvi}i^, caterpillar. t 'lepiotrvytji:. 


salem had intelligence of these things, they took no 
notice of Asterius, because he was not enrolled in the 
catalogue of those who had been admitted to holy- 
orders; but they insisted that Marcellus, as a priest, 
should give an account of the book which he had 
written. Finding that he entertained Paul of Samo- 
sata's sentiments, they required him to retract his 
opinion; and he being ashamed of the position into 
which he had brought himself, promised to burn his 
book. But the convention of bishops being hastily 
dissolved by the emperor's summoning them to Con- 
stantinople, the Eusebians on their arrival at that 
city, again took the case of Marcellus into considera- 
tion ; and on his refusal to fulfil his promise of burn- 
ing his impious book, the assembled bishops deposed 
him, and sent Basil into Ancyra in his stead. 
Moreover Eusebius wrote a refutation of this work in 
three books, in which he fully exposed its erroneous 
doctrine. Marcellus however was afterwards rein- 
stated in his bishopric by the Synod at Sardis, on his 
assurance that his book had been misunderstood, and 
that therefore he was supposed to favour Paul of Sa- 
mosata's views. But of this we shall speak more 
fully in its proper place. 



While these things were taking place, the thirtieth 
year of Constantine's reign was completed. But Arius 

CHAP. XXXVII.] ALEXANDER. — A. D. 336. 105 

and his adherents having returned to Alexandria, 
again caused a general disturbance; for the people 
were exceedingly indignant both at the restoration of 
this incorrigible heretic with his partisans, and also 
at the exile of their bishop Athanasius. When the 
emperor was apprised of the perverse disposition and 
conduct of Arius, he once more ordered him to repair to 
Constantinople, to give an account of the commotions 
he had afresh endeavoured to excite. The church at 
Constantinople was then presided over by Alexander, 
who had some time before succeeded Metrophanes. 
That this prelate was a man of devoted piety was 
distinctly manifested by the conflict he entered into 
with Arius ; upon whose arrival the whole city was 
thrown into confusion by the renewal of factious divi- 
sions : some insisting that the Nicene Creed should be 
by no means infringed on, while others contended 
that the opinion of Arius was consonant to reason. 
In this distracted state of affairs, Alexander felt most 
painfully the difficulties of his position: more espe- 
cially since Eusebius of Nicomedia had violently 
threatened that he would cause him to be imme- 
diately deposed, unless he admitted Arius and his 
followers to communion. Alexander however was 
far less troubled at the thought of his own degrada- 
tion, than fearful of the subversion of the principles 
of the faith, which they were so anxious to effect: 
and regarding himself as the constituted guardian of 
the doctrines recognised, and the decisions made by 
the council at Nice, he exerted himself to the utmost 
to prevent their being violated or depraved. Reduced 
to the last extremity, he bade farewell to all logical 
resources, and made God his refuge, devoting himself 


to continued fasting and prayer. Communicating his 
purpose to no one, he shut himself up alone in the 
church called Irene : there going up to the altar, and 
prostrating himself on the ground beneath the holy 
communion table, he poured forth his fervent inter- 
cessions, mingled with tears; and this he ceased not 
to do for several successive nights and days. \VTiat 
he thus earnestly asked from God, he received: for 
liis petition was, that if the opinion of Arius were 
correct, lie might not be pennitted to see the day 
appointed for its discussion; but that if he himself 
held the true faith, Arius as the author of all these 
evils, might suffer the punishment due to his impiety. 



Such was the supplication of Alexander. Mean- 
while the emperor being desirous of personally ex- 
amining Arius, sent for him to the palace, and asked 
him whether he would assent to the determinations 
of the Nicene Synod. He without hesitation replied 
in the affirmative, and subscribed the declaration of 
the faith in the emperor's presence, acting vniii 
duplicity * all the while. The emperor surprised at 
his ready compliance, obliged lum to confirm his 
signature by an oath. This also he did with equal 
promptitude and dissimulation : for it is affirmed that 
he ^vi'ote his own opinion on paper, and placed it 
under his arm, so that he then swore truly to his 
really holding the sentiments he had written. It 

CHAP. XXXVIII.] DEATH OF ARIUS. — A. 1). 836. 107 

must however be owned that this statement of his 
having so acted, is grounded on hearsay alone; but 
that he added an oath to his subscription, 1 have 
myself ascertained, from an examination of the 
emperor's o^vn letters. The emperor being thus 
convinced, ordered that he should be received into 
communion by Alexander bishop of Constantinople. 
It was then Saturday,* and Arius was expecting to 
assemble with the church on the day foUomng : but 
divine retribution overtook his daring criminalities. 
For going out of the imperial palace, attended by 
a crowd of Eusebian partisans like guards, he paraded 
proudly through the midst of the city, attracting 
the notice of all the people. On approaching the 
place called Constantine's Forum, where the column 
of porphyry is erected, a terror arising from the con- 
sciousness of his wickedness seized him, accompanied 
by violent relaxation of the bowels: he therefore 
enquired whether there was a convenient place near, 
and being directed to the back of Constantine's 
Formn, he hastened thither. Soon after a faintness 
came over him, and together ^vith the evacuations 
his bowels protruded, followed by a copious hae- 
morrhage, and the descent of the smaller intes- 
tines : moreover portions of his spleen and liver were 
brought off in the effusion of blood, so that he 
ahnost immediately died. The scene of this catas- 
ti-ophe still exists at Constantinople, behind the 
shambles in the piazza, + iu the situation already 
described: and by persons going by pointing the 
liijger at the place, there is a perpetual remembrance 
preserved of this extraordinary' kind of death. So 


disastrous an occurrence filled with dread and alarm 
the party of Eusebius bishop of Nicomedia; and the 
report of it quickly spread itself over the city and 
throughout the whole world. The verity of the 
Nicene faith being thus miraculously confirmed by 
the testimony of God himself, the emperor adliered 
still more zealously to Christianity. He was also 
glad at what had happened, not only because of its 
efiect on the church, but on account of the influence 
such an event was calculated to have on the minds 
of his three sons whom he had already proclaimed 
Caesars; one of each of them having been created at 
every successive Decennalia of his reign. To the eldest, 
whom he called Constantine, after his own name, he 
assigned the government of the Western parts of the 
empire, on the completion of his first decade. His 
second son Constantius, who bore his grandfather's 
name, was constituted Caesar in the Eastern division, 
when the second decade had been completed. And 
Constans, the youngest, was invested with a similar 
dignity, when his father had reached the thirtieth 
year of his empire. 



In the following year, the emperor Constantine 
having just entered the sixty-fifth year of his age, 
was attacked with a dangerous malady ; he therefore 
left Constantinople, and made a voyage to Helenopolis, 
that he might try the efiect of the medicinal hot 
springs which are found in the vicinity of that city. 


Perceiving however that his iUness increased, he de- 
ferred the use of the baths ; and removing from 
Helenopolis to Nicomedia, he took up his residence 
in the suburbs, and there received Christian baptism. 
After this he became cheerful and resigned ; and 
making his wiU, appointed his three sons heirs to 
the empire, allotting to each one of them his portion, 
in accordance with his previous arrangements. He 
also granted many privileges to the cities of Rome 
and Constantinople; and entrusting the custody of 
his wiU to that presbyter by whose means Arius had 
been recalled, and of whom mention has been already 
made, he charged him to deliver it into no one's hand, 
except that of his son Constantius, to whom he had 
given the sovereignty of the East. He survived but 
a few days after the execution of this document, and 
died in the absence of all his sons. A courier was 
therefore immediately despatched into the East, to 
inform Constantius of his father's decease. 




The body of the emperor was placed in a coffin 
of gold, and then conveyed to Constantinople, where 
it was laid out on an elevated bed of state in the 
palace, surrounded by a guard, and treated with the 
same respect as when he was alive, until the arrival 
of one of his sons. When Constantius was come out 
of the eastern parts of the empire, it was honoured 
with an imperial sepulture, and deposited in the 


church called The ApostUs : for therein he had caused 
magnificent tombs to be constructed for the emperors 
and prelates, in order that they might receive a de- 
gree of veneration but little inferior to that which 
was paid to the relics of the apostles. The emperor 
Constantine lived sixty-five years, and reigned thirty- 
one. He died in the consulate of Felician and Titian, 
on the twenty-second of May, in the second year of 
the 278th Oljinpiad. This book therefore embraces a 
ixjriod of thirty-one years. 


liOOK II. 



RuFiNUS who wrote an Ecclesiastical History in 
Latin, has committed many chronological errors. 
For he supposes that what was done against Atha- 
nasius occurred after the death of the emjxjror Con- 
stantine: he was also ignorant of his exile to the 
Galliius, and of various other circumstances. We ori- 
ginally wrote the first two books of our History from 
the testimony of this author; but from tlie third to 
the seventh, some facts have been collected from 
Rufinus, others from different authors, and the rest 
from the narration of individuals still surviving. 
When however we had perused the writings of Atha- 
nasius, wherein he depicts his o>vn sufferings and 
exile through tlie calumnies of the Eusebian faction, 
we judged that more credit was due to him who had 
suffered, and to those who were witnesses of the 
things they describe, than to such as have been de- 
pendant on conjecture, and were therefore liable to 
err. Moreover having obtained several letters of per- 
sons eminent at that period, we have availed our- 
selves of their assistance also in tracing out the truth. 
On this account it became necessary to revise the first 
and second book of this Histor}^, without however 
discarding the testimony of Rufinus where it is evi- 
dent that he could not be mistaken. It sliould also 


be observed, that in our former edition, neither the 
sentence of deposition which was passed upon Anus, 
nor the emperor's letters were inserted; having re- 
stricted myself to a simple narration of facts, to avoid 
wearying the reader with tedious matters of detail. 
But in the present edition, such alterations and addi- 
tions have been made for your sake, O sacred man of 
God, Theodore, as might serve to make you fully 
acquainted mth the emperors' proceedings by their 
letters, as weU as the decisions of the bishops in their 
various Synods, wherein they continually altered the 
confession of faith. Having adopted this course in 
the first book, we shaU endeavour to do the same in 
the consecutive portion of our History on which we 
are about to enter. 



After the death of the emperor Constantine, Euse- 
bius bishop of Nicomedia, and Theognis of Nice, 
imagining that a favourable opportunity had arisen, 
used their utmost efibrts to abolish the doctrine* of 
Consubstantialiti/y and to introduce Arianism. They 
nevertheless despaired of effecting this, if Athanasius 
should return to Alexandria: in order therefore to 
accomplish their designs, they sought the assistance 
of that presbyter by whose means Arius had been 
recalled from exile a little before. Their plan of 

* \)^onv(riov vicmr. 


operation shall now be described. The presbyter in 
question having been entrusted witli Constantine's 
Will at that emperor's death, presented it to his 
son Constantius; who finding those dispositions in 
it which he was most desirous of, for tlie empire 
of the East was by his father's Will apportioned to 
him, treated the presbyter with great consideration, 
loaded him with favours, and ordered that free access 
should be given him both to the palace and to hunself. 
This licence soon obtained for hhn familiar intercourse 
with tlie empress, as well as with her eunuchs. The 
chief eunuch of the imperial bed-chamber at that time 
was named Eusebius, who, under the influence of the 
presbyter, was induced to embrace tlie Arian doctrine ; 
after which the rest of the eunuchs were also pre- 
vailed on to adopt the same sentiments. Through 
the combined persuasives of these euimchs and the 
presbyter, the empress became favourable to the tenets 
of Alius; and not long after the subject was intro- 
duced to the emperor himself. Thus it became gra- 
dually diflFused throughout the court, and among the 
officers of the imperial household and guards, until at 
lengtli it spread itself over the whole population of 
the city. The chamberlains in the palace discussed 
this doctrine with the women ; and in the family of 
every citizen there was a logical war. Moreover the 
mischief quickly extended to other provinces and 
cities, the controversy, like a spark, insignificant at 
first, exciting in the auditors a spirit of contention: 
for every one who enquired the cause of the tumult, 
found an imnie<liat^ occasion for disputing, and deter- 
mined to take part in the strife at the moment of 
making the inquiry. By general altercation of this 



kind all order was subverted : the agitation however 
was confined to the cities of the East, those of lUy- 
ricum and the western parts of the empire mean- 
while being perfectly tranquil, because they would 
not annul the decisions of the council of Nice. As 
this disorderly state of things continued to increase, 
Eusebius of Nicomedia and his party calculated on 
profiting by the popular ferment, so as to be enabled 
to constitute some one who held their own sentiments 
bishop of Alexandria. But the return of Athanasius at 
that time defeated their purpose, for he came thither 
fortified by a letter from one of the Augusti, which the 
younger Gonstantine, who bore his father's name, 
addressed to the people of Alexandria, from Treves 
a city in Gaul. A copy of this epistle is here sub- 



" CoNSTANTiNE CaBsar to the members of the Catholic 
Church of the Alexandrians. 

" It cannot, I conceive, have escaped the knowledge 
of your devout minds, that Athanasius the expositor of 
the venerated* law, was sent for a while into the Gallias, 
lest he should sustain some irreparable injury from 
the perverseness of his blood-thirsty adversaries, whose 
ferocity continually endangered his sacred life. To 
rescue him therefore from the hands of those who 
souglit to destroy him, he was sent into a city under 

* UpotrKvyrjrov, 


my jurisdiction, where, as long as it was his appointed 
residence, he has been abundantly supplied with every 
necessary : although his distinguished virtue sustained 
by divine aid, would have made liglit of the pressure 
of a more rigorous fortune. And since our Sovereign, 
my father, Constantine Augustus of blessed memoiy, 
was prevented by death from accomplishing liis pur- 
pose of restoring this bishop to his see, and to your 
most sanctified piety, it devolves on me, his heir, to 
carry his wishes into effect. AVith how great venera- 
tion he has been regarded by us, ye ^WU learn on his 
arrival among you : nor need any one be surprised at 
the honour I have put upon him, since I have been 
alike influenced by a sense of what was due to so 
excellent a personage, and the knowledge of your 
affectionate solicitude respecting him. May divine 
providence preserve you, beloved brethren." 

Relying on this letter, Athanasius came to Alex- 
andria, and was most joyfully received by the people. 
Nevertheless as many as had embraced Arianism, 
combining together, entered into a conspiracy against 
him : by which means frequent seditions were excited, 
aflbrding a pretext to the Eusebians for accusing him 
to the emperor of having taken possession of the 
Alexandrian Church on his own responsibility, with- 
out the permission of a general council of Bishops.* 
So far indeed did they succeed in pressing their charges, 
that the emi)eror became exasperated against hhn, and 
banished him from Alexandria. How his enemies 
managed to eftect this I shall hereafter explain. 

* Koik'ov avvicpiov. 




At this time Eusebius, who was bishop of Caesarea 
in Palestine, and had the surname of Pamphilus, 
having died, his disciple Acacius succeeded him in 
the bishopric. This individual published several 
books, and among others a biographical sketch of his 



Not long after this the brother of the Emperor 
Constantius, Constantiue the younger, who bore his 
father's name, having invaded those parts of the 
empire which were under the government of his 
younger brother Constans, was slain in a conflict 
with his brother's soldiery. This took place under 
the consulship of Acindynus and Proclus. 



About the same time, another disturbance in 
addition to those we have recorded, was raised at 

CHAP. VI.] ELECTION OF J>AUL. A.D. 340. 117 

Constantinople on the following account. Alexander 
who had presided over the churches in that city 
for twenty-three years, and had strenuously opposed 
Arius, departed this life at the age of ninety-eight, 
without having ordained any one to succeed him. 
But he had enjoined those in whose hands the elective 
I)Ower was, to choose one of the two whom he 
named: telling them that if they desired one who 
was competent to teach, and of eminent piety, they 
must elect Paul, whom he had himself ordained 
presbyter, a man young indeed in years, but of 
advanced intelligence and prudence ; but if they 
would be content with one possessed of a venerable 
aspect, and an external show only of sanctity, they 
might apix)int the aged Macedonius, who had long 
been a deacon among them. Hence there arose a great 
contest respecting the choice of a bishop, which 
troubled the church exceedingly ; the people being 
divided into two parties, one of which favoured the 
tenets of Arius, while the other adhered to the decrees 
of the Nicene S\^lod. Those who held the doctrine 
of consubstantiality always had the advantage during 
the life of Alexander, the Arians disagreeing among 
themselves and perpetually conflicting in opinion. 
But after the death of that prelate, the issue of the 
struggle became doul)tful, the defenders of the ortho- 
dox faith insisting on the ordination of Paul, and all 
the Arian party espoushig the cause of Macedonius. 
Paul however was ordained bishop in the church 
called Irene,' which is situated near the great church 
of Sophia;* which election was undoubtedly sanctioned 
by the suffrage of the deceased Alexander. 

* FJpqyrj, pence. t i-o0/«c. wisdom. 




The emperor having arrived at Constantinople 
shortly after, was highly incensed at the consecration 
of Paul ; and having convened an assembly of bishops 
of Arian sentiments, he divested Paul of his dignity, 
translating Eusebius from the see of Nicomedia to the 
now vacant one of Constantinople. This being done, 
the emperor proceeded to Antioch. 


eusebius having convened another SYNOD AT AN- 

Eusebius however could by no means remain quiet, 
but as the saying is, left no stone unturned * in order to 
effect the purpose he had in view. He therefore 
causes a Synod to be convened at Antioch in Syria, 
under pretence of dedicating a church which Con- 
stantine the father of the Augusti had commenced, 
and which had been completed by his son Constan- 
tius in the tenth year after its foundations were laid : 
but his real motive was the subversion of the doctrine 
of consubstantiality. There were present at this 

* [lai^a \iOov CK'/rei. 

CHAP. Vm.] SYNOD AT ANTIOCH. A.D. 341. 119 

Synod ninety bishops from various cities. Never- 
theless Maxinius bishop of Jerusalem, who had suc- 
ceeded Macarius, declined attending there, from the 
recollection of the fraudulent means by which lie had 
been induced to subscribe the deposition of Atha- 
nasius. Neither was Julius, bishop of Ancient* Rome 
there, nor did he indeed send a representutive ; 
although the ecclesiastical canon expressly commands 
that the churches shall not make any ordinances, 
without the sanction ^ of the bishop of Rome. This 
Synod assembled at Antioch, in the consulate of Mar- 
cellus and Probinus, which was the fiftli year after 
the death of Constiintine, father of the Augusti, the 
emperor Constantius being present. Placitus, other- 
wise called Flaccillus, successor to Euphronius, at 
that time presided over the church at Antioch. The 
confederates of Eusebius were chiefly intent on calum- 
niating Athanasius ; accusing him in the first place of 
having acted contrary to a canon which they then 
constituted, in resuming his episcopal authority with- 
out the licence of a general council of bishops, inas- 
much as on his return from exile he had on his own 
responsibility taken possession of the church. In the 
next place that a tumult having been excited on liis 
entrance, many were killed in the riot : and that some 
had been scourged by liim, and others brought before 
the tribunals. Besides they failed not to bring for- 
ward what had been determined against Athanasius 
at Tyre. 




Ox the ground of such charges as these, they i)ro- 
IX)sed another bishop for the Alexandrian church, 
and first indeed Eusebius surnamed Ernisenus. AA^ho 
this person was, George bishop of Laodicea, who was 
present on this occasion, informs us. For he says in 
the book which he has composed on his life, that he 
w{is descended from a noble family of Edessa in Me- 
sopotamia, and that from a child he had studied the 
holy Scriptures ; that he was afterwards instructed in 
Greek literature by a master resident at Edessa ; and 
finally that the sacred books were expounded to him 
by Patrophilus and Eusebius, the latter of whom pre- 
sided over the church at Ca^sarea, and the former over 
that at Scythopolis. Having afterwards gone to An- 
tioch, about the time that Eustathius was deix)sed on 
the accusation of Cyrus of Beroea for holding the 
tenets of Sabellius, he lived on terms of familiar in- 
tercourse with Euphronius that prelate's successor. 
When however a bishopric was offered hhn, he retired 
to Alexandria to avoid the intended honour, and there 
devoted himself to the study of pliilosophy. On his 
return to Antioch, he formed an intimate acquaint- 
ance with Placitus or Flaccillus, the successor of Eu- 
phronius. At length he was ordained bishop of Alex- 
andria, by Eusebius bishop of Constantinople, but did 
not go thither in consequence of the attachment of 
the peoi)le of that city to Athanasius. He was there- 
fore sent to Emisa, where the inhabitants excited a 

CHAP. X.] SYNOD AT ANTIOCH. A.l). 341. 121 

"H-xlition on account of his appointment, for they 
reproached him vnth the study and practice of judi- 
cial astrology f whereupon he fled to Laodicea, 
and abode with George, w^ho has given so many his- 
torical details of him. George having taken him to 
Antioch, procured his being again brouglit back to 
Kmisa bv Flaccilhis and Narcissus ; but he was after- 
Wards charged with holding the Sabellian heresy. 
His ordination is ehiborately described by the same 
writer, who adds at the close that the emperor took 
him with hhn in his expedition against the barbarians, 
and that miracles were wrought by his hand. 



When Eusebius durst not go to Alexandria, to the 
see of which he had been appointed by the Synod 
at Antioch, Gregory was designated bishop of that 
church. This l)eing done, they alter the creed;* not 
as condemning any thing in that which was set 
forth at Nice, but in fact with a detennination to 
subvert the doctrine of con substantiality by means 
of frequent councils, and the publication of various 
ex[)Ositions of the faith, so as gradually to establish 
the Arian views. The course of our histoiy will 
unfold the measures to which they resorted for 
the accomplishment of their purpose ; but the 

* MaOfz/iariK-Jic. t lliorci'. 


epistle then circulated respecting the faith was as 
follows : — 

" We have neither become followers of Anus, for 
it would be absurd to suppose that we who are 
bishops should be guided by a presbyter; nor have 
we embraced any other faith than that which was set 
forth from the beginning. But being constituted 
examiners and judges of his sentiments, we admit 
their soundness, rather than adopt them from him : 
this you will readily perceive from what we are about 
to state. We have learned from the beginning to 
believe in one God* of the Universe, the Creator 
and Preserver of all thhigs both intelligent and sen- 
sible : and in one only-begotten Son of God, sul^sisting 
before all ages, and co-existing with the Father who 
begat him, by whom also all things visible and in- 
visible were made ; w^ho in the last days according to 
the Father's good pleasure, descended, and assumed 
flesh from the holy virgin, and having fully accom- 
plished his Father's will, suffered, was raised, as- 
cended into the heavens, and sits at the right hand 
of the Father; and is coming to judge the living and 
the dead, continuing King and God for ever. AVe 
believe also in the Holy Spirit. And if it is necessary 
to add this, we believe in the resurrection of the flesh, 
and the life everlasting." 

Having thus written in their first epistle, they 
sent it to the bishops of every city. But after re- 
maining some time at Antioch, they published another 
letter in these words, as if to condemn the former. 

CHAP. X.] SYNOD AT ANTIOCH. A. D. 341. 123 


" In conformity with evangelic and apostolic tra- 
dition, we believe in one Grod the Father Almighty, 
the Creator and Framer of the universe. And in one 
Lord Jesus Christ, his Son, God the only-begotten, by 
whom all things were made : begotten of the Father 
before all ages, God of God, Whole of Whole, Only 
of Only, Perfect of Perfect, King of King, Lord of 
Lord; the living Word, the Wisdom, the Life, the 
True Light, the Way of Tnith, the Resurrection, the 
Shepherd, the Gate ; immutable and inconvertible ; the 
unalterable image of the Divinity, Substance, Power, 
Counsel and Glory of the Father; bom before all 
creation; who was in the beginning with God, God 
the Word, according as it is declared in the gospel 
(John i. 1), and the Word was God, by whom all 
things were made, and in whom all things have sub- 
sisted : who in the last days came down from above, 
and was born of the virgin according to the Scrip- 
tures ; and was made man, the Mediator between God 
and men, the Apostle of our Faith, and the Prince of 
Life, as he says (John vi. 38), 'I came down from 
heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him 
that sent me.' Who suffered on our behalf, rose 
again for us on the third day, ascended into the hea- 
vens, and is seated at the right hand of the Father ; 
and wiU come again with glory and power to judge 
the living and the dead. We believe also in the Holy 
Spirit, who is given to believers for their consolation, 
sanctiiication, and perfection ; even as our Lord Jesus 
Christ commanded his disciples, saying (Mat. xxviii. 


19), 'Go and teacli all nations, baptizing thein in the 
name of tlie Fatlier, and of the Son, and of tlie Holy 
Spirit ;' that is to say of the Father who is truly the 
Father, of the Son who is truly the Son, and of the 
Holy Spirit who is truly the Holy Spirit, these 
epitliets not being simply or insignifie\antly applied, 
but accurately expressing the proper person,* glory 
and order of each of these who are named : so tliat 
there are three in person, but one in concordance. ^ 
Holding therefore this faith in the presence of God 
and of Christ, we anathematize all hei'ctical and false 
doctrine. And if any one shall teach contrarj- to the 
sound and right faith of the Scriptures, affirming that 
there is or was a period or an age before tlie Son of 
God existed, let him be accursed. And if anv one 
shall say that the Son is a creature as one of the 
creatures, or that he is a b?'a7ich,* as one of the 
branches^ and shall not hold each of the aforesaid 
doctrines as the Divine Scriptures liave delivered 
them to us : or if any one shall teach or preach any 
other doctrine contrary to that which we have re- 
ceived, let him be accursed. For we truly believe 
and follow all things handed down to us from the 
sacred Scriptures by the prophets and apostles." 

Such was the exposition of tlie faith published by 
those then assembled at Antioch, to which Gi'egory 
subscribed as bishop of Alexandria, although he had 
not yet entered that city. The Synod having done 
these things, and framed some otlier canons, was dis- 
solved. At the same time also it liappened that public 

X lUyvtj/jiai thing begotten, offbpring. 


affairs were disturbed, both by the incursion of tlie 
nation called Franks into the Roman territories in 
Gaul, as well as by most violent earthquakes in the 
East, but especially at Antioch, which continued to 
suffer concussions during a whole year. 



After these things, Syrian, a military commander, 
conducted Gregory to Alexandria under an escort of 
5,000 heavy armed soldiers ; and such of the citizens 
as were of Arian sentiments combined with them. 
But it will be proper here to relate by what means 
Athanasius escaped the hands of those who wished to 
apprehend him, after his expulsion from the church. 
It was evening, and the people were congregated 
there, a service * being expected, when the commander 
arrived, and posted his forces in order of battle on 
every side of the church. Athanasius having observed 
what was done, considered with himself how he might 
prevent the people's suffering in any degree on his 
account : he accordingly directed the deacon to give 
notice of prayer, and after that ordered the recitation 
of a psalm; and when the melodious chant of the 
psalm arose, all went out through one of the church 
doors. Wliile this was doing, the troops remained 
inactive spectators, and Athanasius thus escaped un- 
hurt in the midst of those who were chanting the 
psalm, and immediately hastened to Rome. Gregory 


was then installed in the church : but the people of 
Alexandria being indignant at this procedure, set the 
church called that of Dionysius on fire. Eusebius 
having thus far obtained his object, sent a deputation 
to Julius bishop of Rome, begging that he would him- 
self take cognizance of the charges against Athanasius, 
and order a judicial investigation to be made in his 



But Eusebius was prevented from knoANdng the de- 
cision of Julius concerning Athanasius, for he died a 
short time after that Synod was held. Whereuj)on 
the people introduce Paul again into the church of 
Constantinople: the Arians however ordain Mace- 
donius at the same time, in the church dedicated to 
Paul. This was done by those wlio had formerly 
lent their aid to Eusebius (that disturber of the 
public peace), but who then had assumed all his 
authority; viz. Theognis bishop of Nice, ilaris of 
Chalcedon, Theodore of Heraclea in Thrace, Ui'sacius 
of Singidunum in Upper Mysia, and Valens of Mursa 
in Upper Pannonia. Ursacius and Valens indeed after- 
ward altered their opinions, and presented a written 
reciintation of them to bishop Julius, so that on 
subscribing the doctrine of consubstantiality they 
were again admitted to communion ; but at that time 
they warmly sup[)orted the Arian error, and were 


instigators of the most violent commotions in the 
churches, one of which was connected with Macedo- 
nius at Constantinople. By this intestine war among 
the Christians, that city was kept in a state of per- 
petual turbulence, and the most atrocious outrages 
were peq)etrated, whereby many lives were sacrificed. 



When intelligence of these proceedings reached the 
emperor Constantius, whose residence was then at 
Antioch, he ordered his general Hermogenes who 
had been despatched to Thrace, to pass through Con- 
stantinople on his way, and expel Paul from the 
church. He accordingly went to Constantinople, but 
in endeavouring to execute his commission, threw the 
whole city into confusion; for the people in their 
eagerness to defend the bishop, were reckless of all 
subordination. And when Hermogenes persisted in 
his efforts to drive out Paul by means of his military 
force, the people became exasperated as is usual in 
such cases ; and making a desperate attack upon him, 
they set his house on fire, and after dragging him by 
the feet through the city, they at last put him to 
death. This took place in the consulate of the two 
Augusti, Constantius being a third, and Constans a 
second time consul : at which time the latter having 
subdued the Franks, admitted them to an allied con- 
federacy with the Romans. The emperor Constantius 


on being informed of the assassination of Hermogenes, 
set off on horseback from Antioch, and arriving at 
Constantinople he immediately expelled Paul, and 
then punished the inhabitants by withdrawing from 
them more than 40,000 measures of the daily allow- 
ance of wheat which his father had granted for gratui- 
tous distribution among them: for prior to this 
catastrophe, nearly 80,000 measures* of wheat brought 
from Alexandria had been bestowed on the citizens. 
He hesitated however to ratify the appointment of 
Macedonius to the bishopric of that city, being 
irritated against him not only because he had been 
ordained without his consent ; but also on account of 
the contests in which he had been engaged with Paul, 
which had eventually caused the death of Hermo- 
genes his general, and that of many other persons. 
But having given him permission to assemble the 
people in the church in which he had been conse- 
crated, he returned to Antioch, 



About the same time the Arians eject Gregory 
from the see of Alexandria, he having rendered him- 
self extremely unpopular by setting a church t on 
fire, and not manifesting sufficient zeal in promoting 
the interests of their party. They therefore inducted 
George into his see, who was a native of Cappadocia, 

* ^iTijpstriov . . . ij^prjaiov, rations of bread, 
t That of Dionvsius. 


and had acquired the reputation of being an able 
advocate of their tenets. 



After experiencing considerable difficulties, Atha- 
nasius at last reached Italy. The whole western 
division of the empire was then under the power of 
Constans, the youngest of Constantine's sons, his 
brother Constantine having been slain by the soldiery, 
as was before stated. At the same time also Paul 
bishop of Constantinople, Asclepas of Gaza, Marcellus 
of Ancyra a city of Galatia Minor, and Lucius of 
Adrianople, having been expelled from their several 
churches on various charges, arrived at the imperial 
city. There each laid his case before Julius bishop 
of Rome, who sent them back again into the East, 
restoring them to their respective sees by virtue of 
his letters, in the exercise of the Church of Rome's 
peculiar privilege ; and at the same time in the liberty 
of that prerogative, sharply rebuking those by whom 
they had been deposed. Relying on the authority of 
these documents, the bishops depart from Rome, and 
again take possession of their own churches, forward- 
ing the letters to the parties to whom they were 
addressed. These persons considering themselves 
treated with indignity by the reproaches of Julius, 
assemble themselves in council at Antioch, and dictate 
a reply to his letters as the expression (^f the unanimous 



feeling of the whole Synod. It was not his province, they 
said, to take cognizance of their decisions in reference 
to the expulsion of any bishops from their churches ; 
seeing that they had not opposed themselves to him, 
when Novatus was ejected from the church. Such 
was the tenor of the Eastern bishops' disclaimer of 
the right of interference of Julius bishop of Rome. 
But sedition was excited by the partisans of George 
the Arian, on the entry of Atlianasius into Alex- 
andria, in consequence of which, it is affirmed, many 
persons were killed ; and since the Arians endeavour 
to throw the whole odium of this transaction on 
Atlianasius as the author of it, it behoves us to make 
a few remarks on the subject. God the Judge of all 
only knows the true causes of these disorders: but 
no one of any experience can be ignorant of the fact, 
that such fatal accidents are the frequent concomi- 
tants of the factious movements of the populace. It 
is vain therefore for the calumniators of Atlianasius 
to attribute the blame to him ; and especially Sabinus 
bishop of the Macedonian heresy. For had the latter 
reflected on the number and magnitude of the ^\Tongs 
which Athanasius, in conjunction with the rest who 
hold the doctrine of consubstantiality, has suffered 
from tlie Arians ; or on the many complaints made of 
these things by the Synods convened on account of 
Athanasius; or in sliort on what that arch-heretic 
Macedonius himself has done throughout all the 
churches, he would either have been wholly silent, or 
if constrained to speak, would have higlily connnended 
Athanasius, instead of loading him ynth reproaches. 
But intentionally overlooking all these things, he 
wilfully misrepresents his character and conduct ; 

CHAP. XVI.] I»AIJL EXILED. A.I). 348. 131 

Avithout however trusting himself to sj>eak at all of 
Macedonius, lest he should betray the gross enormities 
of which he knew him to be guilty. And what is 
still more extraordinary, he has not said one word to 
the disadvantage of the Arians, although he was far 
from entertaining their sentiments. The ordination 
of Macedonius whose heretical views he hiid adopted, he 
has also passed over in silence ; for had he mentioned 
it, he must necessarily have recorded his impieties, 
which were most distinctly manifested on that occasion. 



When the intelligence of Paul's having resumed 
his episcopal functions reached Antioch, where the 
emperor Constantius then held his court, he was 
excessively enraged at his presumption. A \\Titten 
order was therefore despatched to Philip the Praeto- 
rian Prefect, whose power exceeded that of the other 
governors of provinces, and who was styled the second 
person from the emperor, to drive Paul out of the 
church again, and introduce Macedonius into it in his 
place. The prefect, dreading an insurrectionary move- 
ment among the people, used artifice to entrap the 
bishop : keeping therefore the emperor's mandate 
secret, he went to the public bath called Xeuxippus, 
and on pretence of attending to some public affairs, 
sent to Paul Avith every demonstration of respect, 
requesting his attendance there, as his presence wjls 


indispensable. On his arrival in obedience to this 
summons, the prefect immediately shows him the em- 
peror's order ; to which the bishop patiently submitted, 
notwithstandinor liis bein^: thus condemned without 
having had his cause heard. But as Philip was afraid 
of the violence of the multitude, who had gathered 
round the building; in <?reat rmmbers to see what 
would take place, for their suspicions had been 
aroused by current reports, he commands one of the 
bath doors to be opened which communicated with 
the imperial palace, and tlirough that Paul was carried 
off, put on board a vessel provided for the purpose, 
and so sent into exile. The prefect directed him to 
go to Thessalonica, the metropolis of ^Facedonia, 
whence he had derived his origin fi'om his ancestors ; 
commanding him to reside in that city, but granting 
hmi permission to visit other cities of lllyricum, while 
he strictly forbad his passing into any portion of the 
Eastern empire. Thus was Paul, contrar}^ to his 
expectation, at once expelled from the church, and 
from the city, and again hurried off into exile. Philip 
the imperial prefect, leaving the bath, immediately 
proceeded to the church, accompanied by Macedonius, 
whose appearance was as sudden as if he had been 
thrown there by an engine. He was exposed to open 
view seated Avith the prefect in his chariot, which was 
environed by a military guard with drawn swords. 
The multitude was completely overawed by this spec- 
tacle, and both Arians and Homoousians* hastened to 
the church, every one endeavouring to secure an 
entrance there. On the approach of the prefect with 

* Oi Tt Trig ofxoovtyiov ttiotuoq^ the defenders of the doctrine of 

CHAP. XVI.] MACEDONIUS. — A. D. 343. 133 

Macedonius, the crowd and the soldiery seemed alike 
seized with an irrational panic: for the assemblage 
was so numerous, that there was insuificient room 
to admit the passage of the prefect and Macedonius, 
and the soldiers therefore attempted to thrust aside 
the people by force. But the confined space into 
which they were crowded together rendering it 
impossible to recede, the soldiers imagined that 
resistance was oflFered, and that the j)opulace inten- 
tionally stopped the passage; they accordingly began 
to use their naked swords, and to cut down those that 
stood in their way. It is affirmed that upwards of 
3,150 persons were massacred on this occasion; of 
whom the greater part fell under the weapons of the 
military, and the rest were crushed to death by the 
desperate efforts of the multitude to escape their 
violence. After such distinguished achievements, 
Macedonius was seated in the episcopal chair by the 
prefect, rather than by the ecclesiastical canon, as if 
he had not been the author of any calamity, but was 
altogether guiltless of what had been perpetrated. 
These were the sanguinary means by which Mace- 
donius and the Arians grasped the supremacy in the 
churches. About this period the emperor built the 
great church called Sophia^ adjoining to that named 
Irene^ which being originally of small dimensions, 
the emperor's father had considerably enlarged and 
adorned. In the present day both are seen within 
one enclosure, and have but one appellation. 





Another accusation was now framed against Atha- 
nasius by the Arians, who invented this pretext for 
it. The father of the Augusti had long before 
granted an allowance of corn to the church of the 
Alexandrians for the relief of the indigent. This 
they asserted had usually been sold by Athanasius, 
and the proceeds converted to his own advantage. 
The emperor giving credence to this slanderous 
report, threatened to put Athanasius to death; who 
becoming alarmed at the intimation of this threat, 
consulted his safety by flight, and kept himself con- 
cealed. When Julius bishop of Rome was apprised 
of these fresh machinations of the Arians agahist 
Athanasius, and had also received the letter of tlie 
then deceased Eusebius, he in\dted the persecuted 
prelate to come to him, having ascertained where he 
was secreted. The epistle of the bishops who had 
been some time before assembled at Antioch, just 
then reached him, together with others from several 
bishops in Egypt, assuring him that the entire charge 
against Athanasius was a fabrication. On the receipt 
of these contradictory communications, Julius first 
replied to the bishops who had written to him from 
Antioch, complaining of the acrimonious feeling they 
had evinced in their letter, and charging them with 
a violation of the canons, in neglecting to request his 
att<^ndance at the council, seeing that by ecclesiastical 

CHAP. XVII.] JULIUS. — A.I). 343. 135 

law, no decisions of the cliurdies are valid unless 
sanctioned by the bishop of Rome : he tlien censured 
them with great severity for clandestinely attempting 
to j>ervert the faith, in allusion to their former pro- 
ceedings at Tyre, he charactei'ized their acts as frau- 
dulent, from the attestation of wliat had taken place 
at Mareotes being on one side of the question only ; 
nor did he fail to remind them of the palpable evidence 
which had been aftbrded of their malevolence, in the 
imputed murder of Arsenius. Such was the nature 
of his answer to the bishops convened at Antioch, 
which we should have inserted here at length, as well 
as those lettx^rs which were addressed to Julius, did 
not their prolixity interfere with our purpose. But 
Sabinus, the favourer of the Macedonian heresy, of 
whom we have before spoken, has not taken the least 
notice of the letters of Julius in his Collection of 
Synodical Transactions; although he has not omitted 
that which the bishops at Antioch sent to Julius. 
This however is the unfair course generally pui'sued 
by Sabinus, who carefully introduces such letters as 
make no reference to, or wholly repudiate the term 
consubstantial f while he invariably passes over in 
silence those of a contrary tendency. Not long after 
this, Paul pretending to make a journey from Thessa- 
lonica to Corinth, arrived in Italy : upon which both 
the bishops ^ made an appeal to the emperor of tliose 
parts, laying their respective cases before him. 

* To ofioovtnoy, t Athaaasius and Paul. 




When the Western emperor was informed of the 
unjust treatment to which Paul and Athanasius had 
been subjected, he sympathized with their suffer- 
ings; and wrote to his brother Constantius, begging 
him to send three bishops to explain to him the 
reason of their deposition. In compliance with this 
request, Narcissus the Cilician, Theodore the Thracian, 
Maris of Chalcedony, and Mark the Syrian, were 
deputed to execute this commission ; who on their 
arrival refused to hold any communication with Atha- 
nasius, but suppressing the creed which had been 
promulgated at Antioch, presented to the emperor 
Constans another declaration of faith composed by 
themselves, in the follo^ving terms : — 


" We believe in one God the Father Almighty, the 
Creator and Maker of aU things, of whom the 
whole family in heaven and upon earth is named 
(Eph. iii. 15) ; and in his only-begotten Son, our 
Lord Jesus Christ, begotten of the Father before all 
ages; God of God; Light of Light; by whom all 
things in the heavens and upon the earth, both visible 
and invisible, were made ; who is the Word, Wisdom, 
Power, Life and true Light: who in the last days 


CHAP. XVIII.] PIIOTINUS. — A. I). 343. 137 

for our sake was made man, and was born of the holy 
virgin; was crucified, and died; was buried, arose 
again from the dead on the third day, ascended into 
the heavens, is seated at the right hand of the Father, 
and shall come at the consummation of the ages,* to 
judge the living and the dead, and to render to every 
one according to his works: whose kingdom being 
perpetual, shall continue to infinite ages ; for he shall 
sit at the right hand of the Father, not only in this 
age, but also in that which is to come.^" We believe 
in the Holy Spirit, that is, in the Comforter,! whom 
the Lord, according to his promise, sent to his apos- 
tles after his ascension into the heavens, to teach 
them, and bring all things to their remembrance : by 
Avhom also the souls of those who have sincerely 
believed on him shall be sanctified. But the catholic 
Church accounts as aliens, those who assert that the 
Son was made of things which are not, or of another 
substance,^ and not of God, or that there was ever a 
time when he did not exist." 

Having delivered tliis creed to the emperor, and 
exhibited it to many others also, they de})arted with- 
out attending to any thing besides. But while there 
was yet an inseparable communion between the Western 
and Eastern churches, there sprang up another heresy 
at Sirmium, a city of Illyricum: for Photinus who 
presided over the churches in that district, a native 
of Galatia Minor, and a disciple of that Marcellus 
who had been deposed, adopting his master's senti- 
ments, asserted that the Son of God was a mere man. 


We shall however enter into this matter more fully in 
its proper place. 



After the lai)se of about three years fi'om the 
events above recorded, the Eastern bishops again 
assembled a Synod, and having composed another 
form of faith, they transmitted it to those in Italy by 
the hands of Eudoxius at that time bishop of Gemia- 
nicia, Martyrius, and Macedonius who was bishop of 
Mopsuestia* in Cilicia. This expression of the Creed, 
entering into more minute details of doctrine, con- 
tained many additions to those which had preceded it, 
and was set forth in these words : — 

" We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, 
the Creator and Maker of all things, of whom the 
whole family in heaven and upon earth is named; 
and in his only-begotten Son Jesus Christ our Lord, 
begotten of the Father before all ages ; God of God ; 
Light of Light ; by whom all things in the heavens 
and upon the earth, both visible and invisible, were 
made : who is the Word, Wisdom, Power, Life, and 
true Light : who in the last days for our sake Avas 
made man, and was born of the holy virgin; was 
crucified, and died ; was buried, arose again from the 
dead on the third day, ascended into heaven, is seated 
at the right hand of the Father, and shall come at 
the consummation of the ages, to judge the living 
and the dead, and to render to every one according to 


CHAP. XIX.] EASTERN CREED. — A.D. 346. 139 

liis works : whose kingdom being perpetual, shall con- 
tinue to infinite ages ; for he sits at the right hand of 
the Father, not only in this age, but also in that 
which is to come. We believe in the Holy Spirit, 
that is in the Comforter, whom the Lord according 
to his promise sent to his apostles after his ascension 
into heaven, to teach them and bring all things to 
their remembrance : by whom also the souls of those 
who have sincerely believed on him are sanctified. 
But the holy catholic Church accounts as aliens 
those who assert that the Son was made of things 
not in being, or of another substance, and not of God, 
or that there was ever a time or age when he did not 
exist.* The holy and catholic Church likewise ana- 
thematizes those also who say that there are three 
Gods, or that Christ is not God before all ages, or 
that he is neither Christ, nor the Son of God, or that 
the same person is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, or 
that the Sou was not begotten, or that the Father 
begat not the Son by his own voluntary will.t Nei- 
ther is it safe to affirm that the Son had his existence 
from things that were not, since this is nowhere 
declared concerning him in the divinely-insj)ired 1 
Scriptures. Nor are we taught that he had his 
being from any other pre-existing substance besides 
the Father, but that he was truly § begotten of God 
alone : for the Divine word teaches that there is one 
unbegotten principle without beginning, the Father 
of Christ. But those who unauthorized by Scripture 

* Here the former Creed terminates, the present being thus far 
almost literally identical with it. 

t BouX^cfi oh^i OeXiytTCi. + OeonyivtrTwy. 

§ Vyiiaiutg, genuinely, legitimately. 


rashly assert that there was a time when he was not, 
ought not to preconceive any antecedent hiterval of 
time, but God only who without time begat him : for 
both times and ages were made by him. Yet it 
must not be thought that the Son is co-inoriginate,* 
or co-unbcgotten t with the Father : for this could not 
be predicated where such a relationship exists. But 
we know that the Father alone being inoriginate and 
in comprehensible, t has ineffably and incomprehensibly 
to all begotten, and that the Son was begotten before 
the ages, but is not unbegotten like the Father, but 
has a beginning, viz. the Father who begat him, 
for ' the head of Christ is God' (1 Cor. xi. 3). Now 
although according to the Scriptures we acknowledge 
three things or pei*sons, viz. that of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, we do not on that 
account make three Gods : since we know that thei'e 
is but one God perfect^ in himself, un})egotten, 
inoriginate, and invisible, the God and Father of the 
only-begotten, who alone has existence || from himself, 
and alone affords existence abundantly to all other 
things. But while we assert that there is one God, 
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the only unbe- 
gotten, we do not therefore deny that Christ is God 
before the ages, as the followers of Paul of Samosata 
do, who affirm that after his incarnation he was by 
exaltation deified,1I in that he was by nature a mere 
man. We know indeed that he was subject to his 
God and Father: nevertheless he was begotten of 
God, and is by nature true and perfect God, and was 

§ AifToreXfj, || 1 o ih'iu. f TiOeowoifitTdai, 


not afterwards made God out of man ; * but was for 
our sake made man out of God, t and has never 
ceased to be God. Moreover we execrate and ana- 
thematize those who falsely style him the mere 
unsubstantial* word of God, having existence only 
in another, either as the word to which utterance 
is given, or as the word conceived in the mind: 
and who pretend that before the ages he was 
neither the Christ, the Son of God, the Mediator, 
nor the Image of God ; but that he became the Christ, 
and the Son of God, from the time he took our flesh 
from the virgin, about 400 years ago. For they 
assert that Christ had the beginning of his kingdom 
from that time, and that it shall have an end after 
the consummation of all things and the judgment. 
Such persons as these are the followers of Marcellus 
and Photinus, the Ancyro-Gahitians, anIio under pre- 
text of establishing his sovereignty^ like the Jews set 
aside the eternal^ existence and deity of Christ, and 
the perpetuity of his kingdom. But we know him 
to be not simply the word of God by utterance or 
mental conception, but God the Word living and 
subsisting of himself; and Son of God and Christ; 
and who co-existed and was conversant with his 
Father before the ages not by presciencell only, and 
ministered to him at the creation of all things, 
whether visible or invisible : but that he is the 
substantial Word of the Father, and God of God: 
for this is he to wiiom the Father said,1I ' Let us 
make man in our image, and according to our like- 

* 'Eic avBpwviov. t '£*«>' Oiov. 

X WrvirapKroy, not existing, imaginary, ideal. 

§ HfHniiun'Uiv. II n^yi'woTtKwi". ^I Gen i. 26. 


ness :* who in his o^vn person* appeared to the 
fathers, gave the law, and spake by the prophets; 
and being at last made man, he manifested his Father 
to all men, and reigns to endless ages. Christ has 
not attained any new dignity ; but we believe that he 
was perfect from the beginning,^ and like his Father 
in all things. We also deservedly expel from the 
church those who say that the Father, Son, and Holy 
Spirit, are the same person, impiously supposing the 
three names to refer to one and the same thing and 
person : because by an incarnation they render the 
Father who is incomprehensible and insusceptible of 
suffering, subject to comprehension and suffering. 
These heretics are denominated Patropassians among 
the Romans, but by us Sabellians. For we know that 
the Father who sent, remained in the proi)er nature 
of his own immutable deity ; but that Christ who was 
sent, has fulfilled the economy of the incarnation. 
In like manner we regard as most bnpious and strangers 
to the truth, those who irreverently affirm that Christ 
was begotten not by the will and pleasure of his 
Father ; thus attributing to God an involuntary and 
reluctantt necessity, as if he begat the Son by con- 
straint :^ because they have dared to determine such 
things respecting him as are inconsistent ^nth our 
common notions of God, and are contrary indeed to 
the sense of the divinely-inspired Scripture. For 
knowing that God is self-dependent and Lord of him- 
self we devoutly maintain that of his o^vn volition and 
pleasure he begat the Son. And while we reveren- 
tially believe what is spoken concerning him (Prov. 

* AirroTrpotTMTTutc. f 'Arwf^tr. 

X * AirponiptTor . 4 "AKOir. 

CHAP. XIX.] EASTERN CREED. A.l). 346. 143 

viii. 22):* * The Lord created me the beginning of 
his ways on account of his works:' yet we do not 
suppose that he was made similarly to the creatures 
or works made by him. For it is impious and repug- 
nant to the ecclesiastic faith, to compare the Creator 
with the works created by him ; or to imagine that 
he had the same manner of generatioti as things of a 
nature totally different from himself: although the 
sacred scriptures teach us that the alone only -begotten 
Son was absolutely ^ and truly begotten. And when we 
say that the Son is of himself,t and lives and subsists 
in like mamier to the Father ; we do not therefore 
separate him from the Father, as if we supposed them 
dissociated by the intervention of material^ space. 
For we believe that they are united without medium 
or interval, and that they are incapable of separation 
from each other : the whole Father embosomingn the 
Son; and the whole Son attached to and eternally 
reposing in the Father's bosom. Believing therefore 
in the altogether perfect and most holy Trinity,^ and 
asserting that the Father is God, and that the Son 
also is God, we do not acknowledge two Gods, but 
one only, on account of the majesty of the Deity, and 
the perfect** blending and luiion of the kingdoms : the 
Father ruling over all things universally, ^ ^^ and even 
over the Son himself; the Son being subject to the 

* The Eastern bishops have here quoted the very words of the 
Septuagint : Kvpioc tKritri fxe ap^iir o^ioy uvtov elg ipya avTov. But 
our Knghsh version exactly follows the Hebrew : ri^K'Sl ^^^ij^ Hjn^, 
: TJJP ^v]jfsp D1^/^3"]l " The Lord possessed me in the beginning of 
his icag, before his irorks of old.** 

t Vi'Timufg. X K."^' kavrov, per se. § ^(OfiariKCj^. 

II 'Evt^rcpj'KT/xtVov. % Tputht. ** ^vyaijuiar. 

tt HaiTop^oviTOc. 


Father, ])ut except him, ruling* over all things which 
were made aft^^r him and by him ; and by the Father's 
will bestowing abundantly on the saints the grace of 
the Holy Spirit. For the sacred oracles inform us 
that in this consists the character of the sovereignty 
which Christ exercises. 

" We have b^en under the necessity of giving this 
more ample exposition of the creed, since the publica- 
tion of our former epitome; not to gratify a vain 
ambition, but to clear ourselves from all strange sus- 
picion respecting our faith which may exist among 
those who are ignorant of our real sentiments. And 
that the inhabitants of the West may both be aware 
of the shameless misrepresentations of the heterodox 
party ; and also know the ecclesiastic opinion of the 
Eastern bishops concerning Christ, confirmed by the 
un wrested t testimony of the divinely-inspired scrip- 
tures, among all those of unperverted minds." 



The Western prelates an account of their being 
of another language, and not undc^rstanding tliis 
exposition, would not admit of it; saying that the 
Nicene creed was sufficient, and that any thing 
beyond it was a work of supererogation. But when 
the emperor had again written to insist on the 
re-establishment of Paul and Athanasius in their 
respective sees, but Avithout effect in consequence of 
the continual agitation of the people, thesci two 

* BaaiXtvot'roc. t 'A/3iciotwc« + ^apcfi. 

CHAP. XX.] SYNOD AT SARDICA. — A. 0. 349. 145 

bishops demanded that another Synod should l)c 
convened, both for the determination of their case, 
as well as for the settlement of other questions in 
relation to the faith: for they made it obvious that 
their deposition arose from no other cause than that 
the faith might be the more easily perverted. Ano- 
ther general council* was therefore sununoned to 
meet at Sardica,*^ a city of Illyricum, by the joint 
authority of the two emperors ; the one requesting by 
letter that it might be so, and the other of the East 
readily acquieschig in it. This Synod was convened 
at Sardica, in the eleventh year after the death uf the 
father of the two Augusti, during the consulship of 
Rufinus and Eusebius. Athanasius states that about 
300 bishops from the western parts of the empire 
were present ; but Sabinus says there came only 
seventy from the eastern parts, among whom was 
Ischyras of Mareotes, who had been ordained bishop 
of that country by those who deposed Athanasius. 
Of the rest some pretended infinnity of body ; others 
complained of the shortness of the notice given, 
casting the blame of it on Julius bishop of Rome, 
although a year and a half had elapsed from the time 
of its having been summoned: in which interval 
Athanasius remained at Rome awaiting the assem- 
bling of the Synod, \\nien at last they were con- 
vened at Sardica, the Eastern prelates refused either 
to meet or to enter into any conference with those of 
the West, unless Athanasius and Paul were excluded 
from the convention. But Protogenes bishop of 
Sardica, and Hosius bishop of Cordova in Spain, 
would by no means permit them to be absent; on 

* OiKovfieyiKflf;. t 2ap3cia)r. 



which tlie Eastern bishops immediately withdrew, 
and returning to Philippolis in Thrace, held a sepa- 
rate council, Avherein they openly anathematized the 
tenn consubstantial : and having introduced the Ano- 
moian* opinion into their epistles, they sent them in 
all directions. On the other hand those who remained 
at Sardica, condemning in the first place their de- 
parture, afterwards divested the accusers of Athana- 
sius of their dignity : then confirming the Nicene 
creed, and rejecting the term oluo/jlolo^^ they more 
distinctly recognized the doctrine of consubstantijdity 
in epistles addressed to all the churches. Both parties 
believed they had acted rightly: those of the East 
conceived themselves justified, because the Western 
bishops had countenanced those whom they had de- 
posed ; and these again were satisfied with the course 
they had taken, in consequence not only of the retire- 
ment of those who had deposed them before the matter 
had been examined into, but also because they them- 
selves were the defenders of the Nicene faith, which 
the other party had dared to adulterate. They there- 
fore reinstated Paul and Athanasius in their sees, and 
also Marcellus of Ancyra in Galatia Minor, who had 
been deposed long before, as we have stated in the 
former book. This person at that time exerted him- 
self to the utmost to procure the revocation of the 
sentence pronounced against him, declaring that his 
bemg suspected of entertaining the error of Paul of 
Sarnosata, arose from a misunderstanding of some 
expressions in his book. It must however be noticed 
that Eusebius Pamphilus wrote three entire books 
against Marcellus, in which he quotes that author's 

* 'Ai'o/xo/ov, differcut, or unlike. 

CHAP. XXI.] dkfencp: of eusebius. — A. D. 349. 147 

own words to prove that he asserts with Sabellius the 
Libyan, and Paul of Samosata, that the Lord Jesus 
was a mere man. 



But since some have attempted to stigmatize 
Eusebius Pamphilus as having favoured the Arian 
views in his works, it may not be irrelevant here to 
make a few remarks res^xicting him. In the first 
place then he was present at the council of Nice, and 
gave his assent to what was there determined in 
reference to the consubstantiality of the Son vnth the 
Father. And in the third book of the Life of Con- 
stant ine, he thus expressed himself*: — " The emperor 
incited all to unanimity^ until he had rendered them 
united in judgment on those points on ichich they were 
previously at variance : so that they icere quite agreed at 
Nice in matters of faiths Since therefore Eusebius, 
in mentioning the Nicene Synod, says that all dif- 
ferences were composed, and that unanimity of senti- 
ment prevailed, what ground is there for assuming 
that lie was himself an Arian? The Arians are 
certainly deceived in supposing him to be a favourer 
of their tenets. But some one ^vill perhaps say that 
in his discourses he seems to have ado})ted the opinions 
of Arius, because of his frequently saying by ChnM. 
Our answer is that ecclesiastical writers often use 
this mode of expression and others of a similar kind 
denoting the economy of our Saviour's humanity : and 
that before all these the apostle (I Cor. i.) miule use 


of such expressions, without ever being accounted a 
teacher of false doctrine. Moreover, inasmuch as 
Arius has dared to say that the Son is a creature, as 
one of the others, observe what Eusebius says on this 
subject, in his first book against Marcellus : — 

" He alone ^ ayid 7W other ^ has been declared to be^ 
and is the only -begotten Son of God ; whence any one 
would justly censure those ivho have presumed to ajffirm 
that he is a Creature made of nothing^ like the rest of 
the creatures : for how then would he be a Son ? and 
how could he be God^s only -begotten^ were he assigned 
the same nature as the other creatures^ and were he one 
of the many created things^ seeing tfiat he^ like them^ 
would in that case be partakei* of a creation from 
nothing ? The sacred Scriptures do not thus instruct ?/.^ 
concerning these things^ He again adds a little after- 
wards : — " Whoever then determines that the Son is made 
of things that are not^ and that he is a creature pro- 
duced from nothing pre-ej;isting^ forgets that irhile hr 
concedes the name of Son^ he denies him to be so in 
reality. For he that is made of nothing^ cannot truly 
be the Son of God^ any more than the other things which 
have been made: but the true Son of God^ forasmuch 
as he vt begotten of the Father^ is properly denominated 
the only-begotten and belox^ed of the Father, For this 
reasofi also^ he himself is God: for ichat can the 
offspring of God be^ but the perfect resemblance of him 
who begat him? A sot^ereign indeed builds* a city, but 
does not beget it ; and is said to beget a son, not to build 
one. An artificer mny be calkd the framer, but not the 
father of his work ; while he could by no means be styled 
the framer of him frhom he had begotten. So aho the 


God of the Universe is the Father of the Son ; but would 
be fitly termed the Framer arid Maker of the world. 
And although it is once said in Scripture (Pro. viii. 22), 
* The Lord created me the beginning of his ways on 
account of his works,' yet it becomes us to consider the 
import of this phrase^ which I shall hereafter explain ; 
and not^ as Marcellus has done^ from a single passage 
to subvert one of the most important doctrines of the 

These and many other such expressions are found 
in the first book of Eusebius Pamphihis against Mar- 
cellus; and in his third book, declaring in what sejise 
the term creature* is to be taken, he says: — 

" Accordingly the^e things being established^ it follows 
that in the same sense as that which preceded^ these 
wards also are to be understood^ ' The Lord created me 
the beginning of his ways on account of his works.' 
For although he says that he was created^ it is not as if 
he should say that he had arrived at existence from what 
icas not^ nor that he himself also was made of nothing 
like the rest of the creatures^ ivhich some have erroneously 
supposed: but a^s subsisting^ living^ pre-existi?ig^ and 
being before the constitution of the whole world; and 
having been appointed to rule the universe by his Lord 
and Father: the word created bei7ig here used instead of 
ordained or constituted. Certainly the apostle ( 1 Pet. 
ii. 13, 14) expressly called the rulers and governors 
among men creature, when he said, ' Submit your- 
selves to every human creature ^ for the Lord's sake ; 
whether to the king as supreme, or to governors 
as those sent by him.' The prophet also (Amos iv. 
12,13) does not use the word eKrlaeu created in the 


sense of made of that which had no previous existence, 
xclien he says^ ' Prepare, Israel, to invoke* thy God. 
For behold he who confimis the thunder, creates the 
Spirit, and announces his Christ unto men :' For God 
did not then create the Spirit^ when he declared his 
Chiist to all fuen^ since (Eccles. i. 9) ' There is nothing 
new under the sun ;' but the Spirit tcas^ and sid)sisted 
before: but he u-as sent at what time the apostles were 
gathered together^ lahen like thunder ' There came a 
sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind : and 
they were filled with the Holy Spirit' (Acts ii. 2, 4). 
And thus they declared unto all men the Christ of God^ 
in accordance tcith that prophecy which says ( Amos iv. 
13), * Behold he who confirms the thunder, eremites 
the Spirit, and announces his Christ unto men:' the 
word creates being used instead of sends do^vn, or 
appoints ; and thunder in a similar way implying the 
preaching of the gospel. Again he that says^ ' Create 
in me a clean heart, God' (Ps. li. 10), said not this 
as if fie had no heart; but prayed that his mind might 
be purified. Thus also it is said (Eph. ii. 15), ' That 
he might create the two into one new man,' instead of 
unite. Consider also tvhether this passage is not of the 
same kind (Eph. iv. 24), ' Clothe ^ yourselves ^vith the 
new man, which is created according to God:' and 
this (2 Cor. v. 17), ' If therefore any one be hi Christ, 
he is a new creature :' * arid whatever other expressions 
of a similar nature any one may find who sfiall care- 
fidly search the diinnely-inspired Scripture, Wherefore 
one sJioidd not be surprised if in this passage^ ' The 

* 'l£*7riKa\£iadai. Eusebius quotes from the Septuagint, omitting 
«yai. which greatly differs from the Hebrew. 


Lord created me the beginning of his ways/ the term 
created is used metaphorically ^ instead of appointed, or 

These quotations from the books of Eusebius against 
Marcellus, have been adduced to confute those who 
have slanderously attempted to traduce and criminate 
him. Neither can they prove that Eusebius attri- 
butes a beginning of subsistence * to the Son of God, 
although they may find him often using the expres- 
sions of dispensation : ^ and especially so, because he 
was an emulator and admirer of the works of Origcn, 
in which those who are able to comprehend that 
author's writings, will perceive it to be everywhere 
stated that the Son was begotten of the Father. 
These remarks have been made in passing, in order 
to refute those who have misrepresented Eusebius. 



When those convened at Sardica, as well as those 
who had formed a separate council at Philippolis in 
Thrace, had severally perfonned what they deemed 
requisite, they returned to their respective cities. 
From that time therefore the Western church was 
severed from the Eastern : and the boundary of 
communion between them was the mountain called 


Soucis,* which divides the lUyrians from the Thracians. 
As far as this mountain there was indiscriminate com- 
munion, although there wa^ a difference of faith ; but 
beyond it they did not communicate with one another. 
Such was the perturbed condition of the churches at 
that period. Soon after these transactions, the em- 
peror of the Western parts informs his brother Con- 
stantiua of what had taken place at Sardica, and begs 
him to ratify the restoration of Paul and Athanasius 
to their sees. But as Constantius delayed to carry 
this matter into effect, the emperor of the West again 
wrote to him, giving him the choice either of re-estab- 
lishing Paul and Athanasius in their former dignity, 
and restoring their churches to them ; or on his fail- 
ing to do this, of regarding him as his enemy, and 
immediately expecting war. The letter which he 
addressed to his brother was as follows : — 

" Athanasius and Paul are here Avith me : and 1 am 
quite satisfied after strict investigation, that their 
piety alone has drawn persecution upon them. If 
therefore you will pledge yourself to reinstate them 
in their sees, and to punish those who have so unjustly 
injured them, I will send them to you: but should 
you refuse to execute my wishes, be assured of this, 
that I will myself come thither, and restore them to 
their own sees, in spite of your opposition." 

* 'ViaovKif;. 




This commuiiication placed the emperor of the 
East m the utmost difficulty; and immediately 
sending for the greater part of the Eastern bishops, 
he acquainted them with the choice his brother had 
submitted to him, and asked what ought to be done. 
They replied it was better to concede the churches to 
Athanasius, than to undertake a civil war. Accord- 
ingly the emperor, urged by necessity, summoned 
Athanasius to his presence. Meanwhile the emperor 
of the West sends Paul to Constantinople, with two 
bishops and other honourable attendance, having forti- 
fied him with his o^vn letters, together with those of 
the Synod. But while Athanasius was still appre- 
hensive, and hesitated to go to him, dreading the 
treachery of his calumniators, the emperor of the East 
not once only, but even a second and a third time, 
invited him to come to him : this is evident from his 
letters, of which I shall here give a translation from 
the Latin tongue. 


"Constantius Victor Augustus to Athanasius the 

" Our compassionate clemency cannot permit you 
to be any longer tossed and disquieted as it were by 
the boisterous waves of the sea. Our unwearied piety 


has not been unmindful of you driven from your 
native home, despoiled of your property, and wander- 
ing in pathless solitudes. And although we have too 
long deferred acquainting you by letter with the pur- 
pose of our mind, in the expectation of your coining 
to us of your oAvn accord to seek a- remedy for your 
troubles; yet since fear perhaps has hindered the 
execution of your Avishes, we therefore have sent to 
your reverence* letters full of indulgence, in order 
that you may fearlessly hasten to appear in our pre- 
sence, whereby after exi>criencing our benevolence, 
you may attain your desire, and be re-established in 
your proper position. For this reason we have 
requested our Lord and brother Constans Victor 
Augustus, to grant you permission to come, to the 
end that you may be restored to your country by the 
consent of us both, having this assurance of our 


" Constantius Victor Augustus to the bishop Atha- 

" Although we have abundantly intimated in a 
former letter that you might securely come to our 
Couii;,t as we are extremely anxious to reinstate you 
in your proper place, yet we have again addressed 
your reverence. We therefoi^ desire you ^vill without 
any distrust or apprehension, take a public veliicle 
and hasten to us, in order that you may realize your 

* V, 

^eppOTTITH. t KofllTClTOy, 


" Constantius Victor Augustus to the bishop Atha- 

" While we made our residence at Edessa,* where 
your presbyters were present, it pleased us to send 
one of them to you, for the purpose of hastening 
your arrival at our court, in order that after having 
been introduced to our presence, you might forthwith 
proceed to Alexandria. But inasmuch as a con- 
siderable time has elapsed since your receipt of our 
letter, and you have not yet come ; we now therefore 
again exhort you to speedily present yourself before 
us, that so you may be able to be restored to your 
country, and obtain your desire. For the more ample 
assurance of our intention, we have despatched to you 
Achetas the deacon, from whom you will learn both 
our mind in regard to you, as well as our readiness to 
facilitate the objects you have in view." 

When Athanasius had received these letters at 
Aquileia, where he abode after his departure from 
Sardica, he immediately hastened to Rome ; and 
having shown these communications to Julius the 
bishop, there was the greatest joy in the Roman 
Church. For they concluded that the emperor of 
the East had recognized their faith, since he had 
recalled Athanasius. Julius then Avrote to the clergy 
and laity of Alexandria on behalf of Athanasius. 




" Julius the bishop, to the presbyters, deacons, and 
people inhabiting Alexandria, brethren beloved, salu- 
tations in the Lord. 

" I also rejoice with you, beloved brethren, because 
you at length see before your eyes the fruit of your 
faith. For that this is really so, any one mjiy per- 
ceive in reference to our brotlier and fellow-prelate 
Athanasius; whom God has restored to you, both on 
account of his puritv of life, and in answer to your 
prayers. It is therefore evident that your supplica- 
tions to God have unceasingly been offered pure and 
abounding with love : and that mindful of the divine 
promises and of the charity connected with them, 
which ye learned from the instruction of our brother, 
ye knew assuredly, and according to the sound 
faith which is in you clearly foresaw that your bishop 
would not be separated from y(ju for ever, whom ye 
had in your devout hearts as though he were ever 
present. Wherefore it is unnecessary for me to use 
many words in addressing you, for your faith has 
already anticipated whatever I could have said: and 
the common prayer of you all has been fulfilled 
according to the grace of Christ. 1 therefore rejoice 
with you; and repeat it, because ye have preserved 
your souls invincible in the faith. Nor do I the less 
rejoice with my brother Athanasius; because, while 
suffering many afflictions, he was never unmindful 
of your love and desire : for although he seemed to 
be withdrawn from you in person for a season, yet 
was he always present with you in spirit. And J am 


convinced, beloved, that every trial which he has 
endured has not been inglorious ; since l)oth your faith 
and his has thus been tested and made manifest to all. 
But had not so many troubles happened to him, who 
would have believed, either that you had so great a 
value and love for this eminent prelate, or that he 
was endowed with such distinguished virtues, on 
account of Avhich also he will by no means be de- 
frauded of his hope in the heavens? He has accord- 
ingly obtained a testimony of confession in every way 
glorious both in the present age, and in that which is 
to come. After having suffered so many and diversi- 
fied trials both by land and by sea, he has trampled 
on every machination of the Arian heresy ; and 
though often exposed to danger in consequence of 
envy, he despised death, being protected by Almighty 
God, and our Lord Jesus Christ, ever trusting that 
he should not only escape the treachery of his adver- 
saries, but also be restored for your consolation, and 
bring back to you at the same time greater trophies 
from your omi conscience. By which means his 
fame has been extended even to the ends of the 
whole earth, his w^orth having been approved by the 
purity of his life, the firmness of his purpose, and 
his steadfastness in the heavenly doctrine, all being 
attested by your unchanging esteem and love. He 
therefore returns to you, more distinguished now 
than when he departed from you. For if the fire 
tries the precious metals (I speak of gold and silver) 
for purification, what can be said of so excellent a man 
proportionate to his worth, who after having over- 
come the fire of so many calamities and dangers, is 
now restored to you, being declared innocent not only 


by us, but also by the whole Synod? Receive there- 
fore Avith godly'' honour and joy, beloved brethren, 
your bishop Athanasius, together with those who 
have been his companions in tribulation. And rejoice 
in having attained the object of your prayers, who 
have supplied with meat and drink, by your support- 
ing letters, your pastor hungering and thirsting, so 
to spexik, for your spiritual ^ welfare. Ye were a 
comfort to him while he was sojourning in a strange 
land ; and ye cherished him in your most faithful 
affections when he was exposed to treachery and 
persecution. It makes me happy even to picture 
to myself in imagination the universal delight that 
will be manifested on his return, the pious greetings 
of the populace, the glorious festivity of those as- 
sembled to meet him, and indeed what the entire 
aspect of that day mil be when my brother shall 
be brought back to you again : past troubles will 
then be at an end, and his prized and longed-for 
return will unite all hearts in the warmest expression 
of joy. Tliis feeling will in a very high degree 
extend to us, who regard it a»s a token of divine 
favour, that we should have been privileged to become 
acquainted with so eminent a person. It becomes us 
therefore to close this epistle with prayer. May God 
Almighty and his Son our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ afford you this grace contiiuially, thus reward- 
ing the admirable faith which ye have manifested in 
reference to your bishop by an illustrious testimony : 
that the things more excellent which * Eye has not 
seen^ nor ear lieard^ neither have entered into the heart of 
man ; even the things jrhich God has prepared for them 

* Kara Qeoy. t Oeotrij^tiay. 


tliat love him! (1 Cor. ii. 9), may await you and yours 
in the world to come, through our Lord Jesus Christ, 
by whom glory be to Almighty God for ever and 
ever, Amen. I pray that ye may be strengthened, 
beloved brethren." 

Athanasius relying on these letters went back to 
the East. The Emperor Constantius did not at that 
time receive him with any marked hostility of feeling ; 
nevertheless at the instigation of the Arians he en- 
deavoured to circumvent him, addressing him in these 
words : " You have been reinstated in your see in 
accordance with the decree of the Synod, and with 
our consent. But inasmuch as some of the people of 
Alexandria refuse to hold communion with you, per- 
mit them to have one church in the city." To this 
demand Athanasius at once replied : " You have the 
power, my sovereign, both to order, and to carry into 
effect, whatever you may please. 1 also therefore 
would beg you to grant me a favour." The emperor 
having readily promised to acquiesce, Athanasius im- 
mediately added, that he desired the same thing might 
be conceded to him, which the emperor had exacted 
from him, viz. : — ^that in every city one church should 
be assigned to those who might refuse to hold com- 
munion with the Arians. That party perceiving the 
purpose of Athanasius to be inimical to their interests, 
said that this affair might be postponed to another 
time : but they suffered the emperor to act as he 
pleased. He therefore restored Athanasius, Paul, and 
Marcellus to their respective sees ; as also Asclepas 
bishop of Gaza, and Lucius of Adrianople. For these 
too had been receivc^d by the Council of Sardica : 


Asclepas, on his exhibiting records from which it 
appeared that Eusebius Pamphilus, in conjunction 
with several others, after having investigated his 
case, had restored him to his former rank ; and 
Lucius, because his accusers had fled. Hereupon 
the emperor's edicts were despatched to their respec- 
tive cities, enjoining the inhabitants to receive them 
readily. At Ancyra indeed when Basil was ejected, 
and Marcellus was introduced in his stead, there was a 
considerable tumult made, which afforded his enemies 
an occasion of calumniating him : but the people of 
Gaza willingly admitted Asclepas. Macedonius at 
Constantinople, for a short time gave place to Paul, 
convening assemblies by himself separately, in a pri- 
vate church of that city. Moreover the emperor 
wrote on behalf of Athanasius to the bishops, clergy, 
and laity, to receive him cheerfully : and at the same 
time he ordered by other letters, that wliatever had 
been enacted against him in the judicial courts sliould 
be abrogated. The comnmnications respecting botli 
these matters were as follows. 


" Victor Constantius Maximus Augustus, to the 
bishops and presbyters of the Catholic Church. 

The most reverend bishop Athanasius has not 
been forsaken by the grace of God. But although he 
was for a short time subjected to trial according to 
men, yet has he obtained from an omniscient provi- 
dence the sentence which was due to him ; having 
been restored bv the will of God, and our decision, 
both to his country and to the clnirch over which by 
divine permission he presided. It was therefore 


suitable that what is in accordance with this should 
be duly attended to by our clemency : so that all 
things which have been hcretofoi'e determined against 
those who held conuimnion with him should now be 
rescuided ; that all suspicion against him should 
henceforward cease ; and that the innnunity* which 
those clergymen who are with him formerly enjo3'ed, 
should be, as it is meet, confirmed to them. More- 
over we thought it just to add this to our grace 
toward him, that the whole ecclesiastical l)ody should 
understand that protection is extended to all who 
have adhered to him, whether bishops or clerks : ^ and 
union with him shall be a sufficient evidence of each 
person's right intention. Wlierefore we have ordered, 
according to the similitude of the previous providence, 
that as many as liave the wisdom to adopt the sounder 
judgment, and to join themselves to his conununion, 
shall enjoy that indulgence which we have now granted 
in accordance with the will of God.*' 


" Victor Constantius Maximus Augustus, to the 
laity of the Catholic Church at Alexandria. 

'' Aiming at your good order in aU respects, and 
knoAving that you have long since been bereft of 
episcopal oversight,' we tliought it just to send back 
to you again Athanasius your bishop, a man kno^vn 
to all by the integrity and s<anctity of his life and 
manners. Having received hun with your usual 
courtesy, and constituted him the assistant of your 
pniyers to God, exert yourselves to maintain at all 
times, according to the ecclesiastical canon, concord 

* * 



and i)eace, which ^vill be alike honourable to your- 
selves, niid grateful to us. For it is unreasonable 
that any dissension or faction should be excited among 
you, contrary to the felicity of our times ; and we 
trust that such a misfortune Avill be wholly removed 
from you. We exhort you therefore to assiduously 
|>ersevere in your accustomed devotions, by the assist- 
ance of this prelate, as we before said : so that when 
this resolution of yours shall become generally knoAvn, 
even the Pagans who are still enslaved in the igno- 
rance of idolatrous worship, may eagerly seek the 
knowledge of our sacred religion. Wherefore, most 
beloved Alexandrians, give heed to these things : 
heartily welcome your bishop, as one appointed you 
by the Avill of God and my decree ; and esteem him 
worthy of being embraced Avith all the affections of 
your souls, for this becomes you, and is consistent 
with our clemency. But in order to check all ten- 
dency to seditions and tumult in persons of a factious 
disposition, orders have been issued to our judges to 
exercise the utmost severity of the laws on all who 
expose themselves to their operation. Respecting 
then both our and God's* determination, with the 
anxiety we feel to secure harmony among you, and 
remembering also the punishment that wiU be inflicted 
on the disorderly, make it your especial care to act 
agreeably to the sanctions of our sacred religion, with 
all reverence honouring your bishop ; that so in con- 
junction with him you may present your supplications 
to the God and Father of the universe, both for your- 
selves, and for the orderly government of the whole 
human race." 

* Tov KpeiTTOVO^. 



" Victor Constantius Augustus to Nestorius, and 
in the same terms to the Governors of Augustamnica, 
Thebai's, and Libya. 

" If it be found that at any time previously enact- 
ments have been passed prejudicial and derogatory 
to those who hold communion with Athanasius the 
bishop, our pleasure is that they should now be 
wholly abrogated ; and that his clergy should again 
enjoy the same immunity which was granted to them 
formerly. We enjoin strict obedience to this com- 
mand, to the intent that since this prelate has been 
restored to his church, all who hold communion with 
him may possess the same privileges as they had 
before, and such as other ecclesiastics now enjoy: 
that so their affairs being happily arranged, they also 
may share in the general prosperity.'* 



Athanasius the bishop being fortified ^vith these 
letters, passed through Syria, and came into Palestine. 
On arriving at Jerusalem he acquainted Maximus the 
bishop both with what had been done in the Council 
of Sardica, and also that the Emperor Constantius had 
confirmed its decision : he then proposed that a Synod 


of bishops should be held there. Maximus therefore 
at once sent for certain of the prelates of Syria and 
Palestine, who having assembled in council, restored 
Athanasius to communion, and to his former dignity. 
After which they communicated by letter to the 
Alexandrians, and to all the bishops of Egypt and 
Libya, what had been determined respecting Athana- 
sius. On this the adversaries of Athanasius exceed- 
ingly derided Maximus, because having before assisted 
in the deposition of that prelate, he had suddenly 
changed his mind, and as if nothing had previously 
taken place, had promoted his restoration to commu- 
nion and rank. WTien these things became known, 
TTrsacius and Valens,* who had been iierj' partisans of 
Arianisni, condemning their former zeal, proceeded 
to Rome, where they presented their recantation to 
Julius the ])ishop, and gjive their assent to the doctrine 
of consubstnntiality : they then wrote to Athanasius, 
and expressed their readiness to hold connnunion witli 
him in future. Thus did the prosperity of Athanasiim 
so subdue TTrsacius and Valens, as to induce them to 
recognise the orthodox faith. Athanasius passing 
through Pelusium on his way to Alexandria, admon- 
ished the inhabitants of every city to beware of the 
Arians, and to receive those only that professed the 
Homoiiusian faith. In some of the churches also he 
performed ordinjition ; which afforded another gi'ound 
of accusation against hhn, because of his undertaking 
to ordain in the dioceses of others. Such was the 
condition of things at that period in reference to 

* ()i;a\»yr. 

CHAP. XXV.] MAGxNENTlUS.^ — A.D. 349. H».') 



About this time a terrible coinmotion shook the 
whole state, of which it is iH?eclful to }j^\ye a suininary 
ticcount of the principal heads. We iiientioned in 
our tii'st book, that after the death of tlu^ founder of 
Constantinople, his three sons succeeded him in the 
empire : it nmst now be also stated, that their kins- 
man Dahnatius,* so named from his father, shared with 
them the imperial authority. This person after being 
associated with them in the sovereijruty for a very little 
while, was slain by the soldiery, Constantius having 
neither conunanded his destruction, nor forbidden it. 
The maimer in w^hich Constantine the younger w^iis 
killed by the soldiers, on his invading that division of 
the empire which belonged to his brother, has already 
been recoi'ded. Aftei* his death, a Persian war was 
raised agauist the Romans, in which Constantius did 
nothing prosperously : for in a battle fought by night 
on the frontiers of both parties, the Persians had to 
some slight extent the advantaw. Meanwhile the 
affairs of Christians became no less unsettled, there 
being great disturbance throughout the* churches on 
account of Athanasius, mid the term ron.sfd/sfantiaL 
During this general agitation, there sprang uj) a tyrant 
in the western parts called Magnentius;' who by 
treachery slew Constans, the emperor of that division 

t He was governor of the Provinces* of Khoetin, and assassinated 
his sovereign in his bed. 


of the empire, at that time residing in the Gallias. 
In the furious civil war which thence arose, this 
usurper made himself master of all Italy, reduced 
Africa and Libya under his power, and even obtained 
possession of the Gallias. But at the city of Sirmium 
in Illyricum, the military set up another tyrant whose 
name was Vetranio ;* while a fresh trouble threw Rome 
itself into commotion : for Nepotian, Constantine's 
sister's son, supported by a body of gladiators,^ there 
assumed the sovereignty. He was however slain by 
some of the officers of Magnentius, who himself 
invaded the western provinces, and spread desolation 
in every direction. 



A CONFLUX of these disastrous events occurred at 
nearly one and the same time ; for they happened in 
the fourth year after the council at Sardica, during 
the consulate of Sergius and Nigrinian. Under these 
circumstances the entire sovereignty of the empire 
seemed to devolve on Constantius alone ; who being 
accordingly proclaimed in the East sole Autocrat, 
made the most vigorous preparations against the 
tyrants. Hereupon the adversaries of Athanasius, 
thinking a favourable crisis had arisen, again framed 

CH^P. XXVI.] PAUL IS STRANGLED. — A.D. 351. 167 

the most calumnious charges against him, before his 
arrival at Alexandria; assuring the emjxjror Con- 
stantius that all Egypt and Libya was in danger of 
being subverted by him. And his having undertaken 
to ordain out of the limits of his own diocese, tended 
not a little to accredit the accusations against him. 
Amidst such unhappy excitement, Athanasius entered 
Alexandria; and having convened a council of the 
bishops in Egypt, they confirmed by their unanimous 
vote, what had been determined in the Synod at 
Sardica, and that assembled at flerusalem by Max- 
imus. But the enii)eror who had been long since 
imbued with Arian doctrine, reversed all the indul- 
gent proceedings he had so recently resolved on. lie 
began by ordering that Paul, bishop of Constantinople, 
should be sent into exile ; whom those who conducted 
him strangled, at Cucusus in Ca})piidocia. Marcellus 
was also ejected, and Basil again made ruler of the 
church at Ancyra. Lucius of Adrianople, being 
loaded with chains, died in prison. The reports 
which were made concerning Athanasius, so wrougiit 
on the emperor's mind, that in an ungovernable fury 
he conunanded him to be put to death wherever he 
might be found: he moreover included Theodulus 
and Olympius, who presided over churches in Thrace, 
in the same proscription. Athanasius having obtained 
intelligence of the peril to which these mandates ex- 
posed him, once more had recourse to flight, and so 
escaped the em[)eror's menaces. The Arians de- 
nounced his retreat as criminal, particularly Narcissus 
bishop of Neroniades in Cilicia, George of Laodica>a, 
and Leontius who then had the oversight of the 
church at Antioch. This last person when a pres- 


byter, had been divested of his rank, l>ecause in order 
to remove all suspicion of illicit intercourse with a 
woman named Eustolium, with whom he spent a 
considerable portion of his time, lie had castrated 
himself, and thenceforward lived more unreservedly 
with her, when there could be no longer any ground 
for evil sunnises. Afterwards however, at the earnest 
desire of the emperor Constantius, he was created 
bishop of the church at Antioch, after Stephen, the 
successor of Flaccillus. ' 



Paul having been removed, in the manncT de- 
scribed, Macedonius then became ruler of the churches 
in Constantinople; who acquiring ver}^ great ascen- 
dancy over the emperor, stirred up a war among 
Christians, of a no less grievous kind than that which 
the tyrants themselves were waging. For having 
prevailed on his sovereign to cooperate with him in 
devastating the churches, he procured the sanction 
of law for whatever pernicious measures he deter- 
mined to jmrsue. Throughout the several cities 
therefore, an edict was proclaimed, and a military 
force appointed to carrj' the imperial decrees into 
effect. Hence those who acknowledged the doctrine 
of consubstantiality were not only expelled from the 
churches, but also from the cities. But although 

* IlXan'troi'. 


expulsion at first satisfied them, they soon proceeded 
to the worse extremity of inducing compulsory com- 
munion with them ; caring but little for such a dese- 
cration of the churches. Their violence indeed was 
scarcely less intolerable than that of those who had 
formerly obliged the Christians to worship idols : for 
they resorted to all kinds of scourgings, a variety of 
tortures, and confiscation of property. Many were 
punished with exile; some died under the torture; 
and others were put to death while being driven 
from their country. These atrocities were exercised 
throughout all the eai*tern cities, but especially at 
Constantinople; the internal persecution which was 
but slight before, being thus savagely increased by 
Macedonius, as soon as he obtained the bishopric. 
The cities of Achaia* and Illyricum, with those of the 
western parts still enjoyed tranquillity; inasnmch as 
they preserved unanimity of judgment among them- 
selves, and continued to adhere to the rule of faith 
promulgated by the council of Nice. 



What cruelties were perpetrated at Alexandria by 
George at the same time, may be learnt from the 
narration of Athanasius, who was not only a spectator 
of the scenes he describes, but also a sufterer in them. 
In his " Vindication of his flight," speaking of these 
transactions, he thus expresses himself: — " Moreover 

* 'EXXctou. 


they came to Alexandria, again seeking to destroy ine : 
and on this occasion their proceedings were worse thai i 
before; for the soldiery having suddenly surrounded 
the church, there arose the din of war, insteiul of the 
voice of prayer. Afterwards on the arrival of (leorge 
during Lent,* the mischief for which he had been 
trained by those who had sent him from Gappadocia, 
was greatly augmented. When Easter- week t was 
past, the virgins were cast into prison, the bishops 
led in chains by the military, and the dwellings even 
of orphans and widows forcibly entered and piUaged. 
Christians were interred by night ; houses were set a 
mark upon; and the relatives of the clergy were 
endangered on their account. Even these outrages 
were dreadful ; but the persecutors soon proceeded to 
such as were still more so. For in the week after the 
holy Pentecost, the people having fixsted, went forth 
to a cemetery + to pray, because all were averse to 
communion with George : that brutal ])ei'secutor being 
informed of this, instigated against them Sebastian, 
an officer who was a Manichaean. He at the head of 
a l>ody of troops armed with drawn swords, bows, 
and darts, marched out to attack the people, idthough 
it was the Lord's day : finding but few at prayers, as 
the most part had retired because of the lateness of 
the hour, he performed such exploits as might be 
expected from savage barbarians. Having kindled a 
fire, he set the virgins near it, in order to compel 
them to say that they were of the Arian faith : but 
seeing they were not to be overcome, and that they 
despised the fire, he then stript them, and so l)eat 

* TeaaapaKOOT^. t "K/^^o/ia tov Ilacrxa- 

X Koifitfriipioy' 


them on the face, that for a long time afterwards they 
could scarcely be recognised. Seizing also about forty 
men, he flogged them in an extraordinary manner: 
for he so lacerated their backs with rods fresh cut 
from the palm-tree, which still had their thorns on, 
that some were obliged to procure surgical aid in 
order to have the thorns extracted from their flesh ; 
while others unable to bear the agony, died under its 
infliction. All the survivors with one virgin he 
banished to the Great Oasis. The bodies of the dead 
were not at first suflcred to be claimed l^y their rela- 
tives, but being denied the rites of sepulture were 
concealed as the authors of these barbarities thought 
fit, that the evidences of their cruelty might not 
appear. Such was the blindness ^vith which these 
madmen acted : for while the friends of the deceased 
rejoiced on account of their confession, but mourned 
because of their bodies being uninterred, the impious 
inhumanity of these acts became more distinctly con- 
spicuous. Soon after this they sent into exile out of 
Egypt and the two Li])yas, the follomng bishops: 
Ammonius, Thmuis, Caius, Philo, Hennes, Pliny, 
Psenosiris, Nilammon, Agatho, Anagamphus, a second 
Ammonius, Mark, Dracontius, Adelphius, a third Am- 
monius, another Mark, and Athenodorus; and the 
presbyters Hierax and Discerns. And so harshly 
were they treated by those who had the charge of 
conducting them, that some expired while on their 
journey, and others in the very place of banishment. 
In this way more than thirty bishops were got rid of: 
for the anxious desire of the Arians, like Ahab's, was 
to exterminate the truth if possible." 

Such is the statement Athanasius has given of the 


atrocities perfxjtrat^d by George at Alexandi'ia. The 
emperor meanwliile led liis anny into Illyricuiii, where 
the urgency of public affairs demanded his presence; 
for Vetranio had been there proclaimed emperor by 
the militar}\ On arri\dng at Sirmium, a truce being 
made, lie came to a conference with Vetranio; and so 
managed, that the soldiers who had previously de- 
clared for liis rival, now deserted him, cind srduted 
Constantius alone as Augustus and sovereign Auto- 
crat. Vetranio perceiving himself to be abandoned, 
immediately threw himself at the feet of the emperor; 
who after taking from him liis imperial crown and 
puq)le, treated him with great clemency, and recom- 
mended him to pass the rest of his days traiKiuilly in 
the condition of a private citizen: observing that a 
life of repose at his advanced age, was fai' more 
suitable than a dignity which entailed anxieties and 
care. Vetranio's affairs having come to this issue, 
he was assigned a liberal provision out of the public 
revenue : and writing frequently to the emperor dur- 
ing his residence at Prusa in Bithynia, he assured 
him that he had conferred the greatest l)lessing on 
him, by liberating him from the disquietudes which 
are the inseparable concomitants of sovereign powxT. 
Adding that he himself did not act wisely in d(»priving 
himself of that happhiess in retirement, which he had 
bestowed upon him. After these things, the emperor 
Constantius having created Gallus his kinsman (V^sar, 
and given him his ow^n name, sent him to Antioch 
in Syria to guard the eastern parts. When Gallus 
was entering this city, the Saviour's sign app(»ared in 
the East : for a })illar in the form of a cross was seen 
ill the heavens, to the great amazement of the specta- 

CHAr. XXIX.] niOTiNus. — A. D. 351 . 1*73 

tors. Other generals were despatched by the emperor 
against Magnentius with considerable forces, while he 
himself remained at Sinnium, awaiting the course? of 



In the interim Photinus, who then presided 
over the church in that city, having more openly 
avowed his sentiments, and a tumult being made in 
consequence, the emperor ordered a Synod of bishops 
to be assembled at Sinnium. There were accordingly 
convened there of the Oriental Prelates, Mark of 
Arethusa, George of Alexandria, whom the Arians, 
as we have before said, had placed over that see on 
the removal of Gregory, Basil who presided over the 
church at Ancyra, Marcellus having been ejected, 
Pancratius of I^elusium, and Hypatian of Ilei'aclea. 
Of the Western bisho])S there were present Valens of 
Mursa, and the celebrated Hosius of Cordova in Spain, 
who attended much against his will. These met at 
Sinnium, after the consulate of Sergius and Nigrinian, 
in which year no consul celebrated the customary 
inaugurar solenmities, in consequence of the martial 
preparations; and it being ascertained that Photinus 
held the heresy of Sabellius the Libyan, and Paul of 
Samosata, they innnediately deposed him. This 

♦ The **Ludi Circenses,'' consisting of the five games, leaping, wrest- 
ling, boxing, racing, and hurling, with scenic representations, and 
spectacles of wild beasts at the amphitheatre ; with which the consuls 
entertained the people at their entrance on the consulate. 


decision was both at that time and afterwards uni- 
versally commended as honourable and just ; but 
those who continued there, subsequently acted in a 
way which was by no means so generally approved. 



As if they would rescind their former detennina- 
tions respecting the faith, they published anew other 
expositions of the creed, viz. : — one in Greek which 
Mark of Arethusa composed ; and two others in Latin, 
which harmonized ^vith one another neither in ex- 
pression nor in sentiment, nor with that dictated by 
the bishop of Arethusa. I shall here subjoin one of 
those drawn up in Latin, to that prepared in Greek 
by Mark : the other, which was afterwards recited at 
Rimini, wll be given when we describe what was 
done at that place. It must be understood however, 
that both the Latin forms were translated into Greek. 
The declaration of faith set forth by Mark, was as 

'' We believe in one God the Father Almighty, the 
Creator and Maker of all things, of whom the whole 
family in heaven and on earth is named (Eph. iii. 
15): and in his only begotten Son, our Lord Jesus 
Christ, who was begotten of his Father before all ages, 
God of* God, Light of Light, by whom all things visi- 
ble and invisible, which are in the heavens and upon 
the earth, were made ; who is the Word, the Wisdom, 

* 'Eic. 


the true Light, and the Life ; who in the last days for 
our sake was made man* and boni of the holy virgin, 
was cnicified and died, was buried, and arose again 
from the dead on the third day, was received up into 
heaven, sits at the right hand of the Father, and is 
coming at the completion of the age to judge the 
living and the dead, and to requite every one accord- 
ing to his works : whose kingdom being everlasting, t 
endures into endless ages ; for he will be seated at 
the Father's right hand, not only in tlie present age, 
but also in that which is to come. We believe in the 
Holy Spirit, tliat is to say the Comforter, whom our 
Lord according to his promise, sent to his apostles 
after his ascension into the heavens, to teach them, 
and bring all things to their remembrance ; by whom 
also the souls of those who have sincerely believed in 
him are sanctified. But those who affinn that the 
Son is of things which are not, or of another subtance,* 
and not of God, and that there was a time or an age 
when he was not, the holy and catholic Church declares 
to be aliens. We therefore again say, if any one 
affirms that the Father and Son are two Gods, let 
him be anathema. And if any one admits that Christ 
is God and the Son of God before the ages, but does 
not confess that he ministered to the Father in the 
formation of all things, let him be anathema. If any 
one shall dare to assert that the Unbegotten, or a 
part of him, was born of Mary, let him be anathema. 
If any one says that the Son was of Mary according 
to foreknowledge, and that he was not with God, 
begotten of the Father before the ages, ^md that all 
things were not made by him, let him be anathema. 


If any one affinns the essence' of God to be dilated or 
contracted, let him be anathema. If any one says 
that the dihited essence of God makes the Son, or 
shall term the Son the dilatation t of his essence, let 
him be anathema. If any one asserts that the in- 
ternal or uttered word is Son of God, let him be 
anathema. If any one declares that the Son that 
was born of Mary was man only, let him be anathema. 
If any man affirming him that was born of Mary to 
be God and man, shall imply the unbegotten God 
himself, let him be anathema. If any one shall 
understand the text ' / am the jirst^ and I am the 
last^* and besides me there is no God^ (Isa. xliv. 6), 
which was spoken for the destruction of idols and 
false gods, in the sense the Jews do, as if it were 
said for the subversion of the only -begotten of God 
before the ages, let liim be anathema. If any one 
hearing (John i. 14) ' the Word was made jlesh^' 
should imagine that the Word was changed into 
flesh, or that he underwent anv chan^jje in assuniino^ 
flesh, let him be anathema. If any one hearing that 
the only-begotten Son of God was crucified, should 
say that his divinity § underwent any corruption, or 
sufivring, or change, or diminution, or destruction, 
let him be anathema. If any one should affinn that 
the Father said not to the Son, ' Let us make man 
(Gen. i. 26), but that God spoke to himself, let him 
l>e anathema. If any one says that it was not the 
Son of God that was seen by Abraham, but the un- 
begotten God, or a i)art of him, let him be luiathema. 

* Ohaini. \ WXaTvtr^by* J Mcra rawra. 

§ Ti)i' OeoTtiTii avTov occurs in the Allut. MS. and in Athanasius, 
•• Lib. de Svnodis.'' 


If any one says that it was not the Son that as man 
Avrestled with Jacob, but the unbegotten God, or a 
part of him, let him be anathema. If any one shall 
understand the words (Gen. xix. 24), ' Tlie Lord 
rained from the Lord^ ' not in relation to the Father 
and the Son, but shall say that God rained from 
himself, let him be anathema : for the Lord the Son 
rained from the Lord the Father. If any one hearing 
tlie IjOrd the Father^ and the Lord the Son., shall term 
both the Father and tlie Son I^ord, and saying the 
Ijyrd from the Lord shall assert that there are two 
Gods, let him be anathema. For we rank not the 
Son with the Father, but conceive him to be subor- 
dinate to the Father. For he neither came down to 
Sodom ^ without his Father's will; nor did he rain 
from himself, but from the Lord (i. e. the Father) 
who exercises supreme authority : nor does he sit at 
the Father's right hand of liimself, but in obedience 
to the Father saying, ^ Sit thou at my right hwuV 
(Ps. ex. 1). If any one should say that the Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit are one person,* let him be 
anathema. If any one speaking of the Holy Spirit 
the Comforter, shall call him the unbegotton God, 
let him be anathema. If any one asserts that the 
Comforter is none other than the Son, when he has 
himself said, * the Father., whom I will ask^ shall send 
you another Comforter'' (John xiv. 16), let him be 
anathema. If any one affirm that the Spirit is part 
of the Father and of the Son, let him be anathema. 
If any one say that the Father, Son, and Holy Si)irit 
are three Gods, let him be anathema. If any one 

* The original has njn^. in both cases. 

t Athanasius has kirl ^Bofxay not tig aio^n. I Wpovwirov, 



say that the Son of God was made as one of the 
creatures by the vnH of God, let liim be anathema. 
If any one shall say that the Son was begotten against 
the Father's will, let him be anathema : for the Father 
did not, as compelled by any natural necessity, beget 
the Son at a time when he was unwilling ; but as soon 
as it pleased him, he has declared that of himself 
without time and ^vithout passion, he begat him. 
Should any one say that the Son is unbegotten, and 
'without beginning, intimating that there are two 
without beginning, and unbegotten, so making two 
Gods, let him be anathema: for the Son is the head 
and beginning of all things ; but ' the head of Christ 
is God^ (1 Cor. xi. 3). Thus we devoutly trace up* 
all things by the Son to one source of all things who 
is without beginning. Moreover to give an accurate 
conception of Christian doctrine, we again say, that 
if any one shall not declare Christ Jesus to have been 
the Son of God before all ages, and to have ministered 
to the Father in the creation of all thmgs ; but shall 
affirm that from the time only when he was born of 
Mary, was he called the Son and Christ, and that he 
then received the commencement of his divinity,^ let 
him be anathema, as the Samosatan." 


" Since there appears to have been some misunder- 
standing respecting the faith, all points have been 
carefully investigated and discussed at Sirmium, in 
presence of Valens, Ursacius, Germinius, and others. It 

* 'Avdyo/jiu\ t Tow Bcoc elvac. 


is evident that there is one Grod, the Father Almighty, 
according as it is declared over the whole world ; and 
his only-begotten Son Jesus Christ, our Lord, God, 
and Saviour, begotten of him before the ages. But 
we ought not to say that there are two Gods, since 
the Lord himself has said (John xx. 17), ^ I go unto 
my Father and your Father^ and unto my God and 
your God J Therefore he is God even of all, as the 
apostle also taught (Rom. iii. 29, 30), ^ Is he the God 
of the Jews only ? Is he not also of the Gentiles ? Yea 
of the Gentiles also ; seeing that it is one God who shall 
justify tfie circumcision by faith.^ And in all other 
matters there is agreement, nor is there any am- 
biguity. But since very many have been troubled 
about that which is termed substantia in Latin, and 
oicria in Greek ; that is to say, in order to mark the 
sense more accurately, the word ofioovaiov* or o/jlolov' 
aiov^^ it is altogether desirable that none of these 
terms should be mentioned : nor should they be 
preached on in the church, for this reason, that 
nothing is recorded concerning them in the holy 
Scriptures; and because these things are above the 
knowledge of mankind and human capacity, and that 
no one can explain the Son's generation,! of which it 
is written (Isa. liii. 8), 'And who shall declare his 
generation V It is manifest that the Father only 
knows in what way he begat the Son ; and again the 
Son, how he was begotten by the Father. But no 
one can doubt that the Father is greater in honour, 
dignity, and divinity, and in the very name of Father ; 
the Son himself testifying (John xiv. 28), 'My Father 

* Of the same substance or essence. 

t Of the like substance or essence. % Ytvtav. 


is greater than /.' And no one is ignorant of this 
catholic doctrine, that there are two persons of the 
Father and Son, and tliat the Father is the greater : 
but that the Son is subject, together with all things 
which the Father has subjected to him. That the 
Father had no beginning, and is invisible, immortal, 
and impassible:* but that the Son was begotten of 
the Father, God of God, Light of Light; and that 
no one comprehends his generation, as was before 
said, but the Father alone. That the Son himself, 
our Lord and God, took flesh or a body, that is to 
say humant nature, according as the angel brought 
glad tidings of: and as the whole Scriptures teach, 
and especially the apostle who was the great teacher 
of the Gentiles, Christ assumed the human nature 
through which he suffered, from the Virgin Mary. 
But the summary and confirmation of the entire 
faith is, that the doctrine of the Trinity should be 
always maintained, according as we read in the 
gospel (Mat. xxviii. 19), ^ Go ye and (Jm^iple all 
nationSj baptizing them in the name of the Father^ and 
of the Son^ and of the Holy Spint.'^ Thus the num- 
ber of the Trinity is complete and perfect. Now the 
Holy Spirit, the Comforter sent by the Son, came 
according to his promise, in order to sanctify and 
instruct the apostles and all believers." 

They endeavoured to induce Photinus, even after 
his deposition, to assent to and subscribe these things, 
promising to restore him his bishopric, if by recanta- 
tion he would anathematize the dogma he had in- 
vented, and adopt their opinion. But instead of 

CHAP. XXX.] niOTINUS. — A.D. 351. 181 

accepting their proposal, he challenged them to a 
disputation: and a day being apix)inted by the em- 
peror's arrangement, the bishops who were there pre- 
sent assembled, and not a few of the senators, whom 
the emperor had directed to attend the discussion. 
In their presence, Basil, who at that thne presided 
over the church at Ancyra, opposed Photinus, nota- 
ries* writing down their respective sj)eeches. The 
conflict of arguments on both sides was exti*emely 
severe; but Photinus having been worsted, was con- 
demned, and spent the rest of his life in exile, during 
which time he composed a treatise in both languages ^ 
(for he was not unskilled in Latin) against all here- 
sies, and in favour of his o^vn views. But the bishops 
who were convened at Sirmium, were after^vards dis- 
satisfied mth that form of the creed which had been 
promulgated by them in Latin : for after its publica- 
tion, it appeared to them to contain many contradic- 
tions. They therefore endeavoured to get it back 
again from the transcribers; but inasmuch as many 
secreted it, the emi)eror by his edicts commanded 
that all the copies of it should be sought for, threat- 
ening punishment to any one who should be detected 
concealing them. These menaces however were inca- 
pable of suppressing what had already fallen into the 
hands of many. 



Since we have observed that Hosius the Spaniard 
was present at the council of Sinnium against his 

* 'Oiivypd^ujy. t Greek and I^tin. 


will, it is necessary to give some farther account of 
him. This prelate had but a short time before been 
sent into exile by the intrigues of the Arians : but at 
the earnest solicitation of those convened at Sirmium, 
the emperor summoned him thither, with the design 
either of influencing him by persuasion, or of com- 
pelling him by force, to give his sanction to their 
proceedings ; for if this could be effected, they consi- 
dered it would give great authority to their senti- 
ments. On this occasion therefore he was most 
unwillingly obliged to be present : and when he 
refused to concur with them, stripes and tortures 
were inflicted on the old man, until they had con- 
strained him to acquiesce in and subscribe their expo- 
sition of the faith. Such was the issue of afiairs at 
that time transacted at Sirmium. But the emperor 
Constantius after these things stUl continued to reside 
at that place, awaiting there the result of the opera- 
tions against Magnentius. 



Magnentius in the interim having made himself 
master of the imperial city Rome, put to death many 
of the senatorial order, as well as of the populace. 
But as soon as the commanders under Constantius had 
collected an army of Romans, and commenced their 
march against him, he left Rome, and retired into the 
Gallias. There several battles were fought, some- 
times to the advantage of one party, and sometimes 
to that of the other : but at last Magnentius having 

CHAP. XXXII.] MAGNENTIUS. — A. D. 351. 183 

been defeated near Mursa, a fortress of the Gallias, 
was there closely besieged. In this place the follow- 
ing remarkable incident is said to have occurred. 
Magnentiiis desiring to arouse the courage of his 
soldiers who were disheartened by their late over- 
throw, ascended a lofty tribunal for this purpose. 
They wishing to receive him mth such acclamations 
as emperors are usually greeted with, contrary to 
their intention simultaneously shouted the name, not 
of Magnentius, but of Constantius Augustus. Regard- 
ing this as an omen * wholly unfavourable to himself, 
Magnentius immediately withdrew from the fortress, 
and retreated to the remotest parts of Graul, whither 
he was closely pursued by the generals of Constan- 
tius. An engagement having again taken place near 
Mount Seleucus,+ Magnentius was totally routed, and 
fled alone to Lyons a city of Gaul, which is distant 
three days journey from the fortress at Myrsa. Mag- 
nentius having reached this city, first slew his own 
mother ; then having killed his brother also, whom he 
had created Cajsar, he at last committed suicide by 
falling on his own sword. This happened in the 
sixth consulate of Constantius, and the second of Con- 
stantius Gallus, on the fifteenth t day of August. 
Not long after, another brother of Magnentius named 
Decentius, put an end to his OAvn life by hanging § 
himself. Such was the issue of the ambitious enter- 
prises of Magnentius, whose death however did not 
restore the affairs of the empire to perfect tranquillity ; 
for soon after this another tyrant arose whose name 

t MiKroeriXEvKoci in the Allat. MS. MovrotriXevKOQ. 

X The date is different in Idatius. § 'Ayxovy ^tiaaiiivoQ. 


was Silvanus : but the generals of Constantius speedily 
destroyed him, whilst raising disturbances in Gaul. 



About the same time there arose another intestine 
commotion in the East : for the Jews who inhabited 
Dio Csesarea in Palestine having taken arms against 
the Romans, began to ravage the adjacent places. 
But Gallus who was also called Constantius, whom 
the emperor, after creating Ca>sar, had sent into the 
East, despatched an army against them, whereby they 
were completely vanquished: after which their city 
Dio Cajsarea was by his order totally destroyed. 



Gallus having accomplished these things, was 
unable to bear his success with modenition; but 
forthwith attempted innovations on the authority of 
him who had constituted him Caesar, himself aspiring 
to the sovereign power. His purpose was however 
soon detected by Constantius: for he had dared to 
put to death on his own responsibility* Domitian at 
that time Praetorian pnefect of the East, and Magnus 
the quaestor, because they had disclosed his designs 
to the emperor. Constantius extremely incensed at 
this conduct, summoned Gallus to his presence, who 

* Aif0cKr»/<r«c. 


being in great terror went very reluctantly; and 
when he arrived in the western parts, and had 
reached the island of Flanona, Con stan tins ordered 
him to be slain. But not long after he created 
Julian, the brother of Gallus, Ciesar, and sent him 
against the barbarians in Gaul. It was in the seventh 
consulate of the emperor Constantius that Gallus was 
slain, when he himself was a third time consul : and 
Julian, of whom we shall make farther mention in 
the next book, was created Caesar on the 6th of 
November in the following year, when Arbetion and 
Lollian were consuls. When Constantius was thus 
relieved from the disquietudes which had occupied 
him, his attention was again directed to ecclesiastical 
contentions. Going therefore from Simiium to the 
imperial city Rome, he again appointed a Synod of 
bishops, summoning some of the Eastern prelates to 
hasten into Italy,* and commanding those of the West 
to meet them there. Wliile preparations were making 
for this purpose, Julius bishop of Rome died, after 
having presided over the church in that place fifteen 
years, and was succeeded in the episcopal dignity by 



At Antioch in Syria another heresiarch sprang 
up, Aetius surnamed Athens. He agreed in doctrine 
^vith Arius, and maintained the same opinions: but 

* The text lias TaWlay, but in the codex of Leon Allatius it is 
rightly ^IraXiav, 


separated himself from the Arian party, because they 
had admitted Alius into communion. For Anus, as 
we have before related, entertaining one opinion in 
his heart, professed another mth his lips; having 
both hypocritically assented to and subscribed the 
fonn of faith set forth at the council of Nice, in order 
to deceive the reigning emperor. On this account 
therefore Aetius separated himself from the Arians, 
although he had previously been a heretic, and a 
zealous advocate of Arian views. After receiving 
some very scanty instruction at Alexandria, on his 
return from thence, and arrival at Antioch in Syria, 
which was his native place, he was ordained deacon 
by Leontius, who was then bishop of that city. 
Upon this he began to astonish his auditors by the 
singularity of his discourses, which were constructed 
in dependence on the precepts of Aristotle's Cate- 
gories, a book the scope of which he neither himself 
perceived, nor had been enlightened on by intercourse 
with learned persons: so that he was little aware 
that he was framing fallacious arguments to j>erplex 
and deceive himself. For Aristotle had composed 
this work to exercise the ingenuity of his young 
disciples, and to confound by subtile arguments the 
sophists who affected to deride philosophy. Where- 
fore the Ephectic academicians* who expound the 
writings of Plato and Photius, censure the vain sub- 
tilty which Aristotle has displayed in that book: 
but Aetius who never had the advantage of an aca- 
demical preceptor, adhered to the sophisms of the 
Categories. For this reason he was unable to com- 
prehend how there could be generation without a 

* Not the Dogmatici, but the ScepticSy who doubted everything. 


beginning, and how that which was begotten can be 
co-etemal* with him who begat. In fact Aetius was 
a man of very superficial attainments, very little ac- 
quainted with the sacred Scriptures, and extremely 
fond of cavilling, a thing which any clown might do. 
Nor had he ever carefiilly studied those ancient 
writers who have interpreted the Christian oracles; 
wholly rejecting Clemens, Africanus, and Origen, 
men eminent for their infonnation in every depart- 
ment of literature and science. But he comjwsed 
epistles both to the emperor Constantius, and to some 
other persons, wherein he intenvove tedious disputes 
for the purpose of displaying his sophisms. He has 
therefore been sumamed Atheus.t But although his 
doctrinal statements were similar to those of the 
Arians, yet from the abstruse nature of his syllogisms, 
which they were unable to comprehend, they pro- 
nounced him a heretic. Being for that reason expelled 
from their church, he pretended to have separated 
himself from their communion. Even in the present 
day there are to be found some who from him were 
formerly named Aetians, but now Eunomians. For 
Eunomius, who had been his secretary,! having been 
instructed by his master in this heretical mode of 
reasoning, afterwards became the head of that sect. 
But of Eunomius we shall speak more fully in the 
proper place. 

* ^vvdicioy. t "AOcoc, the atheist. J To^wypa^oc. 




When the bishops met in Italy, very few from the 
East were present, most of them being hindered from 
coming either by the infirmities of age or by the 
distance ; but of the West there were more than three 
hundred. Being assembled at Milan, according to the 
emperor's order, the Eastern prelates opened the Synod 
by calling upon those convened to pass an unanimous 
sentence of condemnation against Athanasius; vnih 
this object in view, that he might thenceforward be 
utterly shut out from Alexandria. But Paulinus 
bishop of Trevest in Graul, Dionysius of Alba, the 
metropolis of Italy, and Eusebius of Verceil, a city 
of Liguriat in Italy, perceiving that the Eastern 
bishops, by demanding a ratification of the sentence 
against Athanasius, were intent on subverting the 
faith, arose and loudly exclaimed that this proposition 
indicated a covert plot against the principles of Chris- 
tian truth. For they insisted that the charges against 
Athanasius were unfounded, and merely invented 
by his accusers as a means of corrupting the faith. 
Having made this protest mth much vehemence of 
manner, the congress of bishops was then dissolved. 

* Me^ioXdyf, t Tpi/3^p£«c> Trevirorum. J BptKeXXuty. 

CHAP, xxxvrr.] synod at rimini. — a.d. 359. 189 




The emperor on being apprised of what had taken 
place, sent these three bishops into exile ; and deter- 
mined to convene a general council, that by drawing 
all the Eastern bishops into the West, he might if 
possible bring tliem all to unity of judgment. But 
when, on consideration, the length of the journey 
seemed to present serious obstacles, he directed that 
the Synod should consist of two divisions ; permitting 
those present at Milan to meet at Rimini in Italy: 
but the Eastern bishops were instructed by his letters 
to assemble at Nicomedia in Bithynia. The em- 
peror's object in these arrangements was to effect a 
general coincidence of opinion; but the issue was 
contrary to his expectation. For neither of the 
Synods was in harmony with itself, but each was 
divided into opposing factions : those convened at 
Rimini could not agree with one another; and the 
Eastern bishops assembled at Seleucia in Isauria 
made another schism. The details of what took 
place in both >\dll be given in the course of our his- 
tory, but we shall first make a few observations on 
Eudoxius. About that time Leontius died, who had 
ordained the heretic Aetius deacon: and Eudoxius 
bishop of Germanicia in Syria, who was then at Rome, 
thinking no time was to be lost, speciously repre- 
sented to the emperor that the city over which he 
presided was in need of his counsel and care, and 


requested permission to return there immediately. 
This the emperor readily acceded to, having no sus- 
picion of a clandestine purpose : and he having 
obtained some of the principal officers of the em- 
peror's bed chamber to assist him, deserted his oAvn 
diocese, and fraudulently installed liimself in tlie 
see of Antioch. His first act there was an attempt 
to restore Aetius to his office of deacon, of which 
he had been divested ; and he accordingly convened a 
council of bishops for that purpose. But his wishes 
in this respect were baffled, for the odium with which 
Aetius was regarded, was more prevalent than the 
exertions of Eudoxius in his favour. When the 
bishops were assembled at Rimini, those from the 
East declared that they were willing to forego all 
reference to the case of Athanasius: a resolution 
that was zealously supported by Ursacius and Valens, 
who had formerly maintained the tenets of Arius; 
but their disposition being always to identify them- 
" selves with the strongest side, they had afterwards pre- 
sented a recantation of their opinion to the bishop 
of Rome, and publicly avowed their assent to the 
doctrine of consubstantiality . Germinius, Auxentius, 
Demophilus and Gains made the same declaration 
in reference to Athanasius. When therefore some 
endeavoured to propose one thing in the convocation 
of bishops, and some another, Ursacius and Valens 
said that all former draughts of the creed ought to be 
considered as set aside, and the last alone, wliich had 
been prepared at their late convention at Sinnium, 
regarded as authorized. They then caused to be 
read a schedule which they held in their hands, 
containing another form of the creed : this had indeed 


been drawn up at Sirmiura, but had been kept con- 
cealed, as we have before observed, until their present 
publication of it at Rimini. Its contents, translated 
fix)m the Latin into Greek, were these. 

" The catholic faith was expounded at Sirraiuni in 
presence of our lord Constantius, in the consulate of 
the most illustrious Flavins Eusebius, and Hypatius, 
on the twenty -third May. 

" We believe in one only and true God, the Father 
Almighty, the Creator and Framer of all things : and 
in one only-begotten Son of God, begotten without 
passion, before all ages, before all beginning, before 
all conceivable time, and before all comprehensible 
thought : by whom the ages were framed,* and all 
things made : who was begotten the only-begotten of 
the Father, only of only, God of God, like to the 
Father who begat him, according to the Scriptures : 
whose generation no one knows, but the Father only 
who begat him. We know that this his only-begotten 
Son came doAvn from the heavens by his Father's ap- 
pointment for the putting away of sin, was born of 
the Virgin Mary, conversed with his disciples, and 
fulfilled every dispensation according to the Father's 
will : was crucified and died, and descended into the 
lower parts t of the earth, and disposed! matters 
there ; at the sight of whom the door-keepers of 
Hades § trembled : having arisen on the third day, he 
again conversed with his disciples, and after forty 
days were completed he ascended into the heavens, 

* KarrjpTitrdrieray. 

t Karax^oKia. The word KaraxBoylwy seems to be used in Phil, 
ii. 10, to denote departed souls, 

t OiKoyofjiiitrat'Ta. § "A^ow. 


and is seated at the Father's right hand ; and at the 
last day he will come in his Father's glory, to render 
to every one according to his works. We believe 
also in the Holy Spirit, whom the only -begotten Son 
of God Jesus Christ himself promised to send to the 
human race as the Comforter, according to that which 
is written : ^ I go away to my Father^ and tcill ask him^ 
and he ivill send you another Comforter^ the Spirit of 
truth. He shall receive of mine^ and shall teach you^ 
and bring all thiiigs to your remembrance.^ As for the 
term substance* which was used by our fathers for the 
sake of greater simplicity, but not being understood 
by the j^ople has caused ojffence on account of its 
not being contained in the Scriptures ; it seemed 
desii'able that it should be wholly abolished, and that 
in future no mention should be made of substance in 
reference to God, since the divine Scriptures have 
nowhere spoken concerning the substance of the 
Father and the Son. But we say that the Son is in 
all tilings like^ the Father, as the Holy Scriptures 
affirm and teach." 

These statements Kaving been read, those who were 
dissatisfied with them rose and said : " We came not 
hither because we were in want of a creed; for we 
preserve inviolate that which we received from the 
beginning : but we are here met to repress any inno- 
vation upon it which may liave been made. If there- 
fore what has been recited introduces no novelties, 
now openly anathematize the Arian heresy, in the 
same manner as the ancient canon of the church has 

* Ovor/a. t "OflOlOV. 


rejected all heresies as blasphemous : for it is evident 
to the whole world that the impious dogma of Arius 
has excited the disturbances of the church, and the 
troubles which exist until now." This proposition not 
being acceded to by Ursacius, Valens, Genninius, 
Auxentius, Demophilus, and Gams, the church was 
rent asunder by a complete division : for these pre- 
lates adliered to what had then been recited in the 
Synod of Rimini; while the others again confirmed 
the Nicene Creed. The inscription at the head of 
the creed that had been read was greatly derided, 
and especially by Athanasius in a letter which he 
sent to his friends, wherein he thus expresses himself. 
" What point of doctrine was wanting to the piety 
of the catholic church, that they should now make 
an investigation respecting the faith, and prefix more- 
over the consulate of the present times to their 
published exposition of it? For Ursacius, Valens, 
and Genninius have done what was neither done, nor 
even heard of at any time before among Christians : 
having composed a creed such as they themselves are 
Avilling to believe, they preface it "\Wth the consulate, 
month, and day of the present time, in order to prove 
to all discerning persons that theirs is not the ancient 
faith, but such as was originated under the reign of 
the present emperor Constantius. Moreover they 
have wi'itten all things "wdth a view to their ovm 
heresy : and besides this, ajBTecting to write respecting 
the Lord, they name another Lord as theirs, even 
Constantius, who has countenanced their impiety, so 
that those who deny the Son to Ix* eternal, have styled 
him eternal emperor. Thus are they proved to be 
the enemies of (Jhrist by their profanity. But per- 



haps the holy prophets' record * of time afforded them 
a precedent for noticing the consulate ! Now should 
they presume to make this pretext, they would most 
glaringly expose their own ignorance. The prophecies 
of these holy men do indeed mark the times. Isaiah 
and Hosea lived in the days of Uzziah, Joatham, 
Ahaz, and Hezekiah (Isai. i. 2; Hos. i. 1); Jeremiah 
in the time of Josiah (Jer. i. 2); Ezekiel and Daniel 
in the reign of Cyrus and Darius ; and others uttered 
their predictions in other times: but they did not 
then lay the foundations of religion. That was in 
existence before them, and always was, even before 
the creation of the world, God having prepared it for 
us in Christ. Nor did they designate the commence- 
ment of their own faith; for they were themselves 
men of faith previously : but they signify the times 
of the promises given through them. Now the pro- 
mises primarily referred to our Saviour's advent ; and 
all that was foretold respecting the course of future 
events in relation to Israel and the Gentiles was 
merely collateral and subordmate. Hence the periods 
mentioned, indicated not the beginning of their faith, 
as I before observed, but the times in which these 
prophets lived and foretold such things. But these 
sages of our day, who neither compile histories, nor 
predict future events, after writing Tlie Catholic 
Faith was published^ immediately add the Consulate, 
with the montli and the day: and as the holy pro- 
phets wrote the date of their records and of their own 
ministration, so these men intimate the era of their 
own faith. And would that they had ^vi'itten con- 
cerning tlieir own faith only, since they have now 

* Xpoyoypa^ia. 


begiin to believe, and had not undertaken to write 
respecting the Catholic faith. For tliey have not 
written Thus ice believe; but The Catholic Faith teas 
published. The temerity of puq)ose herein manifested 
argues their impiety;* while the novelty of expression 
found in the document tliey have concocted assimi- 
lates it with the Arian heresy. By Avriting in this 
manner, they have declared when they themselves 
began to believe, and from what time they wish it to 
be understood their faith wtis first preached. And 
just as when the evangelist Luke says, ' A decree of 
enrolment f was published^^ he speaks of an edict which 
was not in existence before, but came into operation 
at that time, and was published by him who had 
written it ; so these men by ^vriting The faith has now 
been published^ have declared that tlie tenets of their 
heresy are of modem invention, and did not exist in 
former times. But since they apply the term Catholic 
to it, they seem to have unconsciously fallen into the 
extravagant assumption of the Cataphrygians,t assert- 
ing even as they did, that the Christian faith was first 
revealed to us^ and commenced tcith ns. And as those 
termed Maximilla and Montanus, so these style Con- 
stantius their Lord, instead of Christ. But if accord- 
ing to them, the faith had its beginning from the 
present consulate, what will the fathers, and the 
blessed martyrs do? Moixiover what will they them- 
selves do with those who were instructed^ in religious 
principles by them, and died before this consulate? 
By what means will they recall them to life, in order 
to obliterate from their minds what they seemed to 

* \\Ouay. t 'Airoypa^i/v loyfia, edictum de censu. 


have taught them, and to implant in its stead those 
new discoveries of theirs? So stupid are they as to 
be only capable of framing pretences, and these such 
as are presumptuous and unreasonable, and carry 
with them their own refutation." 

Athanasius wrote thus to his friends: and the 
learned who may read through his whole epistle will 
perceive how jx)werfully he treats the subject; but for 
brevity's sake we have here inserted a part only. Va- 
lens, Ursacius, Auxentius, Germinius, Gaius, and De- 
mophilus, were deposed by the Synod, for refusing to 
anathematize the Arian doctrine; who benig very 
indignant at their deposition, hastened directly to the 
emperor, carrying with them the exposition of faith 
whicli had been read in the Synod. The council also 
acquainted the emperor with their determinations in 
a communication which translated from the Latin 
into Greek, was to the follo>ving eflfect. 



"We believe that it was by the appointment of 
God, as well as at the command of your piety, that 
we Western bishops came out of various districts to 
Rimini, in order that the faith of the catholic churcli 
might be made manifest to all, and that heretics 
might be detected. For on a considerate review by 
us of all points, our decision has been to adhere to 
the ancient faith which we have received from the 
prophets, the gospels, the ajwstles, from God himself, 

* We have here followed Valesius, who gives from Hilary the 
original Latin copy, from which the Greek version differs considerably. 


and oiir Lord <Tesus Christ, the guardian of your em- 
}>ire, and the protector of your i)erson, which faith 
also we have alwavs maintained. We conceived that 
it would be unwarrantable and im})ious to mutilate 
any of those things which have been justly and 
solemnly ratified, by those who sat in the Nicene 
council with Constantine of glorious memory, the 
father of your piety. A^Hiat was then determined 
has been nuide public, and infused into the minds of 
the people; and it is found to be so powerfully 
opposed to the Arian heresy which then sprang up, 
as not to subdue it only, but also all others. Should 
therefore any thing ho taken away from what was at 
that time established, a passage would be opened to 
the poisonous doctrine of heretics. 

" These matters having been strictly investigated 
and the creed drawn up in the presence of Constan- 
tine, who after being baptized, departed to God's rest 
in the faith of it; we regard as an abomination any 
infringement thereon, or any attempt to invalidate 
the authority of so many saints, confessors, and suc- 
cessors of the martyrs, who assisted at that council, 
and themselves preserved in\dolate all the determina- 
tions of the ancient writers of the catholic church : 
whose faith has remained unto these times in which 
your i)iety has received from God the Father, through 
Jesus Christ our God and Lord, the power of ruling 
the world. 

" Ursacius and Valens being heretofore suspected 
of entertaining Arian sentiments, were suspended 
from connnunion : but on making an ai)ology, as their 
written recantation attests, they obtnined ])ardon from 
the council of Mihui, at wljjch the legates of the 


Church of Rome were present. Yet have these in- 
fatuated beings, endued vnth an unhappy disposition, 
again had the temerity to declare themselves the 
propagators of false doctrine; and even now they 
endeavour to shake what has been in great wisdom 
established. For when the letters of your piety had 
ordered us to assemble for the examination of the 
faith, these troublers of the churches, supported by 
Germinius, Auxentius, and Gains, presented for con- 
sideration a new creed, containing much unsound 
doctrine. But when the exposition they thus pub- 
licly brought forw^ard in the council met with general 
disapprobation, they thought it should be otherwise 
expressed : and indeed it is notorious that they have 
often changed their sentiments within a short time. 
Lest therefore the churches should be more frequently 
disturbed, it was decreed that the ancient sanctions 
should be ratified and maintained inviolable; and 
moreover that the aforesaid persons should be excom- 
municated. We have accordingly directed our legates 
to inform your clemency of these things, and to pre- 
sent our letter in Avhich the decisions of the council 
are announced. To them also this special charge has 
been given, that they should not otherwise execute 
their commission, than that the ancient ordinances 
should continue firmly established : and also to assure 
your wisdom that peace could not be secured by some 
slight alteration, such as Valens, Ursacius, Germinius, 
and Gains subsequently proposed. For how can peace 
be preserved by those who are ever seeking to subvert 
it, who have filled all regions, and especially the 
church of Kome ^yiih confusion? Wherefore we 
beseech your clemency to propitiously regard, and 


favounibly listen to our dei)uties : and not to permit 
anything to be reversed to the prejudice of the ancient 
faith, but to cause that those truths may remain 
unimpaired which we have received from our ances- 
toi*s, whom we know to have been prudent men, and 
who did not act otherwise than in subjection to the 
Holy Spirit of God. Because not only are the believ- 
ing })eople distracted by these novel doctrines, but 
infidels also are turned iiside frOm embracing the 
faith. We farther entreat you to order that the 
bishops who are detained at Rimini, among whom 
are many that are Avasted by age and poverty, may 
return to their several provinces; lest the members 
of their churches should suffer from the absence of 
tlieir l>ishops. But we pray still more earnestly that 
no innovation may be made on the faith, and nothing 
abstracted; but that those principles may continue 
unvitiated which were recognized in the times of the 
father of your sacred piety, and have been transmitted 
to your own religious age. Let not your holy pru- 
dence suffer us in future to be exhausted by fatigue, 
and torn from our sees: but permit the bishops to 
dwell with their people free from contentions, that 
they may uninterruptedly offer up supplications for 
the safety of your person, for the prosperity of your 
reign, and for peace, which may the Deity grant, 
according to your merits, to be profound and per- 
petual. Our legates will present your sacred and 
religious prudence another document, containing the 
names and signatures of all the bishops or their 

The Synod having thus written, sent their com- 


munications to the emperor by the bishops selected 
for that purpose. But Ursacius and Valens having 
arrived before them, did their utmost to calumniate 
the council, exhibiting the exposition of the faith 
which they had brought with them : and as the mind 
of this prince had long been infected with Arian 
sentiments, he became extremely exasperated against 
the Synod, but conferred great honour on Valens and 
Ursacius. Those deputed by the council were con- 
sequently detained a considerable time, without being 
able to obtain an answer : at length however the em- 
jKjror replied through those who had come to him, in 
the manner following : — 

" Constantius Victor and Triumphator Augustus 
to all the bishops convened at Rimini. 

" That our especial care is ever exercised respecting 
the divine and venerated law even your sanctity * is 
not ignorant. Nevertheless we have hitherto been 
unable to give an audience to the twenty bisliops who 
undertook the part of a deputation from you, inas- 
much iis preparations for an expedition against the 
l)arbarians have wholly engrossed our attention. 
And since, as you will admit, matters relative to the 
divine law ought to be entered on with a mind free 
from all anxiety, I have therefore ordered these pre- 
lates to await our return to Adrianople ; that when 
public business shall have been duly attended to, we 
may then give our consideration to what they shall 
propose. In the interim let it not seem troublesome 
to your gravity ^ to wait for their return ; since when 
they shall convey to you our resolution, you will be 
prepared to vnrry into effect such measures as may 

* XpiyoToriyc. t ^Tif>fi6rriri, 


be most advantageous to the welfare of the catholic 

The bishops on the receipt of this letter wrote thus 
in reply: — 

"We have received your clemency's letter, sovereign 
lord most beloved of God, in which you inform us 
that the exigences of state affairs have hitherto pre- 
vented your admitting our legates to your presence : 
and you bid us await their return, until your piety 
shall have learnt from them what has been detennined 
on by us in conformity with the tradition of our 
ancestors. But we again protest by this letter that 
we can by no means depart from our primary reso- 
lution; and this also we have commissioned our 
deputies to state. We beseech you therefore, both 
with unruffled countenance to order this present 
epistle of our modesty * to be read ; and also to listen 
benignantly to the representations with which our 
legates have been charged. Your mildness t doubtless 
perceives, as well as we, to how great an extent grief 
and sadness prevail, because of so many churches 
being bereft of their bishops in these most blessed 
times of yours. Again therefore we entreat your 
clemency,* sovereign lord most dear to God, to com- 
mand us to return to our churches, if it please your 
piety, before the rigour of winter; in order that we 
may be enabled, in conjunction with the people, to 
offer up our solemn prayers to Almighty God, and 
to our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, his only Ix;- 
gottxin Son, for the prosperity of your reign, as we 
have alwavs done, and now desire to do." 

* MiTpiOTffTos* t. *l\fJtepvTq£. I ^iXapdpwniat'. 


The bishops liaving waited together some time after 
this letter had been despatched, without the empe- 
ror's deigning to reply, departed to their respective 
cities. Now it had long before been the emperor's 
intention to disseminate Arian doctrine throughout 
the churches ; which he then being anxious to accom- 
plish so as to give it pre-eminence, pret^jiided their 
departure was an act of contumely, declaring they 
had treated him with contempt by dissohang the 
council in op}K)sition to his wishes. He therefore 
gave the partisans of Ursacius unbounded licence of 
acting as they pleased in regard to the churches : and 
directed that the form of creed which had been read 
at Rimini, should be sent to the churches throughout 
Italy ; ordering that whoever would not subscribe it 
should be ejected from their sees, and othei's substi- 
tuted in their place. Liberius bishop of Rome, having 
refused his assent to that creed, Avas the first who 
was sent into exile; the adherents of Ursacius ap- 
pointing Felix to succeed him, who had been a deacon 
in that church, but on eml)racing the Arian heresy 
was elevated to the episcopate. Some however assert 
that he was not favourable to that opinion, but was 
constrained by force to receive the ordination of 
bishop. After this all parts of the West were filled 
witli agitation and tumult, some being ejected and 
banished, and others established in their stead ; these 
things being effected by violence, on the authority of 
the imperial edicts, which Avere also sent into the 
eastern parts. Not long after indeed Liberius was 
recalled, and reinstated in his sec ; for the people of 
Rome having raised a sedition, and expelled Felix 
from their church, Constantius deemed it inexpedient 


to further })rovoke the popular fury. The Ursacian 
faction quitting Italy ^ passed through the eastern 
parts; and arriving at Nice a city of Thrace, they 
there held another Synod, where after translating the 
form of faith Avhich was read at Rimini into Greek, 
they confirmed and published it afresh, as the one 
that had been dictated at the general council. In 
this way they attempted to deceive the more simple 
by the similarity of names, and to impose upon them 
as the creed promulgated at Nice* in Bithynia, that 
which they had prepared at Nice ^ in Thrace. But 
this artifice was of little advantage to them ; for being 
soon detected, it exposed them to the contempt and 
derision of all men. With this we close our account 
of the transactions which took place in the West : we 
shall now proceed to state what was done in the 


(;ki:elty of macedonius, and tumults kaised by him. 

The bishops of the Arian party assumed greater 
assurance from the imperial edicts. For what reason 
they undertook to convene a Synod, we will explain, 
after having briefly mentioned a few of their acts 
previously. Acacius and Patrophilus having ejected 
Maximus bishop of Jerusalem, installed Cyril in his 
see. Macedonius subverted the order of things in 
the cities and provinces adjacent to Constantinople, 
l)romoting to ecclesia,stical honours the assistants of 
his machinations against the churches. He ordained 

* NcATa/^. t N/1C17. 


Eleusius bishop of Cyzicum, and Marathonius bishop 
of Nicomedia: the latter had before been a deacon 
under Macedonius himself, and had been very active 
in founding monasteries both of men and women. 
But we shall now mention in what Avay Macedonius, 
after having again possessed himself of the prelacy 
by the means before stated, desolated the churches 
around Constantinople, and inflicted innumerable 
calamities on such as were unwilling to adopt his 
views. His persecutions were not confined to those 
Avho were recognized as members of the catholic 
church, but extended to the Novatians also, inasmuch 
as they maintained the doctrine of caiisubstantiality ;* 
they therefore Avith the others underwent the most 
intolerable suff^erings, but Angelius their bishop 
effected his escape by flight. Many persons eminent 
for their piety were seized and tortured, because they 
refused to communicate Avith him: and after being 
subjected to the torture, they were forcibly con- 
strained to be partakers of the holy mysteries, t their 
mouths being forced open Avith a piece of wood, and 
then the consecrated elements thrust into them. 
Those who were so treated regarded this as a punish- 
ment far more grievous than all others. Moreover 
they laid hold of women and children, and compelled 
them to be initiated t by baptism: and if any one 
resisted or otherwise spoke against it, stripes imme- 
diately followed, with bonds, imprisonment, and other 
violent measures. I shall here relate an instance or 
two whereby the reader may form some idea of the 
extent of the barbarity exercised by Macedonius and 
those who were then in power. They fii'st pressed in 

* To ofjioovmoy. t Mi/oTijpia. J MveitrBui, 


a box* iind then sawed off, the breasts of such women 
as were unwilling to communicate with them. The 
same parts of the persons of other women they burnt 
partly with iron, and partly with eggs intensely 
heated in the fire: a mode of torture which was 
never practised even among the heathen, but was 
invented by those who professed to be Christians. 
These facts were related to me by the aged Auxano, 
the presbyter in the Novatian church of whom I 
spoke in the first lx)ok. He said also that he had 
himself endured great severities from the Arians, 
prior to his receiving the dignity of presbyter ; 
having been thrown into prison and beaten Avith 
many stripes, together with Alexander Paphlagon, 
his companion in the monastic life. He added that 
he was himself enabled to sustain these tortures, but 
that Alexander died in prison from the effects of their 
infliction. His tomb is still visible on the ri^ht of 
those sailing into the bay^ of Constantinople which is 
called Ceras, close by the rivers, where there is a 
church of the Novatians bearing Alexander's name. 
Moreover the Arians, at the instigation of Macedo- 
nius, demolished with many other churches in various 
cities, that of the Novatians at Constantinople near 
Pelargus. Why I particularly mention this church, 
will be seen from the extraordinary circumstances 
connected ^vith it, as testified by the same venerable 
informant. The emperor's edict and the violence of 
Macedonius had doomed to destruction the churches 
of those who maintained the doctrine of consubstan- 
tiality; and not only was the ruin of this church 
threatened, but those also who were charged with the 


execution of the mandate were at hand to carry it 
into effect. The zeal displayed by the Novatians on 
this occasion, as well as the sympathy they expe- 
rienced from those whom the Arians at that time 
ejected, but Avho are now in peaceful possession of 
their churches, cannot be too highly admired. For 
Avhen the emissaries of their enemies were urgent to 
accomplish its destruction, an immense multitude of 
Novatians, aided by numbers of others who held 
similar sentiments, having assembled around this 
devoted church, pulled it down, and conveyed the 
materials of it to Sycae, Avhich stands opposite the 
city, and fonns its thirteenth ward.* This removal 
was effected in a very short time, from the extra- 
ordinary ardour of the numerous persons engaged in 
it: one carried tiles, another stones, a third timber; 
some loading themselves with one thing, and some 
another. Even women and children assisted in the 
work, regarding it as the realization of their ]yest 
wishes, and esteeming it the greatest honour to be 
accounted the faithful guardians of things consecrated 
to God. In this way was the church of the Novatians 
transported to SycaB : Avhen however Constantius was 
dead, the emperor Julian ordered its former site to 
be restored, and permitted them to rebuild it there. 
The people therefore, as before, having carried back 
the materials, reared the church in its former position ; 
and from this circumstance, and its great improve- 
ment in structure and ornament, they not inappro- 
priately called it AfiastcisiaJ This was done, as we 
before said, in the reign of Julian. But at that time 
both the catholics^ and the Novatians were alike 

* KXifia, t i. e. Resurrection, J Olre r»/c cVuXiy^r/ac. 


subjected to persecution : for the former abominated 
oflfering their devotions in those churches in which 
the Arians assembled, choosing rather to frequent the 
other three churches at Constantinople which belonged 
to the Novatians, and to engage in divine service with 
them. Indeed they would have been wholly united, 
had not the Novatians opposed this from regard to their 
ancient precepts. In other respects however, they 
mutually maintained such a degree of cordiality and 
affection, as to be ready to lay down their lives for one 
another : both parties were therefore persecuted indis- 
criminately, not only at Constantinople, but also in 
other provinces and cities. At Cyzicmn, Eleusius the 
bishop of that place perpetrated the same kind of 
enomiities against the Christians there, as Macedonius 
liad done elsewhere, harassing and putting them to 
flight in all directions; and among other things he 
completely demolished the church of the Novatians 
at Cyzicum. But Macedonius consummated his 
wickedness in the following manner. Hearing that 
there was a great number of the Novatian sect in the 
province of Paphlagonia, and especially at Mantinium, 
and perceiving that such a numerous body could not 
be driven from their homes by ecclesiastics alone, he 
cadsed, by the emperor's permission, four companies of 
soldiers to be sent into Paphlagonia, that through 
dread of the military they might receive the Arian 
opinion. But those who inhabited Mantinium, ani- 
mated to desperation by zeal for their religion, armed 
themselves with long reap-hooks, hatchets, and what- 
ever weapon came to hand, and went forth to meet 
the troops ; on which a conflict ensuing, many indeed 
of the Paphlagonians were slain, but nearly all the 


soldiers were destroyed. 1 learnt these things from a 
countryman of Paphlagonia, who said that he was 
present at the engagement ; and many others of that 
province corroborate this account. Such were the 
exploits of Macedonius on behalf of Christianity, con- 
sisting of murdei's, battles, incarcerations, and civil 
wars: proceedings which rendered him odious not 
only to the objects of his persecution, but even to his 
own party. He became obnoxious also to the em- 
peror on these accounts, and particularly so from the 
circumstance I am about to relate. The church 
where the coffin lay that contained the relics of the 
emperor Constantine threatening to fall, so as to 
cause great alarm to those who had entered it, as well 
as to those who were accustomed to remain there for 
devotional purposes, Macedonius wished to remove 
the emperor's remains, lest the coffin should be in- 
jured by the ruins. The populace getting intelligence 
of this, endeavoured to prevent it, insisting that the 
emperor's bones should not be disturbed, as such a 
disinterment would be sacrilege : many however 
affirmed that its removal could not possibly injure 
the dead body, and thus two parties were formed on 
this question; such as held the doctrine of consub- 
stantiality joining with those who opposed it on the 
ground of its impiety. Macedonius in total disregard 
of these prejudices, caused the emperor's remains to 
be transported to the church where those of the 
martyr Ac<acius lay. Whereupon a vast multitude 
rushed toward that edifice in two hostile divisions, 
which attacked one another with such fury, that 
great numl>ei\s lost their lives ; and not only was the 
church-yard covered vnth gore, but the well also 


which was iii it ovei-flowed with blood, which rail 
into the adjaceut portico, and thence even into the 
very street. Wlien the emperor was informed of this 
disastrous encounter, he was highly incensed against 
Macedonius, not only on account of the slaughter 
which he had occasioned, but especially because he 
had dared to remove his father's body without con- 
sultino^ him. Ilavinor therefore left the Caesar Julian 
to take care of the Western parts, he himself set out 
for the East. How Macedonius was a short time 
afterwards deposed, and thus suffered a most inade- 
quate punishment for his infamous crimes, I shall 
hereafter relate. 




But I must now give an account of the other Synod, 
wliich the emperor's edict had convoked in the East, 
as a rival to that of Rinrnii. It was at first deter- 
mined that the bishops should assemble at Nico- 
raedia in Bithynia; but a great earthquake having 
nearly destroyed that city, prevented their being con- 
vened there. This happened in the consulate of 
Datian and Cerealis, on the 28th day of August. 
They therefore resolved to transfer the council to 
the neighbouring city of Nice:* but this plan was 
again altered, as it seemed more convenient to meet 
at Tarsus in Cilicia. Being dissatisfied with this ar- 
rangement also, they at last assembled themselves at 

* Niicaiav, 



Seleucia, sumamed Aspera,* a city of Isauria. This 
took place in the same year in which the council of 
Runini was held, under the consulate of Eusebius and 
Hypatius, the number of those convened amounting 
to 160. There was present on this occasion Leonas, 
an officer of distinction attached to the imperial^ 
household, before whom the emperor's edict had 
enjoined that the discussion respecting the faith 
should be entered into. Lauricius also, the com- 
mander-in-chief of the troops in Isauria, was ordered 
to be there, to supply the bishops with such things 
as they might require. In the presence of these 
personages therefore, the bishops were there convened 
on the 27th of the month of September, and imme- 
diately began a discussion respecting the public re- 
cords, t notaries being present to write down what 
each might say. Those who desire to learn the par- 
ticulars of the several speeches, will find copious 
details of them in the collection, of Sabinus ; but we 
shall only notice the more important heads. On the 
first day of their being convened, Leonas ordered each 
one to propose what he thought fit : but those present 
said that no question ought to be agitated in the 
absence of those prelates whose attendance there was 
expected; for Macedonius bishop of Constantinople, 
Basil of Ancyra, and some others Avho Avere appre- 
hensive of an impeachment for their misconduct, had 
not made their appearance. Macedonius pleaded in- 
disposition, as an excuse for non-attendance; Patro- 
philus pretended an ophthalmic afifection, which made 
it needful that he should remain in the suburbs of 
Seleucia; and the rest offered various pretexts to 

* Tpa^^ccaF. f 'Ei' roiin ftaatXiKoiQ Ik<^vwv, J 'Ynofjivrifjidrojy. 


account for their absence. When however Leonas 
declared that the subjects which they had met to 
consider must be entered on, notwithstanding the 
absence of these persons, the bishops replied that they 
could not proceed to the discussion of any question, 
until the life and conduct of the parties accused had 
been investigated : for Cyril of Jerusalem, Eustathius 
of Sebastia in Armenia, and some others, had been 
charged with misconduct on various grounds long 
before. A sharp contest arose in consequence of this 
demur; some affinning that cognizance ought first to 
be taken of all such accusations, and others denying 
that anything whatever should have precedence of 
matters of faith. The emperor's orders contributed 
not a little to augment this dispute, inasmuch as he 
had, in diflferent parts of his letter, inadvertently given 
contrary directions as to the priority of consideration of 
these points. A schism was thus made Avhich divided 
the Seleucian council into two factions, one of which was 
headed by Acacius of Caesarea in Palestine, George of 
Alexandria, Uranius of Tyre, and Eudoxius of An- 
tioch, who were supported by only about thirty-two 
other bishops. Of the opposite party, which was by 
far the more numerous, the principal Avere George of 
Laodicea in Syria, Sophronius of Pompeiopolis in 
Paphlagonia, and Eleusius of Cyzicum. It being de- 
termined by the majority to examine doctrinal mat- 
ters first, the party of Acacius openly opposed the 
Nicene Creed, and wished to introduce another instead 
of it. The other faction, which was considerably 
more numerous, concurred in all the decisions of the 
council of Nice, except its adoption of the term Con- 
substantial, to which it strongly objected. A keen 


debate on this point immediately ensued, which was 
continued imtil evening, when Silvanus, who pre- 
sided over the church at Tarsus, insisted with much 
vehemence of manner, that there was no need of a 
new exposition of the faith; but that it was their 
duty rather to confirm that which was published at 
Antioch, at the consecration of the church in that 
place. On this declaration, Acacius and his partisans 
privately withdrew ifrom the council ; while the others 
producing the creed composed at Antioch, read it, 
and then separated for that day. Assembling in the 
church of Seleucia on the day following, after having 
closed the doors, they again read the same creed, and 
ratified it by their signatures, the readers and deacons 
present signing it on behalf of certain absent bishops, 
who had intimated their acquiescence in its form. 



AcACius and his adherents loudly exclaimed against 
this act of covertly affixing their signatures when the 
church doors were closed; declaring that all such 
secret transactions were justly to be suspected, and 
had no validity whatever. These objections were 
prompted by another motive, as he was anxious to 
bring forward an exposition of the faith drawn up 
by himself, which he had already submitted to the 
governors Leonas and Lauricius, and was now intent 
on getting confirmed and established, instead of that 
which had been subscribed. The second day was thus 

CHAP. XL.] SYNOD AT SELEUCIA. — A.D. 359. 213 

occupied with nothing else, but exertions on his part 
to effect this object. Leonas on the third day, en- 
deavoured to produce an amicable meeting of both 
parties; Macedonius of Constiintinople, and Basil 
of Ancyra having at length arrived. But when the 
Acacians found that both these persons had attached 
themselves to the opposite party, they refused to 
meet; saying that not only those who had before 
been deposed, but also such as were at present under 
any accusation, ought to be excluded from the as- 
sembly. After much cavilling on both sides, this 
opinion prevailed; and accordingly those who lay 
under any charge went out of the council, and the 
party of Acacius entered. Leonas then said that a 
document had been put into his hand by Acacius, to 
which he desired to call their attention : but he did 
not state that it was the draught of a creed, which in 
some particulars covertly, and in others unequivocally 
contradicted the former. Silence having been made, 
the bishops anticipating anything rather than what it 
actually was, the following creed composed by Aca- 
cius, together with its preamble, was read. 

" We having yesterday assembled by the emperor's 
command at Seleucia, a city of Isauria, on the 27th 
day of September, exerted ourselves to the utmost, 
with all moderation, to preserve the peace of the 
church, and to determine doctrinal questions on pro- 
phetic and evangelical authority; so as to sanction 
nothing in the ecclesiastic confession of faith at 
variance with the sacred Scriptures, as our emperor 
Constantius most beloved of God has ordered. But 
inasmuch as certain individuals in the Synod have 
acted injuriously toward several of us, preventing 


some from expressing their sentiments, and excluding 
others from the council against their wills; and at 
the same time have introduced such as have been 
deposed, and persons who were ordained contrary to 
the ecclesiastical canon, so that the Synod has pre- 
sented a scene of tumult and disorder, of which the 
most illustrious Leonas the Comes, and the most 
eminent Lauricius governor of the province have been 
eye-witnesses, we are therefore under the necessity 
of making this declaration. Not that we repudiate 
the faith which was ratified at the consecration of the 
church at Antioch ; for we give it our decided pre- 
ference, because it received the concurrence of our 
fathers who were assembled there to consider some 
controverted points. Since however the terms con- 
substantial* and of like substance ^^ have in time past 
troubled the minds of many, and still continue to 
disquiet them; and moreover that a new term has 
recently been coined by some who assert the dissimi- 
litudet of the Son to the Father: we reject the first 
two, as expressions which are not found in the Scrip- 
tures; but we utterly anathematize the last, and 
regard such as countenance its use, as alienated from 
the church. We distinctly acknowledge the likeness ^ 
of the Son to the Father, in accordance with what 
the apostle has declared concerning him (Col. i. 15), 
^ Who is the image of the invisible God.^ 

" We confess then, and believe in one God the 
Father Almighty, the Maker of heaven and earth, 
and of things visible and invisible. We believe also 
in his Son our Lord Jesus Christ, who was begotten 
of him without passion before all ages, God the Word, 

* *OfiOOv<riov» t *OfJLOtov<rioy, X *Av6fju}ioy. § "Oftoiov. 

CHA1». XL.] CREED OF SELEUCIA. — A. D. 359. 215 

the only-begotten of God, the Light, the Life, the 
Truth, the Wisdom : by whom all things were made 
which are in the heavens and upon the earth, whether 
visible or invisible. We believe that he took flesh of 
the holy Virgin Mary, at the end * of the ages, in order 
to abolish sin; that he was made man, suffered for 
our sins, rose again, was taken up into the heavens, 
and sits at the right hand of the Father, whence he 
will come again in glory to judge the living and the 
dead. We believe moreover in the Holy Spirit, whom 
our Lord and Saviour has denominated the Com- 
forter, and whom he sent to his disciples after his 
departure, according to his promise : by whom also 
he sanctifies all believers in the church, who are bap- 
tized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost. Those who preach any thing 
contrary to this creed, we regard as alienated from 
the catholic church." 

Such was the declaration of faith proposed by 
Acacius, and subscribed by himself and as many as 
adhered to his opinion, the number of whom we have 
already given. When this had been read, Sophronius 
bishop of Pompeiopolis in Paphlagonia, thus expressed 
himself: — " If to explain our own private opinion 
day after day, be received as the exposition of the 
faith, we shall never arrive at any accurate under- 
standing of the truth." These were the words of 
Sophronius. And I firmly believe, that if the pre- 
decessors of these prelates, as well as their successors, 
had entertained similar sentiments in reference to the 
Nicene creed, all polemical debates would have been 


avoided, nor would the church have been agitated by 
such violent and irrational disturbances : nevertheless 
it is for the prudent to determine for themselves 
respecting these matters. After many remarks on 
all sides had been made both in reference to the 
doctrinal statement which had been recited, and in 
relation to the parties accused, the assembly was 
dissolved for that time. On the fourth day they all 
again met in the same place, and resumed their pro- 
ceedings in the same contentious spirit as before. On 
this occasion Acacius expressed himself in these 
terms : — " Since the Nicene creed has been altered 
not once only, but frequently, there is no hindrance 
to our publishing another at this time." To which 
Eleusius bishop of Cyzicum replied — " The Synod is 
at present convened not to learn what it had a pre- 
vious knowledge of, nor to receive a creed which 
it had not assented to before, but to confirm the 
faith of the fathers, from which it should never 
recede, either in life or death." Eleusius in thus 
opposing Acacius, meant by the faith of the fathers, 
that creed which had been promulgated at Antioch. 
But surely he too might have been fairly answered in 
this way: — "How is it, Eleusius, that you call 
those convened at Antioch the fathers^ seeing that you 
do not recognize those who were their fathers? The 
framers of the Nicene creed, by whom the Homoousian 
faith was acknowledged, have a far higher claim to 
the title of the fathei\s ; both as having the priority in 
point of time, and also because those assembled at 
Antioch were by them invested with the sacerdotal 
office. Now if those at Antioch have disowned their 
own fathers, those who follow them are unconsciously 

CHAP. XL.] SYNOD AT SELEUCIA. — ^A.D. 359. 217 

following parricides. Besides how can they have re- 
ceived a legitimate ordination from those whose faith 
they pronounce unsound and impious? If those who 
constituted the Nicene Synod had not the Holy Spirit 
which is imparted by the imposition of hands, those 
at Antioch have not duly received the priesthood : for 
how could they have received it from those who had 
not the power of conferring it?" Such considerations 
as these might have been submitted to Eleusius in 
reply to his objections. They then proceeded to 
another question, connected with the assertion made 
by Acacius in his exposition of the faith, " that the 
Son was like the Father;" enquiring of one another 
in what this resemblance consisted. The Acacian 
party affirmed that the Son was like the Father as 
it respected his Will only, and not his substance or 
essence; but the rest maintained that the likeness 
extended to both essence and will. In altercations 
on this point, the whole day was consumed; and 
Acacius, beuig confuted by his own published works, 
in which he had asserted that " the Son is in all 
things like the Father," his opponents asked him how 
he could consistently deny the likeness of the Son to 
the Father as to his essence? Acacius in reply said, 
that no author, ancient or modem, was ever con- 
demned out of his own writings. After pursuing 
their debate on this matter to a most tedious extent, 
with much acrimonious feeling and subtilty of argu- 
ment, but Avithout any approach to unity of judg- 
ment, Leonas arose and dissolved the council. Indeed 
this was properly the conclusion of the Synod at 
Seleucia : for Leonas on the following day was inflex- 
ible to their entreaties that he would again be present 


in their assembly. " I have been deputed by the 
emperor," said he, "to preside in a council where 
unanimity was expected to prevail: but since you 
can by no means come to a mutual understanding, 
I can no longer be present: go therefore to the 
church, if you please, and indulge in this vain bab- 
bling there." The Acacian faction conceiving this 
decision to be advantageous to themselves, refused 
also to assemble with the others; although the ad- 
verse party had sent to request their attendance in 
the church, that cognizance might be taken of the 
case of Cyril bishop of Jerusalem: for that prelate 
had been accused long before, on what grounds how- 
ever I am unable to state. He had even been deposed, 
because he had not made his appearance during two 
whole years, after having been repeatedly simimoned 
in order that the charges against hun might be inves- 
tigated. Nevertheless when he was deposed, he sent 
a written notification to those who had condemned 
him, that he should appeal to a higher jurisdiction : 
and this course of his received the sanction of the 
emperor Constantius. Cyril was thus the first and 
indeed only clergyman who ventured to break through 
ecclesiastical usage, by becoming an appellant, in the 
way commonly done in the secular courts of judica- 
ture. Being now present at Seleucia, ready to be put 
upon his trial, the other bishops invited the Acacian 
party to take their places in the assembly, that in a 
general council a definite judgment might be pro- 
nounced on the case of those who were arraigned : 
for others also charged with various misdemeanours 
had been cited to appear before them at the same 
time, who to protect themselves had sought refuge 


among the partisans of Acacius. When therefore 
that faction persisted in their refusal to meet, after 
being repeatedly summoned, the bishops deposed 
Acacius himself, together with George of Alexandria, 
Uranius of Tyre, Theodulus of Ch»retapi in Phrygia, 
Theodosius of Philadelphia in Lydia, Evagrius of the 
island of Mytilene, Leontius of Tripolis in Lydia, and 
Eudoxius who had formerly been bishop of Ger- 
manicia, but had afterwards insinuated himself into 
the bishopric of Antioch in Syria. They also de- 
posed Patrophilus for contumacy, in not having pre- 
sented himself to answer a charge preferred against 
him by a presbyter named Dorotheus. Besides de- 
posing those abore mentioned, they excommunicated 
Asterius, Eusebius, Abgarus, Basilicus, Phoebus, Fi- 
delis, P]utychius, Magnus, and Eustathius ; determi- 
ning that they should not be restored to communion, 
until they made such a defence as would clear them 
from the imputations under which they lay. This 
being done, they address explanatory letters to each 
of the churches whose bishops had been deposed. 
Anianus was then constituted bishop of Antioch 
instead of Eudoxius: but the Acacians having soon 
after apprehended him, he was delivered into the 
hands of Leonas and Lauricius, by whom he was sent 
into exile. The bishops who had ordained him being 
incensed oji this account, lodged a protest* against 
the Acacian party with Leonas and Lauricius, in 
which they openly charged them with having violated 
the decisions of the Synod. Finding that no redress 
could be obtained by this means, they went to Constan- 
tinople to lay the whole matter before the emperor. 


ON THE emperor's return from the west, the aca- 


The emperor after his return from the West, aj)- 
pointed Honoratus the first prefect of Constantinople, 
having abolished the office of pro-consul. But the 
Acacians being beforehand with the bishops, calum- 
niated them to the emperor, infonning him that the 
creed which they had proposed was not admitted. 
This so annoyed the emperor that he resolved to dis- 
perse them; he therefore published an edict, com- 
manding that such of them as were subject to fill 
certain public offices should be no longer exempted 
from the performance of the duties attached to them. 
For several of them were liable to be called on to 
occupy various official departments, connected both 
with the city magistracy, and in subordination' to the 
presidents and governors of provinces. The partisans 
of Acacius having effected this dispersion, remained 
for a considerable time at Constantinople; and at 
length sending for the bishops of Bithynia, they held 
another Synod. About fifty were assembled on this 
occasion, among whom was Maris bishop of Chal- 
cedon : these confirmed the creed which w^as read at 
Rimini, and to which the names of the consuls had 
been prefixed. It would have been unnecessary to 

* TQy iv rats ivap\laiQ rd^ewy. The sodalities of officials, or 
apparitors who attended on the governors of provinces. 


repeat it here, had there not been ' some additions 
made to it ; but since that was done, it may be de- 
sirable to transcribe it in its new form. 

" We believe in one God the Father Almighty, of 
whom are all things. And in the only-begotten Son 
of God, begotten of God before all ages, and before 
every beginning; by whom all things visible and 
invisible were made : who is the only -begotten bom 
of the Father, the only of the only, God of God, like 
to the Father who begat him, according to the Scrip- 
tures, and whose generation no one knows but the 
Father only that begat him. We know that this 
only-begotten Son of God, as sent of the Father, came 
doAvn from the heavens, as it is >vritten, for the de- 
struction of sin and death : that he was born of the 
Holy Spirit, and of the Virgin Mary according to the 
flesh, as it is written, and conversed with his dis- 
ciples; and that after having fulfilled every dispen- 
sation according to his Father's will, he was crucified 
and died, was buried and descended into the lower 
parts* of the earth, at whose presence hell^ itself 
trembled : that he arose from the dead on the third 
day, again conversed >vith his disciples, and after the 
completion of forty days was taken up into the 
heavens, and sits at the right hand of the Father, 
whence he will come in the last day, i. e. the day of 
the resurrection, in his Father's glory, to requite 
every one according to his works. We believe also 
in the Holy Spirit, whom he himself the only-begotten 
of God, Christ our Lord and God, promised to send 
to mankind as the Comforter,* according as it is 
written, the Spirit of truth ; whom he sent to them 

* Karaxdoyia. \ "A^iyc. J UapwcXriToy. 


after he was received into the heavens. But since 
the term ovaia^ substance or essence^ which was used 
by the fathers in a very simple and intelligible sense, 
but not being understood by the people, has been a 
cause of offence, we have thought proper to reject it, 
as it is not contained in the sacred writings ; and we 
deprecate the least mention of it in future, inasmuch 
as the holy Scriptures have nowhere mentioned the 
substance of the Father and of the Son. Nor ought 
the subsistence'' of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Spirit to be even named. But we affirm 
that the Son is like the Father, in such a manner as 
the sacred Scriptures declare and teach. Let there- 
fore all heresies which have been already condemned, 
or may have arisen of late, which are opix)scd to this 
exposition of the faith, be anathema." 

Such was the creed set forth at that time at Con- 
stantinople. And having at length wound our way 
through the labyrinth of aU the various forms of 
faith, we >vill now reckon the number of them. 
After that which was promulgated at Nice, two others 
were proposed at Antioch at the dedication of the 
church there. A third was presented to the emperor 
Constans in the Gallias by Narcissus and those who 
accompanied him. The fourth was sent by Eudoxius 
into Italy. There were three forms of the creed pub- 
lished at Sirmium, one of which having the consuls' 
names prefixed was read at Rimini. The Acacian 
party produced an eighth at Seleucia. The last was 
that of Constantinople, containing the prohibitory 
clause respecting the mention of substance or sub- 

* 'YnotrraaiQ, 

CHAP. XLII.] THE ACACIANS. — A.D. 359. 223 

sistence in relation to God. To this creed Ulfilas 
bishop of the Goths gave his assent, although he had 
previously adhered to that of Nice ; for he was a dis- 
ciple of Theophilus bishop of the Goths, who was 
present at the Nicene council, and subscribed what 
was there determined. 



AcACius, Eudoxius, and those at Constantinople 
who took part with them, became exceedingly anxious 
that they also on their side might depose some of the 
opposite party. Now it should be observed that in 
all these cases of degradation, neither of the factions 
were influenced by religious considerations, but by 
motives of a far more questionable character: for 
although they did not agree respecting the faith, yet 
the ground of their reciprocal depositions was not 
error in doctrine. The Acacian party therefore avail- 
ing themselves of the emperor's long-cherished indig- 
nation against Macedonius, and at the same time 
endeavouring to direct it against others, in the first 
place depose Macedonius, both on account of his 
having occasioned so much slaughter, and also be- 
cause he had admitted to communion a deacon who 
was guilty of fornication. They then depose Eleusius 
bishop of Cyzicum, for having baptized, and after- 
wards invested with the diaconate, a priest of Hercules 
at Tyre named Heraclius, who was known to have 
practised magic arts. A like sentence was pronounced 


against Basil, or Basilas as he was also called, who 
had been constituted bishop of Ancyra instead of 
Marcellus : the causes assigned for this condemnation 
were, that he had unjustly imprisoned a certain indi- 
vidual, loaded him with chains, and put him to the 
torture; that he had traduced some persons; and 
that he had disturbed the churches of Africa by his 
epistles. Dracontius was also deposed by them, be- 
cause he had left the Galatian church for that of 
Pergamos. Moreover they ejected, on various pre- 
tences, Neonas bishop of Seleucia, the city in which 
the Synod had been convened, Sophronius of Pom- 
peiopolis in Paphlagonia, Elpidius of Satala in Mace- 
donia,* and Cyril of Jerusalem. 



But Eustathius bishop of Sebastia in Armenia, was 
not even permitted to make his defence; because he 
had been long before deposed b}' Eulalius his own 
father, who was bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, for 
dressing in a style unbecoming the sacerdotal office. 
Meletius was appointed his successor, of whom we 
shall hereafter speak. Eustathius indeed was subse- 
quently condemned by a Synod convened on his ac- 
count at Gangra in Paphlagonia; he having, after his 
deposition by the council at Caesarea, done many 
things repugnant to the ecclesiastic canons. For he 
had forbidden marriage, and maintained that meats 
were to be abstained from: he even separated many 

* Armenia, more probably. 

CHAP. XLIII.] EUSTATHIUS. — A,D. 359. 225 

from their wives, and persuaded those who disliked to 
assemble in the churches* to communicate at home. 
Under the pretext of piety, he also seduced servants t 
from their masters. He himself wore the habit of a 
philosopher, and induced his followers to adopt a new 
and extraordinary garb, directing that the hair of 
women should be cropped. He permitted the pre- 
scribed fasts to be neglected, but recommended fasting 
on Sundays. In short he forbad prayers to be offered 
in the houses of married persons ; and declared that 
both the benediction and the communion of a pres- 
byter who continued to live with a wife whom he 
might have lawfully married before entering into holy 
orders, ought to be shunned as an abomination. For 
doing and teaching these things and many others of a 
similar nature, a Synod convened, as we have said, at 
Gangra in Paphlagonia deposed him, and ^.nathe- 
matized his opinions. This however was done after- 
wards. But on Macedonius being ejected from the 
see of Constantinople, Eudoxius who now despised 
that of Antioch, was promoted to the vacant bishopric ; 
being consecrated by the Acacians, who in this in- 
stance cared not to consider that it was inconsistent 
with their former proceedings. For they who had 
deposed Dracontius because of his translation from 
Galatia to Pergamos, were clearly acting in contra- 
riety to their own principles and decisions, in ordain- 
ing Eudoxius who then made a second remove. After 
this they sent their own exposition of the faith, in its 
corrected and supplementary form, to Rimini, order- 
ing that all those who refused to sign it should be 

* i. e. these separated ones, as claiming greater purity than other 
believers. t Aou\ouc» 8lave8. 



exiled, on the authority of the emperor's edict. They 
also informed such other prelates in the East as coin- 
cided with them in opinion of what they had done ; 
and more especially Patrophilus bishop of Scythopolis, 
who on leaving Seleucia, had proceeded directly to his 
own city. Eudoxius having been constituted bishop 
of the imperial city,* the great church named Sophia 
Was at that time+ consecrated, hi the tenth consulate 
of Constantius, and the third of Julian Caesar, on the 
15th day of February. It was while Eudoxius occu- 
pied this see, that he first uttered that sentence which 
is still everywhere current, " The Father* is impiou.H^ 
the Son is pious. ''^ When the people seemed startled 
by this expression, and a disturbance began to be 
made, "Be not troubled," said he, " on account of what 
I have just said: for the Father is impious, because 
he worships no person ; but the Son is pious, because 
he worships the Father," With this sort of badinage he 
appejtsed the tumult, and great laughter was excited 
in the church : and this saying of his continues to be 
a jest, even in the present day. The heresiarchs 
indeed frequently devised such subtile phrases as 
these, and by them rent the church asunder. Thus 
was the Synod at Constantinople terminated. 

* Constantinople. 

t Tliis was its second consecration, it having been ruined and 

CHAP. XLIV.] MELETIUS. A. D. 360. 227 



It becomes us now to speak of Meletiiis, who, as 
we have recently observed, was created bishop of 
Sebastia in Armenia, after the deposition of Eusta- 
thius; but he Avas afterwards translated from Sebastia 
to Beroea, a city of Syria. Being present at the Synod 
of Seleucia, he subscribed the creed set forth there by 
Acacius, and immediately returned thence to Beroea. 
On the convention of the Synod at Constantinople, 
when the people of Antioch understood that Eu- 
doxius, captivated by the magniiicence of the see of 
Constantinople, had contemned the presidency over 
their church, they sent for Meletius, and invested him 
with the bishopric of the church at Antioch. After 
this he at first avoided all doctrinal questions, con- 
fining his discourses to moral subjects; but subse- 
(juently he expounded to his auditors the Nicene 
creed, and asserted the doctrine of consubstantiality. 
The emperor being informed of this, ordered that he 
should be sent into exile; and caused Euzoius, who 
had before been deposed together with Arius, to be 
installed bishop of Antioch in his stead. Such how- 
ever as were attached to Meletius, separated them- 
selves from the Arian congregation, and held theii* 
assemblies apart: nevertheless those who originally 
embraced the Homoousian opinion would not com- 
municate with them, because Meletius had been or- 
dained by the Arians, and his adherents had been 

* This name is sometimes written MelitiuB. 


baptized by them. Thus was the Antiochian church 
divided, even in regard to those whose views on 
matters of faith exactly corresponded. Meanwhile 
the emperor getting intelligence that the Persians 
were preparing to undertake another war against the 
Eomans, repaired in great haste to Antioch. 



Macedonius after his ejection from Constantinople, 
could ill bear his condemnation; becoming restless 
therefore, he associated himself with the other faction 
that had deposed Acacius and his party at Seleucia. 
He accordingly sent a deputation to Sophronius and 
Eleusius, to encourage them to adhere to that creed 
which was first promulgated at Antioch, and after- 
wards confirmed at Seleucia, proposing to give it the 
counterfeit * name of the Homoiousian creed. By this 
means he drew around him a great number of ad- 
herents, who from him are still denominated Mace- 
donians. And although such as dissented from the 
Acacians at the Seleucian Synod had not previously 
used the term Homoiousios^^ yet from that period 
they distinctly asserted it. It is however insisted by 
some that this term did not originate with Mace- 
donius, but was the invention rather of Marathonius, 
who a little before had been set over the church at 
Nicomedia ; on which account the maintainers of this 

* Uapatrn/jLOQ (used metaphorically, from money which has a false 

t 'Ofioiovtriov, of like substance or essence. 

CHAP. XLV.] MACEDONIUS. — ^A. D. 360. 229 

doctrine were also called Marathonians. To this 
party Eustathius joined himself, who for the reasons 
before stated had been ejected from the church at 
Sebastia. But when Macedonius began to deny the 
Divinity of the Holy Spirit in the Trinity, Eusta- 
thius said; " I can neither admit that the Holy Spirit 
is God, nor can I dare affirm him to be a creature." 
For this reason those who hold the consubstantiality 
of the Son call these heretics Pneumatomdchi.* By 
what means these Macedonians became so numerous 
in the Hellespont, I shall state in its proper place. 
The Acacians meanwhile became extremely anxious 
that another Synod should be convened at Antioch, 
in consequence of having changed their mind respect- 
ing their former assertion of the likeness in all things 
of the Son to the Father. A small number of them 
therefore assembled in the following year, in the 
consulate of Taurus and Florentius, at Antioch in 
Syria, where the emperor was at that time residing, 
Euzoius being bishop. A discussion was then re- 
newed on some of those points which they had pre- 
viously determined, in the course of which they 
declared that the term Homoios ^ ought to be erased 
from tlie form of faith which had been published both 
at Rimini and Constiintinople. Nay so completely 
did they unmask themselves, as to openly contend 
that the Son was altogether unlike^ the Father, not 
merely in relation to his essence^ but even as it re- 
spected his icill : asserting boldly also, as the Arians 
had already done, that he was made of nothing.h 
Those in that city who favoured the heresy of Aetius, 

* UpevftaTOfia-xovg, Adversaries of the Holy Spirit* 

t 'OfjLolov, like the Father, I 'Avo/iocof. § 'E{ ovk ovtwv. 


gave their assent to this opinion; from which cir- 
cumstance in addition to the general appelhition of 
Arians, they were also termed Anomeans, and Exu- 
contians, by those at Antioch who embraced the 
orthodox faith, who nevertheless Avere at that tune 
divided among themselves on account of Meletius, as 
we have before observed. The Homoousians there- 
fore having asked them, how they dared to affirm 
that the Son is unlike the Father, and lias liis exist- 
ence from nothing, after having acknowledged him 
God of God in their former creed? they endeavoured 
to elude this objection by such fallacious subterfuges 
as these. " The expression ' God of God^^ " said they, 
" is to be understood in the siune sense as the words of 
the aix)stle (1 Cor. xi. 12), ' but all things of God.^ 
Wherefore the Son is of God^ as being one of these 
all thinijs : and it is for this reason the words accord- 
my to the Scnptiires are added in the draught of the 
creed." The author of this sophism was George bishop 
of Laodicea, who being unskilled in such phrases, w\as 
ignorant of the manner in which Origen had fonnerly 
analysed and explained these peculiar expressions of 
the apostle. But notwithstanding these evasive ca- 
villings, their inability to bear the reproach and con- 
tumely they had drawn upon themselves, induced 
them to fall back upon the creed which they had 
Ixjfore put forth at Constantinople ; and so each one 
retired to his own district. Georofe returnin«: to 
Alexandria, resumed his authority over the churches 
there, Athanasius still not daring to appear. Those 
in that city who were opposed to his sentiments he 
persecuted; and conducting himself with great se- 
verity and cruelty, he rendered himself extremely 



odious to the peopk*. At Jerusaleui Herrenius* was 
placed over the church instead of Cyril : we may also 
remark that Heraclius was ordained bishop there 
after him, to whom Hilary succeeded. At length 
however Cyril returned to Jerusalem, and was again 
invested with the presidency over the church there, 
liut about the same time another heresy sprang up, 
which arose from the following circumstance. 



There were at Laodicea in Syria a father and son 
each named Apollinaris, the former of whom was a 
presbyter, and the latter a reader in that church. 
IJoth taught Greek literature, the father grammar, 
and the son rhetoric. The elder was a native of Alex- 
andria, and at first taught at Berytus, but afterwards 
I'emoved to Laodicea, where he married, and the 
younger Apollinaris was born. Epiphanius the sophist 
was their cotemporary, with whom they formed an 
inthnate acquaintance ; but Theodotus bishop of Lao* 
dicea interdicted their intercourse mth him, lest such 
comnmnication should pervert their principles, and 
lead them into Paganism: this prohibition however 
they paid but little attention to, their familiarity with 
Epiphanius being still continued. George, the suc- 
cessor of Theodotus, also endeavoured to prevent their 
conversing with Epiphanius; but finding them alto- 
gether refractory on this point, he excommunicated 
them. The younger Apollinaris regarding this severe 

* Errenius in the Allatian MS. 


procedure as an act of injustice, and relying on the 
resources of his rhetorical sophistry, originated a 
new heresy, which was named after its inventor, and 
still has many sup}X)rters. Nevertheless some affirm 
that the reason above assigned was not the cause of 
their dissent from George, but their perception of the 
unsettledness and inconsistency of his profession of 
faith ; since he sometimes maintained that the Son is 
like the Father, in accordance with what had been 
determined in the Synod at Seleucia, and at other 
times countenanced the Arian view. They therefore 
made this a pretext for separation from him: but 
finding no one follow their example, they introduced 
a new form of doctrine, asserting that in the economy 
of the incarnation, God the Word assumed a human 
body without a soul. This however they afterward 
retracted, admitting that he took a soul indeed, but 
that it was an irrational one, God the Word himself 
being in the place of a mind. The followers of these 
heresies, who from them are termed Apollinarista?, 
affirm that this is the only point of difference between 
themselves and the Catholics; for they recognise the 
consubstantiality of the persons in the Trinity. But 
further mention of the two ApoUinares will be made 
in the proper place. 



While the emperor Constantius continued his resi- 
dence at Antioch, Julian C«sar engaging with an 
immense army of barbarians in the Gallias obtained a 



distinguished victory over them: on which account 
having become extremely popular among the soldiery, 
they proclaim him emperor. Intelligence of this 
aflfected the emperor Constantius with the most pain- 
ful sensations ; he was therefore baptized by Euzoius, 
and immediately prepared to undertake an expedition 
against Julian. On arriving at the frontiers of Cap- 
padocia and Cilicia, his excessive agitation of mind 
produced apoplexy, which terminated his existence at 
Mopsucrene, in the consulate of Taurus and Floren- 
tius, on the 3rd of November, in the first year of the 
285th Olympiad. This prince was at the time of his 
death forty-five years old, having reigned thirty-eight 
years, thirteen of which he was his father's colleague 
in the empire, and the remaining twenty-five he had 
the sole administration, the history of which latter 
period is contained in this book. 




The emperor Constaiitius having died on the 
frontiers of Cilicia on the third of November, during 
the consuhite of Taurus and Florentius, Julian leaving 
the western parts of the empire about the eleventh 
of December follo\ving, under the same consulate, 
came to Constantinople, where he was proclaimed 
emperor. And as I must needs speak of the cha- 
racter of this prince who was eminently distinguished 
for his eloquence, let not his admirers expect that I 
should attempt a pompous rhetorical style, as if to 
make the delineation correspond with the dignity of 
the subject : for my object being to compile a history 
of the Christian religion, it is both i)roper in order to 
the being better understood, and consistent ^vith my 
original purpose, to maintain a simple and unaffected 
style. Having to describe his person, birth, educa- 
tion, and the manner in which he became possessed of 
the sovereignty, to give a clear view of these matters, 
it will be needfiil to enter into some antecedent 
details. Constantine who gave Byzantium his OAvn 
name, had two brothers named Dalmatius and Con- 
stantius, the offspring of the same father, but by a 
different mother. The former of these had a son 
who bore his own name : the latter had two sons, 

CHAP. I.] JULIAN. — A.D. 361. 235 

Gallus and Julian. When, after the dciith of Con- 
stiintine who founded Constantinople, the soldiery 
had put the younger brother Dalmatius to death, the 
lives of liis two orphan children were also endangered : 
but a disease which threatened to be fatal preserved 
Gallus from the violence of his father's murderers; 
while the tenderness of Julian's age, who was not then 
eight years old, protected him. The emperor's jea- 
lousy toward them having been gradually subdued, 
Gallus attended the schools at Ephesus in Ionia, in 
which country considerable hereditary possessions 
had been left them. And Julian, when he was grown 
up, pursued his studies at Constantinople, going con- 
stantly to the palace, where the schools then were, 
in plain clothes, under the superintendance of the 
eunuch Mardonius. Nicocles the Lacedemonian* in- 
structed him in grammar; and Ecebolius the Sophist, 
who was at that time a Christian, taught him rhe- 
toric: for the emperor was anxious that he should 
have no Pagan masters, lest he should be seduced 
from the Christian faith in which he had been edu- 
cated, to the Pagan superstitions. His proficiency in 
literature soon became so remarkable, that it began to 
be said that he was capable of governing the Koman 
empire ; and this popular rumour becoming generally 
diffused, greatly disquieted the emperor's mind, so 
that he had him removed from the Great City to 
Nicomedia, forbidding him at the same time to fre- 
quent the school of Libanius the Syrian Sophist. 
This celebrated rhetorician having been driven from 
Constantinople, by a combination of the i)rofessor8 
there agahist him, had retired to Nicomedia, where 

* Aaicuty. 


he opened a school; and to revenge himself on his 
persecutors, he composed an oration against them. 
Julian was however interdicted from being his au- 
ditor, because Libanius adhered to Paganism : never- 
theless he privately procured his orations, which he 
not only greatly admired, but also frequently and 
with close study perused, so as to become very expert 
in the rhetorical art. About this period Maximus 
the philosopher arrived at Nicomedia, not he of Con- 
stantinople, Euclid's father, but he of Ephesus, whom 
the emperor Valentinian afterwards caused to be 
executed as a practiser of magic. The only thing 
that then attracted him to Nicomedia was the fame of 
Julian, to whom he imparted, in addition to the prin- 
ciples of philosophy, his own religious sentiments, 
and a desire to possess the empire. When the em- 
peror was informed of these things, Julian between 
hope and fear, became very anxious to lull the sus- 
picions which had been awakened, and therefore 
began to assume the external semblance of what he 
once was in reality. He was shaved to the very 
skin, and pretended to live a monastic life: and 
although in private he pursued his philosophical 
studies, in public he read the sacred writings of the 
Christians, and moreover was constituted a reader in 
the church of Nicomedia. But while by these spe- 
cious pretexts, under the influence of fear, he suc- 
ceeded in averting the emperor's displeasure, he by 
no means abandoned his hope; telling his friends 
that happier times were not far distant, when he 
should possess the imperial sway. In this condition 
of things his brother Gall us having been created 
CsBsar, on his way to the East came to Nicomedia to 


CHAP. I.] JULIAN. — A. D. 361. 237 

see him. But when not long after this Gallus was 
slain, the emperor becoming still more suspicious of 
Julian, directed that a guard should be set over him : 
he soon however found means of escaping from them, 
and fled from place to place, until the empress Eusebia 
having discovered his retreat, persuaded the emperor 
to leave him uninjured, and permit him to go to 
Athens to pursue his philosophical studies. From 
thence, to be brief, the emperor recalled him, and 
after creating him Caesar, united him in marriage to 
his own sister Helen : and the barbarian mercenaries 
whom the emperor Constantius had engaged as aux- 
iliary forces against the tyrant Magnentius, beginning 
to pillage the Roman cities, Julian was despatched 
into the Gallias against them, Avith orders on account 
of his youth, to undertake nothing without con- 
sulting the other military chiefs. 

This restrictive power rendered these generals so 
lax in their duties, that the barbarians were suffered 
to strengthen themselves; which Julian perceiving, 
allowed the commanders to give themselves up to 
luxury and revelling, but exerted himself to infuse 
courage into the soldiery, offering a stipulated reward 
to any one who should kill a barbarian. By these 
means he conciliated to himself the affections of the 
army, while he effectually weakened the enemy. It 
is reported that as he was entering a town a civic 
crown which was suspended between two pillars, fell 
upon his head which it exactly fitted : upon which all 
present gave a shout of admiration, regarding it as a 
presage of his one day becoming emperor. Some 
have affirmed that Constantius sent him against the 
barbarians in the hope that he would perish in an 



engagement with tliem. Whether he had such a design 
I know not, let each form his own judgment of the 
matter; but it certainly is improbable that he should 
have first contracted so near an alliance with him, 
and then have sought his destruction to the prejudice 
of his ovm interests. Be this as it may, Julian's 
complaint to the emperor of the inertness of his mili- 
tary officers, procured for him a coadjutor in the 
command more consonant to his o^vn ardour ; and by 
their combined efforts such an assault was made upon 
the barbarians, that they sent him an embassy, assur- 
ing him that they had been ordered by the emperor's 
letters, which were produced, to march into the Ro- 
man territories. Instead of listening to these excuses, 
he cast the ambassador into prison, and vigorously 
attacking the forces of the enemy, totally defeated 
them ; and having taken their king prisoner, he sent 
him alive to Constantius. Immediately after tliis 
brilliant success he was proclaimed emperor by the 
military ; and inasmuch as they had no imperial 
crown, one of his guards took the chain which he 
wore about his o^vn neck, and bound it around Ju- 
lian's head. Thus he obtained the object of his 
ambition: but whether he subsequently conducted 
himself as became a philosopher, let my readers de- 
termine. For he neither entered into comnumica- 
tion with Constantius by an embassy, nor paid him 
the least homage in acknowledgment of past favoui-s ; 
but constituting other governors over the provinces, 
he conducted everything just as it pleased him. More- 
over he sought to bring Constantius into contempt, 
by reciting publicly in every city the letters which 
he had written to the barbarians; and thus havhig 

CHAP. I.] JULIAN. A.D. 361. 239 

rendered the inhabitants of these places disaffected, 
they were easily induced to revolt from Constantius 
to himself. After this he no longer wore the mask of 
Christianity, but everywhere opened the Pagan tem- 
ples, offering sacrifice to the idols; and designating 
himself Pontifex Maximus^ gave permission to such 
as would to celebrate their superstitious festivals. In 
this manner he managed to excite a civil war against 
Constantius; and thus would have involved the em- 
pire in all the disastrous consequences of such a 
calamity; for this philosopher's aim could not have 
been attained without much bloodshed: but God in 
the sovereignty of his own councils, checked the fury 
of these ^antagonists without detriment to the state, 
by the removal of one of them. For when Julian 
arrived among the Thracians, intelligence was brought 
him that Constantius was dead; and thus was the 
Roman empire at that time preserved from the hor- 
rors that threatened it. Julian forthwith made his 
public entry into Constantinople; and considering 
with himself how he might best secure popular fa- 
vour, he had recourse to the following measures. He 
knew that Constantius had rendered himself odious 
to the defenders of the Homoousian faith by having 
driven them from the churches, and proscribed their 
bishops. He was also aware that the Pagans were 
extremely impatient of the prohibitions which pre- 
vented their sacrificing to their gods, and were very 
anxious to get their temples opened, with liberty to 
exercise their idolatrous rites. In fact he was sensible 
that while both these classes secretly entertained ran- 
corous feelings against his predecessor, the people in 
general were exceedingly exasperated by the violence 


of the eunuchs, and especially by the rapacity of 
Eusebius the chief officer of the imperial bed-chamber. 
Under these circumstances he treated all parties with 
a good deal of subtlety : with some he dissimulated ; 
others he attached to himself by conferring obligations 
upon them, for he was fond of affecting beneficence ; 
but he unscrupulously manifested his own predilec- 
tion for the idolatry of the heathens. And first in 
order to brand the memory of Constantius by making 
him appear to have been cruel toward his subjects, he 
recalled the exiled bishops, and restored to them their 
confiscated estates. He next commanded his confi- 
dential agents to see that the Pagan temples should 
be opened without delay. Then he directed that such 
individuals as had been victims of the extortionate 
conduct of the eunuchs, should be repossessed of 
the property of which they had been plundered. 
Eusebius, the chief of the imperial bed-chamber, 
he punished with death, not only on account of 
the injuries he had inflicted on others, but because 
he was assured that it was through his machinations 
that his brother Gallus had been killed. Having 
taken care that the body of Constantius should be 
honoured with an imperial funeral, he expelled the 
eunuchs, barbers and cooks from the palace. The 
eunuchs he dispensed >vith, because they were un- 
necessary in consequence of his wife's decease, as he 
had resolved not to marry again : the barbers, because 
he said one was sufficient for a great many persons; 
and the cooks, because he intended to maintain a 
very simple table. The palace being cleared of these 
supernumeraries, he reduced the majority of the 
secretaries to their former condition, and appointed 

CHAP. I.] JULIAN. — A.D. 361. 241 

those who were retained a salary befitting their office. 
The mode of public travelling and conveyance of 
necessaries he also reformed, abolishing the use of 
mules, oxen, and asses for this purpose, and permitting 
horses only to be so employed. These various re- 
trenchments were highly lauded by some few, but 
strongly reprobated by all others, as tending to bring 
the imperial dignity hito contempt, by stripping it of 
those appendages of pomp and magnificence which 
exercise so powerful an influence over the minds of 
the vulgar. At night he was accustomed to sit up 
composing orations which he afterwards delivered in 
the senate : though in fact he was the first and only 
emperor since the time of Julius Caesar who made 
speeches in that assembly. To those who were emi- 
nent for literary attainments, he extended the most 
flattering patronage, and especially to the professors 
of philosophy ; in consequence of which, abundance of 
pretenders to learning of this sort resorted to the 
palace from all qu«arters, wearing their palliums, being 
more conspicuous for their costume than their eru- 
dition. These impostors, who invariably adopted the 
religious sentiments of their prince, were all inimical 
to the welfare of the Christians ; and Julian himself, 
whose excessive vanity prompted him to deride his 
predecessors in a book which he wrote entitled " The 
Caesars," was led by the same haughty disposition to 
compose treatises against the Christians also. In 
expelling the cooks and barbers he acted in a manner 
becoming a philosopher indeed, but not an emperor; 
but in condescending to vilify others he ceased to 
maintain the dignity of either, for such personages 
ought to be superior to the influence of jealousy and 



detraction. An emperor may be a philosopher in all 
that regards moderation and self-control ; but should 
a philosopher attempt to imitate what might become 
an emperor, he would frequently depart from his own 
principles. We have thus briefly spoken of the em- 
peror Julian, tracing his extniction, education, teinj>er 
of mind, and the way in which he became invested 
with the imperial power. 




It is now proper to mention what took place in 
the churches during this period. A great disturbance 
occurred at Alexandria in consequence of the fol- 
lowing circumstance. There was a place in that city 
which had long been abandoned to neglect and filth, 
wherein the Pagans had formerly celebrated their 
mysteries, and sacrificed human beings to Mithra. 
This being empty and otherwise useless, Constantius 
had granted to the church of the Alexandrians ; and 
George wishing to erect a church ^ on the site of it, 
gave directions that the place should be cleansed. 
In the process of clearing it, an adytinn of vast depth 
was discovered which unveiled the nature of their 
heathenish rites : for there were found there the skulls 
of many persons of all ages, who were said to have 
been immolated for the purpose of divination by the 
inspection of entrails, when the Pagans were allowed 

* Whom the Persians suppose to be the sun. 
t EwjcT^ptoi' oln'or, an oratory. 


to perform these and such like magic arts in order to 
enchant the souls of men. The Christians on dis- 
covering these abominations in the adytum of the 
temple of Mithra, thought it their duty to expose 
them to the view and execration of all ; and therefore 
carried the skulls throughout the city, in a kind of 
triumphal procession, for the inspection of the people. 
When the Pagans of Alexandria beheld this insult 
offered to their religion, they became so exasperated, 
that they assailed the Christians with whatever 
weapon chanced to come to hand, in their fury de- 
stroying numbers of them in a variety of ways : some 
they killed with the sword, others with clubs and 
stones; some they strangled with ropes, others they 
crucified, purposely inflicting this last kind of death 
in contempt of the cross of Christ. Few indeed es- 
caped being wounded ; and as it generally happens in 
such a case, neither friends nor relatives were spared, 
but friends, brothers, parents and children imbrued 
their hands in each other's blood. This outrageous 
assault obliged the Christians to cease from cleansing 
the temple of Mithra : the Pagans meanwhile having 
dragged George out of the church, fastened him to a 
camel, and when they had torn him to pieces, they 
burnt him together with the camel. 



The emperor highly resenting the assassination of 
George, wrote to the citizens of Alexandria, rebuking 


their violence in the strongest tcnns. It has been 
affirmed that those who detested him because of Atha- 
nasius, were the perpetrators of this outrage upon 
George: but although it is undoubtedly true that 
such as cherish hostile feelings against particular in- 
dividuals are often found identified with popular 
commotions, yet the emperor in his letter evidently 
attaches the blame to the populace, rather than to 
any among the Christians. George however was at 
that time, and had for some time previously been, 
exceedingly obnoxious to all classes, which is suffi- 
cient to account for the indignation of the multitude 
against him. The emperor's letter was expressed in 
the following t^rms. 



'' Even if you have neither respect for Alexander 
the founder of your city, nor, what is more, for that 
great and most holy god Serapis ; yet how is it you 
have forgotten not only the universal claims of hu- 
manity and social order, but also what is due to us, 
to whom all the gods, and especially the mighty 
Serapis, have assigned the empire of the world, for 
whose cognizance therefore it became you to reserve 
all matters of public wrong? But you ^yi]l probably 
plead the impulse of rage and indignation, which 
taking possession of the mind, too often deceptively 
stimulate it to the most atrocious acts. It seems 
however that when your fury was in some degree 
moderated, you aggravated your culpability by adding 
a most heinous offence to that which had been com- 

CHAP. III.] LETTER OF JULIAN. — A. D. 361. 245 

mitted under the excitement of the moment: nor 
were you of the commonalty ashamed to perpetrate 
such acts as had deservedly drawn upon others the 
odium they deserved. By Serapis I conjure you tell 
me, what enormities instigated you to such unjustifi- 
able violence toward George? You ^vill perhaps 
answer, it was because he exasperated Constantius of 
blessed memory against you : because he introduced 
an army into the sacred city : because he induced the 
governor* of Egypt to despoil the god's most holy 
temple of its images, votive offerings, and such other 
consecrated apparatus as it contained; who, when ye 
could not endure the sight of such a foul desecration, 
but attempted to defend the god from sacrilegious 
hands, or rather to hinder the pillage of what had 
been consecrated to his service, in contravention of 
all justice, law, and piety, dared to send armed bands 
against you. This he probably did from his dreading 
George more than Constantius: but he would have 
consulted better for his own safety had he not been 
guilty of this tyrannical conduct, but persevered in 
his former moderation toward you. Being on all 
these accounts enraged against George as the adver- 
sary of the gods, you have again polluted your sacred 
city; whereas you ought to have impeached him 
before the judges. For had you thus acted, neither 
murder, nor any other unlawful deed would have 
been committed; but justice being equitably dis- 
pensed, you would have been preserved from these 
disgraceful excesses, while he would have suffered the 
punishment due to his impious crimes. Thus too, in 

* Artemius, whom Julian afterwards beheaded for this desecration 
of the Pagan temple. 


short, the insolence of those would have been curbed 
who contemn the gods, and respect neither cities of 
such magnitude, nor so flourishing a population ; but 
make the barbarities they practise against them the 
prelude, as it were, of their exercise of power. Com- 
pare therefore this our present letter, with that which 
we wrote you some time since. With what high 
commendation did we then greet you ! But now, by 
the immortal gods, with an equal disposition to 
praise you, your heinous misdoings utterly op})ose 
my wshes. The people have had the audacity to 
tear a man in pieces, like dogs ; nor have they been 
subsequently ashamed of this inhuman procedure, 
nor desirous of purifying their hands from such pol- 
lution, that they may stretch them forth in the pre- 
sence of the gods undefiled by blood. You will no 
doubt be ready to say that George justly merited this 
chastisement ; and we might be disposed perhaps to 
admit that he deserved still more acute tortures. 
Should you farther affirm that on your account he 
was worthy of these suflferings, even this might also 
be granted. But should you add that it became you 
to inflict the vengeance due to his off^ences, that we 
could by no means acquiesce in ; for you have laws 
to which it is the duty of every one of you to be 
subject, and to evince your respect for both publicly, 
as well as in private. If any individual should trans- 
gress those wise and salutary regulations which were 
originally constituted for the well-being of the com- 
munity, does that absolve the rest from obedience to 
them? It is fortunate for you, ye Alexandrians, 
that such an atrocity has been pei'petrated in our 
reign, who, by reason of our reverence for the gods, 


and on account of our grandfather and uncle whose 
name we bear, and who governed Egypt and your 
city, still reta,in a fraternal affection for you. As- 
suredly that power which will not suffer itself to be 
disrespected, and such a government as is possessed 
of a vigorous and healthy constitution, could not 
connive at such unbridled licentiousness in its sub- 
jects; but would unsparingly purge out the dan- 
gerous distemper by the application of remedies suf- 
iiciently i)otent. We shall however in your case, 
for the reasons already assigned, restrict ourselves to 
the more mild and gentle medicine of remonstrance 
and exhortation ; to the which mode of treatment we 
are persuaded ye will the more readily submit, inas- 
much as we understand ye are not only Greeks by 
original descent, but also still preserve in your 
memory and character the traces of the glory of your 
ancestors. Let this be published to our citizens of 



Soon after this, Athanasius returning from his 
exile, was received with great joy by the people of 
iVlexandria, who expelled the Arians from the 
churches, and restored Athanasius to the possession 
of them. The Arians meanwhile assembling them- 
selves in low and obscure buildings, ordained Lucius 
to supply the place of George. Such was the state 
of things at that time at Alexandria. 




About the same time Lucifer and Eusebius were 
by an imperial order, recalled from banishment out 
of the Upper Thebais ; the former being bishop of 
Cagliari,* a city of Sardinia, the latter of Verceil,^ 
a city of the Ligurians in Italy. These two prelates 
therefore consulted together on the most eflfectual 
means of preventing the neglected canons and dis- 
cipline of the church from being in future violated 
and despised. 



They decided therefore that Lucifer should go to 
Antioch in Syria, and Eusebius to Alexandria, that 
by assembling a Synod in conjunction with Athana- 
sius, they might confirm the doctrinest of the church. 
Lucifer sent a deacon as his representative, by whom 
he pledged himself to assent to whatever the Synod 
might decree ; but he himself went to Antioch, where 
he found the church in great disorder, the people not 
being agreed among themselves. For not only did 
the Arian heresy, which had been introduced by 
Euzoius, divide the church, but, as we have before 
said, the followers of Meletius also, from attachment 
to their preceptor,^ separated themselves from those 


with whom they agreed in sentiment. When there- 
fore Lucifer had constituted Paulinus their bishop, he 
again departed. 



As soon as Eusebius reached Alexandria, he in 
concert vnth Athanasius immediately convoked a 
Synod. The bishops assembled on this occasion out 
of various cities, took into consideration many sub- 
jects of the utmost importance. They asserted the 
divinity of the Holy Spirit, and comprehended him 
in the consubstantial Trinity : they also declared that 
the Word in being made man, assumed not only flesh, 
but also a soul, in accordance with the views of the 
early ecclesiastics. For they avoided the introduction 
of any new doctrine of their OAvn devising into the 
church, but contented themselves with recording their 
sanction of those points which ecclesiastical tradition 
has insisted on from the beginning, and the most pro- 
found Christian doctors have demonstratively taught. 
Such sentiments the ancient fathers have uniformly 
maintained in all their controversial Avritings. IrensBus, 
Clemens, ApoUinaris of Hierapolis, and Serapion who 
presided over the church at Antioch, assure us in 
their several works, that it was the generally received 
opinion that Christ in his incarnation was endowed 
with a soul. Moreover the Synod convened on ac- 
count of Berillus bishop of Philadelphia in Arabia, 


recognised the same doctrine in their letter to that 
prelate. The same thing is everywhere admitted by 
Origen, but he more particularly explains this mystery 
in the ninth volume of his " Comments upon Genesis," 
where he shows that Adam and Eve were types of 
Christ and the church. That holy man Pamphilus, 
and Eusebius who was surnamed after him, are au- 
thorities on this subject not to be contemned: both 
these witnesses in their joint life of Origen, and 
admirable defence of him in answer to such as were 
prejudiced against him, prove that he was not the first 
who made this declaration, but that in doing so he 
was the mere expositor of the mystical tradition of 
the church. Those who assisted at the Alexandrine 
Council examined also with great minuteness the 
question concerning Essence* or Substance^ and Exist- 
ence^ ^ Subsistence^ or Personality. For Hosius bishop 
of Cordova in Spain, who has been before referred 
to as having been sent by the emperor Constantine to 
allay the excitement which Arius had caused, origi- 
nated the controversy about these terms in his earnest- 
ness to overthrow the dogma of Sabellius the Libyan. 
In the council of Nice however, which was held soon 
after, this dispute was not agitated; but in conse- 
quence of the contention about it which subsequently 
arose, the matter was freely discussed at Alexandria. 
It was there determined that such expressions as 
ousia and hypostasis ought not to be used in reference 
to God : for they argued that the word oima is no- 
where employed in the sacred Scriptures; and that 
the apostle has misapplied the term hyposta^ns in 
attempting to describe that which is ineffable. They 

* Oufflrtf. f 'YTTOOTOeTCWf. 


nevertheless decided that in refutation of the Sabellian 
error these terms were admissible, in default of more 
appropriate language, lest it should be supposed that 
one thuig was indicated by a threefold designation; 
whereas we ought rather to believe that each of those 
named in the Trinity is God in his own proper jx^r- 
son.* Such were the decisions of this Synod. If we 
may express our own judgment on this matter, it 
appears to us that the Greek philosophers have given 
us various definitions of ousia^ but have not taken the 
slightest notice of hypostasis. Irenaeus the gramma- 
rian indeed, in his Alphabetical Lexicon entitled 
" Atticistes," declares it to be a barbarous term which 
is not to be found in any of the ancients, except 
occasionally in a sense quite difterent from that which 
is attached to it in the present day. Thus Sophocles, 
in his tragedy entitled " Phoenix," uses it to signify 
treachery: in Menander it implies sauces; and another 
calls the sediment at the bottom of a hogshead of 
>vine hypostasis. But although the ancient philoso- 
phical writers scarcely noticed this word, the more 
modern ones have frequently used it instead of ousia. 
This term, as we before observed, has been variously 
defined : but can that which is capable of being cir- 
cumscribed by a definition be applicable to God who 
is incomprehensible? Evagrius in his " Monacliicus, " 
cautions us against rash and inconsiderate language 
in reference to God; forbidding all attempt to define 
the divinity, inasmuch as it is wholly simple in its 
nature : " for," says he, " definition belongs only to 
things which are compound." The same author fur- 
ther adds, " Every proposition has either a (lenns which 


is predicated, or a species^ or a differentia^ or a pro- 
priuniy or an accidens^ or that which is compounded 
of these : but none of these can be supposed to exist 
in the sacred Trinity. Let then what is inexplicable 
be adored in silence." Such is the reasoning of Eva- 
grius, of whom we shall again speak hereafter. We 
have indeed made a digression here, but such as will 
tend to illustrate the subject under consideration. 




On this occasion Athanasius recited to those pre- 
sent the apology which he had composed some time 
before in justification of his flight; a few passages 
from which it may be of service to introduce here, 
leaving the entire production, as too long to be tran- 
scribed, to be sought out and perused by the studious. 
" See," said he, " the daring enonnities of these impious 
persons ! Such are their proceedings : and yet instead 
of blushing at their former tyrannical conduct toward 
us, they even now abuse us for having effected our 
escape out of their murderous hands ; nay are griev- 
ously vexed that they were unable to compass our 
destruction. In short they overlook the fact that 
while they pretend to upbraid us vnth fear, they are 
really criminating themselves : for if it be disgraceful 
to flee, it is still more so to pursue, since the one is 
only endeavouring to avoid being murdered, wliile 
the other is seeking to commit the deed. But Scrip- 
ture itself directs us to flee : and those who persecute 


unto death, in attempting to violate the law, constrain 
us to have recourse to flight. They should rather 
therefore be ashamed of their persecution, than re- 
proach us for having sought to escape from it: let 
them but cease to harass us, and we shall have no 
cause to abscond. Nevertheless they set no bounds 
to their malevolence, using every art to entrap us, 
in the consciousness that the flight of the persecuted 
is the strongest condemnation of the persecutor : for 
no one runs away from a mild and beneficent person, 
but from one who is of a barbarous and cruel dis- 
position. Hence it was that 'Every one that was 
discontented and in debt' fled from Saul to David 
(1 Sam. xxii. 2). These foes of ours in like manner 
desire to kill such as conceal themselves, that no evi- 
dence may exist to convict them of their inhumanity. 
But in this also these misguided men most egregiously 
deceive themselves : for the more obvious the efibrt to 
elude their snares becomes, the more manifestly will 
their slaughters and exiles be exposed. If they act 
the part of assassins, the voice of the blood which is 
shed will cry against them : and if they condemn to 
banishment, they will raise so many living monuments 
of their own injustice and oppression. Surely unless 
their intellects were unsound they would perceive the 
dilemma in which their own counsels entangle them. 
It is infatuation of mind that incites them to become 
persecutors, and prevents their discovering their own 
impiety, even when they aim at the life of others. 
But if they reproach those who succeed in secreting 
themselves from the malice of their blood-thirsty 
adversaries, and revile such as flee from their perse- 
cutors, w^hat will they say to Jacob's retreat from 


the rage of his brother Esau, and to Moses* retiring 
inta the hind of Midian for fear of Pharaoh? And 
what apology mil these babblers make for David's t 
flight from Saul, when he sent messengers from his 
own house to despatch him ; and for his concealment 
in a cave, after contriving to extricate himself from 
the treacherous designs of Abimelecht by feigning 
madness?^ Wliat will these reckless asserters of 
whatever suits their purpose answer, when they are 
reminded of the great prophet Elias,ll who by calling 
upon God had recalled the dead to life, hiding himself 
from dread of Ahab, and fleeing on account of Jeze- 
bel's menaces? At which time the sons of the pro- 
phets also, being sought for in order to be slain, ynth- 
drew, and were concealed in caves by Obadiahf 
(1 Kings xviii. 4). Are they unacquainted vnth 
these instances because of their antiquity ? Have they 
forgotten also what is recorded in the Gospel, that 
the disciples retreated and hid themselves for fear of 
the Jews? Paul,** when the governor of Damascus 
attempted to apprehend him, was let down from the 
wall in a basket, and thus escaped the hands of him 
that sought him. Since then Scripture relates these 
circumstances concerning the saints, what excuse can 
they fabricate for their temerity ? If they charge us 
with timidity, it is in utter insensibility to the con- 
demnation it pronounces on themselves. If they 
asperse these holy men by asserting that they acted 
contrary to the will of God, they demonstrate their 

* Exod. ii. 15. t 1 Sam. xix.l2. 

X Or rather Achish, king of Gath, 1 Sam. xxi.lO. 

§ ^AWoiovvTi TO irpotTwicov, II Elijah. ^ Abdia. 

** 2 Cor. xi. 32. 33. 


ignorance of Scripture. For it was commanded in 
the Law that cities of refuge should be constituted 
(Num. XXXV. 11), by which provision was made that 
such as were pursued in order to be put to death 
might have means aiforded of preser\hig themselves. 
Again in the consummation of the ages, when the 
Word of the Father, who had before spoken by 
Moses, came himself to the earth, he gave this ex- 
press injunction, ' When they persecute you in one 
city, flee unto another :' * and shortly after, ' Wlien 
therefore ye shall see the abomination of desolation, 
spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy 
place (let whosoever reads, understand), then let 
those in Judea flee unto the mountains : let him that 
is on the house-top not come down to take anything 
out of his house ; nor him that is in the fields return 
to take his clothes.' t^ The saints therefore knowing 
these precepts, acted in accordance Avith them: for 
what the Lord then commanded, he had before his 
coining in the flesh already spoken of by his servants. 
And this is a universal rule for man, leading to 
perfection, to practise ichatever God has enjoined. On 
this account the Word himself, becoming incarnate 
for our sake, deigned to conceal himself when he was 
sought for ; and being again persecuted, condescended 
to withdraw to avoid the conspiracy against him. 
For thus it became him, by hungering and thirsting 
and sufifering other afflictions, to demonstrate that he 
was indeed made man. Nay at the very commence- 
ment, as soon as he was bom, he gave this direction 
by an angel to Joseph : ' Arise and take the young 
child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, for Herod 

* Matt. X. 23. t Matt. xxiv. 15—18. 


will seek the infant's life.' * We see also that after 
Herod's death, apprehension of his son Archelaiis 
induced him to retire to Nazareth. Subsequently, 
Jesus having given unquestionable evidence of his 
Divine character by healing the withered hand, when 
the Jews took counsel how they might destroy him,^ 
he knowing their wickedness ^^^thdrew himself thence. 
Moreover when he had raised Lazarus from the 
dead, and they had become still more intent on 
destroying him, we are told that Jesus walked no 
more openly among the Jews,t but retired into a 
region on the borders of the desert. Again when the 
Saviour said, ' Before Abraham was, I am,' § and the 
Jews took up stones to cast at him ; Jesus prevented 
their recognising him, and going through the midst 
of them out of the Temple, went away thence, and so 
escajxid. Since then they see these things, or rather 
hear them, (for they will not see), are they not deserv- 
ing of being burnt with fire, according to wliat is 
written, for acting and speaking so plainly contrary 
to all that the Lord did and taught? Finally when 
John had suffered martyrdom, and his disciples had 
buried his body, Jesus having heard what was done, 
departed thence by ship into a desert place apart. II 
Such were the precepts and example of our blessed 
Master. But would that these men of whom I speak, 
had the modesty to confine their rashness to men 
only, without daring to be guilty of such madness as 
to accuse the Saviour himself of timidity ; especially 
after having already uttered blasphemies against him. 
Is their impiety t-o be tolerated? or will not rather 

• Matt. ii. 13. f ^^att. xii. 14, 15. X John xi. 53, 54. 

§ John X. 39, 40. || Matt. xiv. 13. 

CHAP. Vin.] ATHANASIUS'S APOLOGY. — A.D. 361. 257 

their ignorance of the gospels be detected by every 
one? There is then a rational and consistent cause 
for retreat and flight under such circumstances as 
these, of which the evangelists have afforded us pre- 
cedents in the conduct of our Saviour himself: from 
which it may be inferred that the saints have always 
been justly influenced by the same principle, since 
whatever is recorded of him as man, is applicable to 
mankind in general. In taking our nature, he ex- 
hibited in himself the affections of our infirmity,* 
which John has thus indicated : ' Then they sought 
to take him ; but no man laid hands on him, because 
his hour was not yet come.'t Moreover before that 
hour came, he himself said to his mother, * Mine 
hour is not yet come :' ♦ and to those who were de- 
nominated his brethren, ' My time is not yet come.'§ 
Again when the time had arrived, he said to his dis- 
ciples, ' Sleep on now, and take your rest : for behold 
the hour is at hand, and the Son of man shall be be- 
trayed into the hands of sinners. Ml So that he 
neither permitted himself to be apprehended before 
the time came ; nor when the time was come did he 
conceal himself, but voluntarily gave himself up to 
those who had conspired against him. Thus also the 
blessed martyrs have guarded themselves in times of 
persecution: being persecuted they fled, and kept 
themselves concealed; but being discovered they 
suffered martyrdom." Such is the reasoning of Atha- 
nasius in his apology for his own flight. 

* Ta n/c tifjiexipas iiaQepiiat Tradrj. t John vii. 30. 

t John ii. 4. § John vii. 6. || Matt. xxvi. 45. 




SUrroUTEKS of the doctrine of COXSUIiSTANTIALlTY, 

As soon as the council of Alexandria was dissolved, 
l^iUsebius bishop of Verceil went to Antioch; where 
finding that Paulhius had been ordained by Lucifer, 
and that the people were disagreeing among them- 
selves (for the partisans of Meletius held their as- 
semblies apart), he was exceedingly grieved at their 
Avant of unanimity concerning tliis election, and in his 
own mind disapproved of what had taken place. His 
respect for Lucifer however induced him to be silent 
about it, and on his departure he engaged that all 
things should be set right by a council of l)i shops. 
Subsequently he laboured with great earnestness to 
unite the dissentients, but without effect. Mean- 
Avhile Meletius returned from exile; and finding his 
followers holding their assemblies apart from tlu* 
others, he set himself at their head. But Euzoius, 
a prelate of the Arian heresy, had possession of the 
churches: Paulinus only was permitted to retain a 
small one within the city, from which >2uzoius had 
not ejected him, on account of his personal respect for 
him. liut Meletius jissembled his adherents Avithout 
the gates of the city. It was under these circum- 
stances that Eusebius left Antioch fit tliat timc\ 

CHAP. X.] HILARY A. 0.361. 259 

Wlien TAicifcr understood th«at his ordination of l\aul 
was not .approved of by Eiisebius, regarding it as an 
injury done him, he became highly incensed; and not 
only separated himself from communion with him, 
but also began, in a contentious spirit, to condemn 
what had been determined by the S}Tiod. These 
things occurring at a season of grievous disorder, 
created still farther schism; for manj^ attaching them- 
selves to Lucifer, they became a distinct sect, and 
were called by his name. Nevertheless he was unable 
to give full expression to his anger, inasmuch as he 
had pledged himself by his deacon to assent to what- 
ever should be decided on by the Synod. Wherefore 
he adhered to the tenets of the church, and returned 
to Sardinia to his own see : but such as at first iden- 
tified themselves with his quarrel, still continue sepa- 
ratists. Eusebius, on the other hand, travelling 
throughout the Eastern provinces like a good phy- 
sician, completely restored those who were weak in 
the faith, instructing and establishing them in eccle- 
siastical principles. After this he went to Illyricum, 
and thence to Italy, where he pursued a similar 



There however, Hilary bishop of Poictiers, a city of 
Aquitania Secunda, hiid anticipated him, having pre- 
viously confinned the bishops of Italy and Gaul in 
the doctrines of the orthodox faith ; for he first had 

* TlvtH'afluiV. 


returned from exile to these countries. Both there- 
fore nobly combined their energies in defence of the 
faith : and Hilary being a very eloquent man, main- 
tained with great power the consubstantiality of the 
Son of God, and unanswerably confuted the Arian 
tenets in the works which he wrote in Latin. These 
things took place shortly after the recall of those who 
had been banished. But it must be observed, that 
at the same time Macedonius, Eleusius, Eustathius 
and Sophronius, with all their partisans, who had but 
the one common designation Macedonians, held fre- 
quent Synods in various places. Having called to- 
gether those of Seleucia who embraced their views, 
they anathematized the prelates of the other party, 
that is the Acacian : and rejecting the creed of Rimini, 
they confirm that Avhich had been read at Seleucia; 
which, as I have stated in the preceding book, was 
the same as had been before promulgated at Antioch. 
When they were asked by some one, " Why have ye 
who are called Macedonians hitherto retained com- 
munion with the Acacians, as though ye agreed in 
opinion, if ye really hold different sentiments?" they 
replied thus, through Sophronius bishop of Pompei- 
opolis, a city of Paphlagonia: — " Those in the West," 
said he, " were infected with the Homoousian error as 
with a disease: Aetius in the East adulterated the 
purity of the faith by introducing the assertion of a 
dissimilitude of substance. Now both of these dogmas 
are impious : for the former rashly blended into one 
the distinct persons of the Father and the Son, binding 
them together by that cord of iniquity the term 
consubstanticd ; while Aetius wholly separated that 
affinity of nature of the Son to the Father, by the 


expression unlike* as to stibstance or essence. Since 
then both these opinions run into the very opposite 
extremes, the middle course between them appeared 
to us to be more consistent wth truth and piety : we 
accordingly assert that the Son is like the Father as 
to subsistence.''^^ Such was the answer the Macedonians 
made by Sophronius to that question, as Sabinus 
assures us in his Collection of the Acts of Synods. 
But in decrying Aetius as the author of the Anomoian 
doctrine, and not Acacius, they flagrantly disguise 
the truth, in order to seem as far removed from the 
Arians on the one side, as from the Homoousians on 
tlie other : for their own words convict them of 
having separated from them both, merely from the 
love of innovation. With these remarks we close our 
notice of these persons. 




Although at the beginning of his reign the em- 
peror Julian conducted himself mildly toward all men, 
he did not continue to exhibit the same equanimity. 
He most readily indeed acceded to the requests of 
the Christians, when they tended in any way to cast 
odium on the memory of Constantius ; but when no 
inducement of this kind influenced him, he made no 
effort to conceal the rancorous feelings which he en- 
tertained towards Christians in general. Accordingly 
he soon issued a mandate that the church of the 

* ^Arofwlov Kar ohaiay, t Ka0' vroaraviv. 


Novatiaiis at Cyzicum, which Euzoius had totally 
demolished, should be rebuilt, imposing a veiy heavy 
penalty upon Eleusis bishop of that city, if he failed 
to complete that structure at his own expense within 
the space of tAvo months. Moreover he favoured the 
l^igan superstitions Avith the whole weight of his 
authority: for he not only opened their idolatrous 
temples, as we have before stated; but he liimself 
also pubUcly offered sacrifices to the tutelar divinity* 
of the city of Constantinople in the cathedral, ^ where 
its image was erected. 



About this time. Maris bishop of Chalcedon in 
liithynia being led by the hand into the emperor's 
presence, because of his great age, and a disease which 
he had in his eyes tenned the pin and web^' or cataract^ 
severely rebuked his impiety, apostasy, and atheism. 
Julian answered his reproaches by loading him with 
contmnelious epithets : " You blind old fool," said he, 
" this Galilaian God of yours will never cure you." 
For he was accustomed to term Christ the GaUlcean,, 
and Christians Galilteans. Maris with still greater 
boldness replied, " I tluuik God for bereaving me of 
my sight, that I might not behold the face of one who 
has fallen into such awful impiety." The emperor 
suffered this to pass Avithout farther notice at that 
time; but he afterwards had his revenge. ()bserving 

* ^'^XV» ^^^^ public Geuius. t BafttXtik://. 



that those who suffered martyrdom under the reign 
of Diocletian were greatly honoured by the Christians, 
and knowuig tliat many among them were eagerly 
desirous of becoming martyrs, he determined to wreak 
his vengeance upon them in some other way. Ab- 
staining therefore from the excessive cruelties which 
had formerly been practised, he nevertheless directed 
a persecution against them of a less outrageous kind : 
(for any measures adopted to disquiet and molest may 
justly be regarded as persecution). This then was the 
plan he pursued : he enacted a law by which Chris- 
tians were excluded from the cultivation of literature; 
*' Lest," said he, " when they have sharpened their 
tongue, they should be able the more readily to meet 
the arguments of the heathen." 




ILe moreover interdicted such as would not abjure 
Christianity, and offer sacrifice to idols, from holding 
any office at court :* nor would he allow Christians to 
be governors of provinces; " for," said he, " their law 
forbids them to use the sw^ord against offenders worthy 
of capital punishment." He also induced many to 
sacrifice, partly by flatteries, and partly by gifts. 
Tried in this furnace as it were, it at once became 
evident to all, who were the real Christians, and who 
were merely nominal ones. Such as were Christians 
in integrity of heart, very readily resigned their 

* Kara ra ftaaiXtia trrpaTtwaOai, 


commission,* choosing to endure anything rather than 
deny Christ. Of this number were Jovian, Valen- 
tinian, and Valens, each of whom was afterwards 
invested with the imi>erial dignity. But others of 
unsound principles, who preferred the riches and 
honour of this world to the true felicity, sacrificed 
without hesitation. Such was Ecebolius, a sophist t 
of Constantinople, who accommodating himself to the 
dispositions of the emperors, pretended in the reign 
of Constantius to be a very zealous Christian ; Avhile 
in Julian's time he appeared an equally ardent Pagan : 
nay, after Julian's death, he again made a profession 
of Christianity, prostrating himself before the church 
doors, and calling out, " Trample on me, for I am as 
salt that has lost its savour." Of so fickle and incon- 
stant a character was this person, throughout the 
whole period of his history. About this time the 
emperor became anxious to make reprisals on the Per- 
sians, for the frequent incursions they had made on 
the Roman territorities in the reign of Constantius, 
and therefore inarched with great expedition through 
Asia into the East. But as he well knew what a 
ti^ain of calamities attend a war, and what immense 
resources are needful to carry it on successfully, he 
craftily devised a plan for I'eplenishing liis treasury 
by extorting money from the Christians. On all those 
who refused to sacrifice he imposed a heavy fine, 
which was exacted mth great rigour from such as 
were true Christians, every one being compelled to 
pay in proportion to what he possessed. By these 
unjust means the emperor soon amassed immense 
wealth ; for this law was put in execution, not only 

• Zwviyv ciireTiOeyTo* f Professor of rhetoric. 


where Julian was personally present, but also through- 
out all parts of the empire. The Pagans at the same 
time assailed the Christians; and there was a great 
concourse of those who styled themselves philoso- 
phers. They then proceeded to institute certain abo- 
minable mysteries ; and sacrificing children of both 
sexes, they not only inspected their entrails, but even 
tasted their flesh. These infamous rites were prac- 
tised in other cities, but more particularly at Athens 
and Alexandria; in which latter place, a calumnious 
accusation was made against Athanasius the bishop, 
the emperor being assured that he was intent on 
desolating not that city only, but all Egypt, and that 
nothing but his expulsion out of the country could 
save it. The governor of Alexandria was therefore 
instructed by an imperial edict to apprehend him. 



But he fled again, saying to his friends, " Let us 
retire for a little while ; it is but a small cloud Avhich 
will soon pass away." He then immediately embarked, 
and crossing the Nile, hastened with all speed into 
Egypt, closely pursued by those who sought to take 
him. When he understood that his pursuers were 
not far distant, and his attendants were urging him 
to retreat once more into the desert, he had recourse 
to an artifice that enabled hun to eflfect his escape. 
He persuaded those who accompanied him to turn 
back and meet his adversaries, which they instantly 
did; and on approaching them they were simply 


asked whether they had seen Atlianasius: to which 
they replied that he Avas not a great way off, and 
that if they hastened they would soon oveitake him. 
Being thus deluded, they stinted afresli in pursuit 
Avith quickened speed, but to no purpose ; for Atha- 
nasius making good his retreat, returned secretly 
to Alexandria, and remained there concealed until 
the persecution Avas at an end. Such Avere the perils 
to which the bishop of Alexandria was exposed, after 
having been before subjected to so many afflictions 
and calamities, arising partly from Christians, and 
partly from the heathen. In addition to these things, 
the governors of the provinces taking advantage of 
the emperor's superstition to feed their own cupidity, 
committed more grievous outrages on the Christians 
tlian their sovereign had given them a warrant for; 
sometimes exacting larger sums of money than they 
ought to have done, and at others inflicting on them 
corporal punishments. The emperor was not igno- 
rant of these excesses, but connived at them; and 
when the sufferers appealed 'to him against their 
oppressors, he tauntingly said, "It is your duty to 
bear these afflictions patiently; for this is the com- 
mand of your God." 




Amachius governor of Phrygia ordered that the 
temple at Merus, a city of that province, should be 
opened, and cleared of the lilth which luid accunm- 

CHAP. XV.] MARTYKS AT MEUUS. — A. 1). 362. 207 

lated there by lapse of time : also that the statues it 
eoutaiued should be fresh [)olished. This revival of 
superstition was so obnoxious to the Christians, that 
three of tlieir number, Macedonius, Theodulus and 
Tatian, unable to endure the indignity tlius put upon 
their religion, and uniKjUed by a fervent zeal for 
virtue, rushed by night into the temple, and brake 
the images in pieces. The governor infuriated at 
what had been done, would have destroyed many in 
that city who were altogether innocent, htid not the 
authors of the deed voluntarily surrendered them- 
selves, choosing rather to die themselves in defence of 
the truth, than to see others put to death in their 
steiid. Being seized, they were ordered to expiate 
tlie crime they had committed by sacrificing: on 
their refusal to do this, their judge menaced them 
Avith tortures ; but they despising his threats, being 
endowed with great courage, declared their readiness 
to undergo any sufferings, rather than pollute them- 
selves by sacrificing. After being nicked Avith a 
variety of torments, they were at last laid on grid- 
irons under which a fire was placed, and thus they 
were destroyed. But even in this last extremity they 
gave the most heroic proofs of fortitude, addressmg 
the ruthless governor thus: — "If you wish to eat 
broiled flesh, Amachius, turn us on the other side 
also, lest we should appear but half-cooked to your 




The imperial law which forbad Christians to study 
Grecian literature, rendered the two Apollinares of 
whom we have above spoken, much more distinguished 
than before. For both being skilled in polite learning, 
the father as a grammarian, and the son as a rhetori- 
cian, they each became exceedingly serviceable to the 
Christians at this crisis. For the former, according 
to his art, composed a grammar consistent with the 
Christian faith : he also translated the Books of Moses 
into heroic verse ; and paraphrased all the historical 
books of the Old Testament, putting them partly into 
dactylic measure, and partly reducing them to the 
form of dramatic tragedy. He purposely employed 
all kinds of verse, that no form of expression peculiar 
to the Greek language might be unknown or unheard 
of amongst Christians. The younger Apollinaris, 
who was well trained in eloquence, expounded the 
gospels and apostolic doctrines in the way of dialogue, 
following Plato among the Greeks as his model. By 
this joint service to the Christian cause, they baffled 
the emperor's subtlety. But Divine Providence was 
more potent than either of their labours, or the craft 
they had to contend with : for death in carrying off 
its framer, in the manner we shall hereafter explain, 
rendered the law wholly inoperative ; and the works 
of these men are now of no greater importance, than 


if they had never been written. I can imagine an 
objector demurring here, and making this enquiry : — 
" On what grounds do you affirm that both these 
things were effected by the providence of God? 
That the emperor's sudden death was very advan- 
tageous to Christianity is indeed evident : but surely 
the rejection of the Christian compositions of the two 
Apollinares, and the Christians beginning afresh to 
imbue their minds with the philosophy of the heathens, 
in which there is the constant assertion of Polytheism, 
instead of being conducive to the promotion of true 
religion, is rather to be deprecated as subversive of 
it." This objection I shall meet with such considera- 
tions as at present occur to me. Greek literature 
certainly was never recognised either by Christ or his 
Apostles as divinely-inspired,* nor on the other hand 
was it wholly rejected as pernicious. And thus they 
left it, I conceive, not inconsiderately. For there 
were many philosophers among the Greeks who were 
not far from the knowledge of God; and these being 
disciplined by logical science, strenuously opposed 
the Epicureans and other contentious Sophists who 
denied Divine Providence, confuting their ignorance. 
The writings of such men have ever been appreciated 
by all lovers of real piety: nevertheless they them- 
selves were unacquainted mth the Head of true reli- 
gion, being ignorant of the mystery of Christ which 
had been hidden from generations and ages (Col. i. 
26). And that this was so, the Apostle hi his epistle 
to the Romans ^ thus declares: — "For the wrath of 
God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness 
and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in 

• G€<5irv£i;flrroc. t Rom. i. 18—21. 


unrighteousness. liecause that Avhich may be kno^vTi 
of God is manifest in them ; for God has shown it unto 
them. For the invisible things of him from the 
creation of the world are clearly seen, being under- 
stood by the things that are made, even his eternal 
power and Godhead,* that they may be wthout 
excuse: because that when they knew God, they 
glorified him not as God." From these Avords it 
appears that they had the knowledge of truth, Avhich 
God had manifested to them; but were culpable on 
this account, that when they knew God, they glorified 
him not as God. Wherefore since it is not forbidden 
us to study the learned works of the Greeks, we are 
left at liberty to do so if we please. This is our first 
argument in defence of the iX)sition we took : another 
may be thus put. The divinely-inspired Scriptures 
undoubtedly inculcate doctrines that are both ad- 
mirable in themselves, and heavenly in their cha- 
racter: they also eminently tend to produce piety 
and integrity of life in those who are guided by their 
precepts, pointing out a walk of faith which is highly 
approved of God. But they do not instruct us in 
the art of reasoning, by means of which we may be 
enabled successfully to resist those wlio oppose tlie 
truth. Besides adversaries are most easily foiled, 
when we can turn their OAvn weapons against them. 
But this power was not supplied to Christians by the 
Avritings of the Apollinares. Julian well knew when 
he prohibited by law Christians from being educated 
in Greek literature, that the fables it contains would 
expose the whole Pagan system, of which he had 
become the champion, to ridicule and contempt. 

* Eic TO elrai airrovQ ai'airoXoy^rovc- 


Even Socrates, the most celebrated of their philo- 
sophers, despised these absurdities, and was con- 
demned to die on account of it, as if he had attempted 
to violate the sanctity of their deities. Moreover 
both Christ and his Apostle enjoin us " to become\ 
discriminating money-changers,* so that we might 
' prove all things, and hold fast that which is good :' " ♦ 
directing us also to "beware lest any one should ^ 
spoil us through philosophy and vain deceit."^ But '-^ 
this we cannot do, unless we possess ourselves of the 
weapons of our adversaries : taking care that in 
making this acquisition we do not adopt their senti- 
ments, but analysing whatever is presented to us, ^ 
reject the evil, but retain Avhat is good and true ; for i^ 
good wherever it is found, is a property of truth. 
Should any one imagine that in making these asser- 
tions Ave wrest the Scriptures from their legitimate 
construction, let it be remembered that the Apostle w/ 
not only does not forbid our being instructed in 
Greek learning, but that he himself seems by no 
means to have neglected it, inasmuch as he often 
quotes from Greek authors. Wlience did he get the 
saying, " The Cretians are always liars, evil beasts, 
slow-beUies,"^ but from a perusal of " The Oracles of 
Epimenides," the Cretian Initiator? Or how would 
he have knoAvn this, " For we are also his offspring," || 
had he not been acquainted with " The Phenomena of 
Aratus" the astronomer? Again this sentence, " Evil 

• TpaireZirai doKifioi ! This expression is not now found in Scrip- 
ture, though Origen and Jerome attest it ; and Usher supposes it to 
have been recorded as a saying of our Lord in ** tJie Gospel according 
to the Hebrews" !!! 

t 1 ThcB. V. 21. : Col. ii. 8. J Tit. i. 12. || Acts xvii. 28. 

■^' • ♦ I - 




communications corrupt good manners," is a suffi- 
cient proof that he was conversant with " The Tra- 
gedies of Euripides." But what need is there of 
enlarging on this point? It is well known that in 
ancient times the doctors of the church by unin- 
^ terrupted usage were accustomed to exercise them- 

selves in the learning of the Greeks, until they had 
reached an advanced age : this they did with a view 
to strengthen and polish the mind, as well as to 
improve in eloquence ; and at the same time to 
enable them to refute the errors of the heathen. 
With these remarks we close our allusion to the two 


TITLED " misop5gon, or the beard-hater." 

The emperor having extorted immense sums of 
money from the Christians, accelerates his expedition 
against the Persians, and proceeds to Antioch in 
Syria. There, desiring to show the citizens how 
much he affected glory, he unduly depressed the 
prices of commodities; neither taking into account 
the circumstances of that time, nor reflecting how 
much the presence of an army inconveniences the 
population of a province, and lessens the supply of 
provisions to the cities. The merchants and retailers 
therefore left off trading, being unable to sustain the 

* I Cor. XV. 33. 


CHAP. XVII.] JULIAN. — A.D. 362. 273 

losses which the imperial edict entailed upon them; 
consequently the markets were unfurnished with 
necessaries. This arbitrary conduct, together with 
its effect, so exasperated the Antiochians, a people 
naturally predisposed to insolence, that they instantly 
broke forth into invectives against Julian; carica- 
turing his beard also, which was a very long one, and 
sajdng that it ought to be cut off and manufactured 
into ropes. They added that the bull which was 
impressed upon his coin, was a symbol of his having 
desolated the world. For this emperor, in his excess 
of superstitious devotion, was continually sacrificing 
bulls * on the altars of his idols ; and had ordered the 
impression of a bull and altar to be made on his coin. 
Irritated by these scoffs, he threatened to punish the 
city of Antioch, and to return to Tarsus in Cilicia, 
giving orders that preparations should be made for 
his speedy departure thence. Libanius the sophist 
made this an occasion of composing two orations, one 
addressed to the emperor in behalf of the Antiochians, 
the other to the inhabitants of Antioch on the em- 
peror's displeasure. It is however affirmed that these 
compositions were merely written, and never recited 
in public. Julian abandoning his former purpose of 
revenging himself on his satirists by injurious deeds, 
expended his wrath in reciprocating their abusive 
taunts ; for he wrote a pamphlet against them which 
he entitled "Antiochicus or Misopogon," thus leaving 
an indelible stigma upon that city and its inhabitants. 
But we must now speak of the evils which he brought 
upon the Christians at Antioch. 

* Hence Gregory of Nazianzeii styles him, Kavtriravpoy, bull- 





Having ordered that the Pagan temples at Antioch 
should be opened, he was very eager to obtain an 
oracle from Apollo Daphnosus. But the demon that 
inhabited the temple remained silent through fear of 
his neighbour Baby las the martyr; for the coffin 
which contained the body of that saint was close by. 
TVTien the emperor was informed of this circumstance, 
he commanded that the coffin should be immediately 
removed : upon which the Christians of Antioch, in- 
cluding women and children, transported the coffin 
from Daphne to the city, Avith solemn rejoicings and 
chanting of psalms. The psalms were such as cast 
reproach on the gods of the heathen, and those who 
put confidence in them and their images. 




The emperor's real temper and disposition, which 
he had hitherto kept as much as possible from ob- 
servation, now became fully manifested : for he who 
had boasted so much of his philosophy, was no longer 
able to restrain himself; but being goaded almost to 
madness by these reproachful hymns, he w^as ready 


CHAP. XIX.] THEODORE. — A.D.362. 275 

to inflict the same cruelties on the Christians, with 
which Diocletian had formerly visited them. Never- 
theless his solicitude about the Persian expedition, 
aflforded him no leisure for personally executing his 
Avishes; he therefore commanded Sidlust the Prae- 
torian pncfect to seize those who had been most con- 
spicuous for their zeal in psalm-singing, in order to 
make examples of them. The praBfect, though a 
Pagan, was far from being pleased with his com- 
mission; but since he durst not contravene it, he 
caused several of the Christians to be apprehended, 
and some of them were imprisoned. On one young 
man named Theodore, whom the heathens brought 
before him, he inflicted a variety of tortures, causing 
his person to be so lacerated that he was released from 
further punishment, • under the supposition that he 
could not possibly outlive the torments he had en- 
dured: yet God preserved this sufferer, so that he 
long survived that confession. Rufinus, the author of 
an "Ecclesiastical History'' written in Latin, states' 
that he himself conversed with the same Theodore a 
considerable time afterwards: and on enquiring of 
him whether in the process of scourging and racking 
he had not felt the most agonizing pains, his 
answer w^as, that he was but little sensible of the tor- 
tures to which he was subjected ; and that a young 
man stood by him who both wiped off the sweat which 
was produced by the acuteness of the ordeal through 
which he Wixs passing, and at the same time strength- 
ened his mind, so that he rendered this time of trial 
a season of rapture rather than of suffering. Such 
was the testimony of the excellent Theodore. About 
this time Persian ambassadors came to the emperor, 


requesting him to terminate the war on certain ex- 
press conditions. But Julian abruptly dismissed 
them, saying, " You shall very shortly see us in 
person, so that there will be no need of an embassy." 



The superstition of the emperor became still more 
apparent in his further attempts to molest the Chris- 
tians. Being fond of sacrificing, he not only himself 
delighted in the blood of victims, but considered it 
an indignity offered to him, if others did not manifest 
a similar taste. And as he found but few persons of 
this stamp, he sent for the Jews and enquired of them 
why they abstained from sacrificing, since the law of 
Moses enjoined it? On their replyhig that it wiis not 
permitted them to do this in any other place than 
Jerusalem, he immediately ordered them to rebuild 
Solomon's temple. Meanwhile he himself proceeded 
on his expedition against the Persians. The Jews 
who had been long desirous of obtaining a favourable 
opportunity for rearing their temple afresh in order 
that they might therein offer sacrifice, applied them- 
selves very vigorously to the work; and conducting 
themselves with great insolence toward the Christians, 
threatened to do them as much mischief, as they had 
themselves suffered from the Romans. The emperor 
having ordered that the expenses of this structure 
should be defrayed out of the public treasury, all 


CHAP. XX.] TEMPLE OF THE JEWS. — ^A.D. 362. 277 

things were soon provided; so that they were fur- 
nished Avith timber and stone, burnt brick, clay, lime, 
and all other materials necessary for building. On 
this occasion Cyril bishop of Jerusalem, calling to 
mind the prophecy of Daniel, which Christ also in the 
holy gospels has confinned, predicted in the presence 
of many persons, that the time would very soon come 
in which one stone should not be left upon another 
in that temple, but that the Saviour's prophetic* 
declaration should have its full accomplishment. Such 
were the bishop's words : and on the night foUoAving, 
a mighty earthquake tore up the stones of the old 
foundations of the temple, and dispersed them all 
together vnth the adjacent edifices. Tliis circum- 
stance exceedingly terrified the Jews ; and the report 
of it brought many to the spot who resided at a great 
distance : when therefore a vast multitude was assem- 
bled another prodigy took place. Fire came down 
from heaven and consumed all the builders' tools: 
so that for one entire day the flames were seen prey- 
ing upon mallets, irons to smooth and polish stones, 
saws, hatchets, adzes, in short aU the various imple- 
ments which the workmen had procured as necessary 
for the undertaking. The Jews indeed were in the 
greatest possible alarm, and unwillingly confessed 
that Christ is God: yet they did not his will; but 
influenced by inveterate prepossessions they still clung 
to Judaism. Even a third miracle which afterwards 
happened failed to induce a belief of the truth. For 
the next night luminous impressions of a cross ap- 
peared imprinted on their garments, which at day- 
break they in vain attempted to rub or wash out. 

* Aoyioy, 


They were therefore blinded as the ai)ostle says, and 
cast away the good which they had in their hands : 
and thus was the temple, instead of being rebuilt, at 
that time wholly overthrown. 



Julian having learnt that the Persians were greatly 
enfeebled and totally spiritless in winter, and that 
from their inability to endure cold, and abstaining 
from military service at that season, it became a pro- 
verb that a Mede laiU not then draic his hand from 
underneath his cloak^ marched his army into the 
Persian territories a little before spring ; well knowing 
that the Romans were inured to brave all the rigours 
of the atmosphere. After devastating a considerable 
tract of country, including numerous villages and 
fortresses, they next assailed the cities; and having 
invested the great city Ctesiphon, the king of the 
Persians was reduced to such straits that he sent 
repeated embassies to the emperor, offering to sur- 
render a portion of his dominions, on condition of his 
quitting the country, and putting an end to the war. 
But Julian was unaffected by these submissions, and 
showed no compassion to a suppliant foe : foi*gctful of 
the adage, To conquer is hanourable^ Imt to be more than 
conqueror* is odious. Giving credit to the divinations 
of the philosopher Maximus, with whom he was in 
continual intercourse, he was deluded into the belief 
that his exploits would not only equal, but exceed 

* 'YvepyiK^Vj the same expression as is used Rom. viii. 37. 

CIIA1\ XXI.] DEATH OF JULIAN. A.D. 363. 279 

those of Alexander of Macedon ; so that he 8])uriied 
with contempt the entreaties of the Persian monarch. 
Nay, so imix)sed on was he by the absurd notions of 
Pythagoras and Phito on the tranfuniciration of souh* 
that he imagined himself to be possessed of Alex- 
ander's soul, or rather that he himself was Alexander 
in another body. These ridiculous fancies preventing 
his listening to any negociations for peace, the king 
of the Persians was constrained to prepare for conflict, 
and therefore on the next day after the rejection of 
his embassy, he drew out in order of battle all the 
forces he had. The Romans indeed censured their 
prince, for not avoiding an engagement when he 
might have done so >vith advantage: nevertheless 
they attacked those who opposed them, and again 
put the enemy to flight. The emperor was present 
on horseback, and encouraged his soldiers in battle; 
but confiding in his hope of success, he wore no 
annour. In this defenceless state, a dart cast by 
some one unknown, pierced through his arm and en- 
t<*red his side, making a wound that caused his death. 
Some say that a certain Persian hurled the javelin, 
and then fled ; others assert that one of his own men 
was the author of the deed, which indeed is the best 
corroborated and most current report. But Callistus, 
one of his body-guards, who celebrated this emperor's 
deeds in heroic verse, says in narrating the particulars 
of this war, that the wound of which he died was 
inflicted by a demon. This is possibly a mere poetical 
fiction, or perhaps it was really the fact ; for vengeful 
furies t have undoubtedly destroyed many persons. 
Be the case however as it may, this is (pertain, that 


the ardour of his natural temperaiuent rendered liim 
incautious, his learning made him vain, and his affec- 
tation of clemency exposed him to contempt. Thus 
Julian's existence was terminated in Persia, as we 
have said, in his fourth consulate, which he bore with 
Sallust his colleague. This event occurred on the 
26th of June, in the third year of his reign, and the 
seventh from his having been created CiBsar by Cou- 
stantius, he being at that time in the thirty-first 
year of his age. 



The soldiery in extreme perplexity at an event so 
unexj>ected, on the following day proclaim Jovian 
emj)eror, a person alike distinguished by his courage 
and birth. He was a military tribune when Julian 
put forth an edict giving his officers the option of 
either sacrificing or resigning their rank in the army, 
and chose rather to lay down his commission, than to 
obey the mandate of an impious prince. Julian how- 
ever being pressed by the urgency of the war which 
was before him, would not accept his resignation, but 
continued him among his generals. On being saluted 
emperor, he positively declined to accept the sovereign 
power : and when the soldiers brought him fonvard 
by force, he declared that being a Christian, he did 
not wish to reign over a people devoted to idolatrous 
superstitions. They all then with one voice answered 
that they also were Christians : upon which he allowed 
himself to be invested with the imperial dignity. 


Perceiving himself suddenly left in very difficult cir- 
cumstances, in the heart of a hostile country, where 
his army was in danger of perishing for want of 
necessaries, he agreed to terminate the war, even on 
terms by no means honourable to the glory of the 
Roman name ; although the exigencies of the present 
crisis obliged him to accede to them. Submitting 
therefore to the loss of the borders* of the empire, 
(i.e. the districts beyond the Tigris,) and giving up 
also Nisibis, a city of Mesopotamia, to the Persians, 
he Avithdrew from their territories. The announce- 
ment of these things gave fresh hope to the Christians ; 
while the Pagans vehemently bewailed Julian's death. 
Nevertheless the whole anny reprobated his intem- 
perate heat, and ascribed to his rashness in listening 
to the wily reports of a Persian deserter, the humi- 
liating position in which they found themselves sub- 
sequently placed : for being imposed upon by the 
statements of this fugitive, he was induced to bum 
the ships which supplied them with provisions by 
water, by which means they were exposed to aU the 
horrors of famine. Libanius composed a Funeral 
Oration on him, which he designated the Jvlianian 
Epitaph^ wherein he not only celebrates mth lofty 
encomiums almost all his actions; but in referring to 
the lx)oks which Julian Avrote against the Christians, 
says that he has therein clearly demonstrated the 
ridiculous and trifling character of their sacred books. 
Had this sophist contented himself Avith extolling the 

* The original is tovq Xvpovc Tfjc apxijc, the government of Syria, 
which is confirmed by Epiphanius and Nicephorus: but Valerius 
denies the fact, and says the true reading should be rov^ opov^ rijc 
<^PX^-> which seems to be afterwards established by Socrates himself. 


emperor's other acts, I should have quietly proceeded 
with the course of my liistory; but since this violent 
declaimer has thought proper to take occasion to 
inveigh against the Christian Religion, we shall pause 
a little to consider his words. 




" When the winter," says he, '' had lengthened the 
nights, the emperor undertook an examination of 
those books which make the man of Palestine both 
God, and the Son of God : and by a long series of 
arguments he has incontrovertibly proved that these 
writings, which are so much revered by Christians, 
abound with the most superstitious extravagances. 
In this matter therefore he has evinced himself wiser 
and more skilful than the Tyrian* old man. But 
may this Tyrian sage be propitious to me, and 
mildly bear witli what has been affirmed, seeing 
that he has been excelled by his son!" Such is 
the language of Libanius, who was unquestionably 
a man of great oratorical ability. Hut 1 am per- 
suaded that ^ had he not coincided with the emperor 
in religious sentiment, he would not only have given 
expression to all that has been said against him by 
Christians, but would have magnified every ground 
of censure with all the elaborateness of his art. While 
Constantius was alive he wrote encomiums upon liim ; 
but after his death he brought the most insulting and 

* Porphyry. 


reproachful charges against him. If Porphyry had 
been emperor, Libanius would certainly have pre- 
ferred his books to Julian's : and had Julian been a 
mere sophist,* he would have termed him a very indif- 
ferent one, as he does Ecebolius in his " Epitaph upon 
Julian." Since then he has spoken in the spirit of 
a Pagan, a sophist, and the friend of him whom he 
lauded, we shall endeavour to meet what he has ad- 
vanced, as far as we are able. In the first place he 
says that the emperor undertook to examine these 
books during the long winter nights: by which he 
means that he devoted that time in writing a confu- 
tation of them, as the sophists commonly do in teach- 
ing the rudiments of their art; for he had perused 
these books long before. But throughout the whole 
tedious contest into which he entered, instead of 
attempting to disprove any thing by sound reasoning, 
as Libanius asserts, the conscious want of truth and 
solid argument obliged him to have recourse to sneers 
and contemptuous jests, of which he was excessively 
fond; and thus he sought to hold up to derision, 
what is too firmly established to be overthrown. 
Thus too we often see one who enters into contro- 
versy with another, sometimes trying to pervert the 
truth, and at others to conceal it, endeavouring by 
every possible means to obtain an unfair advantage 
over liis antagonist. And an adversary is not satisfied 
with doing malignant acts against one with whom 
he is at variance, but will speak against him also, 
and charge upon the object of his dislike the very 
faults he is conscious of in himself. That both Julian 
and Pori)hyry, whom Libanius cidls the Tyrian old 

* Rhetorician. 


man, took great delight in scoffing, is evident from 
their OAvn works. For Porphyry in his " History of 
the Philosophers" has treated with ridicule the life 
of Socrates, the most eminent of them all, making 
such remarks on him as neither Melitus, nor Anytus, 
his accusers, would have dared to utter: a man 
admired by all the Greeks for his modesty, justice, 
and other virtues ; whom Plato, the most admirable 
among them, Xenophon, and the rest of the philo- 
sophic band, not only honour as one beloved of God, 
but also account as having been endowed vnth super- 
human intelligence. And Julian, imitating his father,* 
displayed a like morbidness of mind in his book 
entitled " The Caesars," wherein he traduces all his 
imperial predecessors, not sparing even Mark the 
philosopher. Their own writings therefore show that 
they both took pleasure in taunts and reviling : and 
that such was the natural propensity of Julian in 
particular, is thus attested by Gregory of Nazianzen, 
in his " Second Oration against the Pagans." 

" These things were made evident to others by ex- 
perience, after the possession of imperial authority had 
left him free to follow the bent of his inclinations: 
but 1 had foreseen it all, from the time I became 
acquainted with him at Athens. Thither he came, 
by permission of the emperor, soon after the change 
in his brother's fortune. His motive for this visit 
was twofold: one reason was honourable to him, viz. 
to see Greece, and attend the schools t there; the 
other was a clandestine one, which few knew any- 
thing about, for his impiety had not yet presumed to 
openly avow itself, viz. to have opportunity of con- 

* Porphyry. f UaihvrripiijJt'. 


suiting the sacrificers and other impostors respecting 
liis own destiny. I well remember that even then 
T was no bad diviner concerning this person, although 
I by no means pretend to be one of those skilled in 
the art of divination : but the fickleness of his dispo- 
sition, and the incredible extravagancy of his mind, 
rendered me prophetic ; if indeed he is the best pro- 
phet whose conjectures are verified by subsequent 
events. For it seemed to me that no good was por- 
tended by a neck seldom steady, the frequent shrug- 
ging of shoulders, an eye scowling* and always in 
motion, together with a phrenzied aspect ; a gait irre- 
gular and tottering, a nose breathing only contempt 
and insult, with ridiculous contortions of countenance 
expressive of the same thing; immoderate and very 
loud laughter, nods as it were of assent, and drawings 
back of the head as if in denial, without any visible 
cause ; speech with hesitancy and interrupted by his 
breathing; disorderly and senseless questions, with 
answers of a corresponding character, all jumbled 
together without the least consistency or method. 
Why need I enter into more minute particulars? 
Long before time had developed in action the sort 
of person he really was, 1 had foreseen what his con- 
duct has made manifest. And if any of those who 
were then present and heard me, were now here, 
they would readily testify that when 1 observed these 
I)rognostics I exclaimed. Ah ! how great a mischief to 
itself is the Roman empire fostering ! And that when 
I had uttered these words 1 prayed God that I might 
be a false prophet. For it would have been far 
happier that I should have been convicted of having 

* ^flovfiivor. 


formed an erroneous judgment, than that the world 
should be filled with so many calamities, by the exist- 
ence of a monster such as never before appeared: 
although many deluges and conflagrations are re- 
corded, many earthquakes and chasms, and descrip- 
tions are given of many ferocious and inhuman men, 
as well as prodigies of the brute creation, compounded 
of dificrent races, of which nature produced unusual 
forms. His end has indeed been such as corresjx)nds 
with the madness of his career." 

This is the sketch which Gregory has given us of 
Julian. Moreover that in their various compilations 
they have endeavoured to subvert the truth, some- 
times by the corruption of passages of sacred Scrip- 
ture, at others by cither adding or taking away from 
the express words, and putting such a construction 
upon them as suited their own purpose, many have 
demonstrated, who in answering their cavils, have 
abundantly exposed their fallacies. Origen in par- 
ticular, who lived long before Julian's time, by him- 
self raising objections to such passages of Holy Scrip- 
ture as seemed to disturb some readers, and then 
fully meeting them, has repelled the invidious cla- 
mours of the Ul-aficcted. And had Julian and 1 Por- 
phyry given his writings a candid and serious perusal, 
they would have discoursed on other topics, and not 
have lent their minds to the framing of blasphemous 
sophisms. It is also very obvious that the emperor in 
his discourses was intent on beguiling the ignorant, 
and did not address himself to those who retain an 
impression of the truth as it is presented in the sacred 
Scriptures. For having grouped together various 


expressions in which God is spoken of dispensationally, 
and more according to the manner of men, he thus 
comments on them. " Every one of these expressions 
is fiill of blasphemy against God, unless the phrase 
contains some occult and mysterious sense, which 
indeed 1 can suppose." This is the language he uses 
in his third book against the Christians. But in his 
treatise " On the Cynic Philosophy," where he shows 
to what extent fables may be invented on religious 
subjects, he says that in such matters the truth must 
be veiled : " For," to quote his very words, " Nature 
loves concealment; and the hidden substa,nce of the 
gods cannot endure being cast into polluted ears in 
naked words." From which it is manifest that the 
emperor entertained this notion concerning the divine 
Scriptures, that they are mystical discourses, con- 
taining in them some abstruse meaning. He is also 
very indignant because all men do not form the same 
opinion of them; and inveighs against those Chris- 
tians who understand the sacred oracles in a more 
literal sense. ]5ut it ill became him to rail so vehe- 
mently against the simplicity of the vulgar, and on 
their account to behave so arrogantly towards the 
sacred Scriptures : nor was he warranted in turning 
vnth aversion from those things which others rightly 
apprehended, because they understood them otherwise 
than he desired they should. A similar cause of dis- 
gust seems to have operated upon him that affected 
Porphyry, who having been beaten by some Chris- 
tians at Csesarea in Palestine, from the working of 
unrestrained rage renounced the Christian religion: 
and his hatred of those who had beaten him further 
urged him to write blasphemous works against 


Christians, which have been ably answered by Euse- 
bius Pamphilus, who at the same time exposes the 
motives by which he was influenced. So the emperor 
having uttered disdainful expressions against the 
Christians in the presence of an unthinking multi- 
tude, through the same morbid condition of mind 
fell into Porphyry's blasphemies. Since therefore 
they both wilfully broke forth into impiety, they 
are punished by the consciousness of their guilt. 
But when Libanius the Sophist says in derision, that 
the Christians make a man of Palestine both God and 
the Son of God, he appears to have forgotten that he 
himself has deified Julian at the close of his oration. 
''For they almost killed," says he, "the first messenger 
of his death, as if he had lied against a god." And a 
little afterwards he adds, "0 thou cherished one of the 
demons ! thou disciple of the demons ! thou assessor* 
with the demons!" Now although Libanius may 
have meant otherwise, yet inasmuch as he did not 
avoid the ambiguity of a word which is sometimes 
taken in a bad sense, he seems to have said the same 
things as the Christians had done reproachfully. If 
then it was his intention to praise him, he ought to 
have avoided equivocal terms; as he did on another 
occasion, when he substituted a more definite word 
for one which had been objected to. Moreover that 
man in Christ was united to the Godhead, so that 
while he was apparently but man, he was the invisible 
God, and that both these things are most true, the 
divine books of Christians distinctly teach. But the 
heathen before they believe, cannot understand: for 
it is the oracle of God that declares (Isa. vii. 9), 

* Uapthpevra, 


"Unless ye believe, assuredly ye shall not under- 
stand."* Wherefore they are not ashamed to place 
many men among the number of their gods: and 
would that, as to their morals, they had at least 
been good, just and sober, instead of being impure, 
unjust and addicted to drunkenness, like the Hercules, 
the Bacchus, and the ^sculapius, by whom Libanius 
does not blush to swear frequently in his orations. 
It would lead me into a tedious digression were I to 
attempt to describe the unnatural debaucheries and 
infamous adulteries of these objects of their worship : 
but those who desire to be informed on the subject, 
will find abundant evidence in " Aristotle's Peplum," 
" Dionysius's Corona," " Rheginus's Polymnemon," 
and the whole host of poets, that the Pagan theology 
is a tissue of extravagant absurdities. We might 
indeed shew by a variety of instances that the practice 
of deifying human beings was far from uncommon 
among the heathen, nay that they did so without the 
slightest hesitation : let a few examples suffice. The 
Rhodians having consulted an oracle on some public 
calamity, a response was given directing them to pay 
their adoration to Atys, a Pagan priest who insti- 
tuted frantic rites in Phr}^gia. The oracle was thus 
expressed : — 

** Atys the mighty god propitiate, 
Adonis chaste devoutly supplicate, 
The fair-hair*d Bacchus claims your pious vows. 
Who life's best gifts abundantly bestows." 

Here Atys, who from an amatory mania had cas- 
trated himself, is by the oracle designated as Adonis 
and Bacchus. 

* From LXX. Kal tap /u) iriarivditrij ohhe /ij) <n;v^e. 



Again, when Alexander king of the Macedonians 
passed over into Asia, the Amphictyons courted 
his favour, and the Pythoness uttered this oracle : — 

*' To Jove supreme who holds o'er gods his sway,] 
And Pallas Tritogenia homage pay, 
The king divine in mortal form concealed. 
His glorious lineage hy his acts reveal'd : 
Justice and Truth his heaven-horn race proclaim. 
And nations bow at Alexander's name" 

These are the words of the demon at Delphos, who 
when he wished to flatter potentates, did not scruple 
to assign them a place among the gods. The motive 
here was plainly to conciliate by adulation : but what 
adequate inducement was there in the case of Cleo- 
medes the pugilist, whom they ranked among the 
gods in this oracle : — 

" To Cleomedes, mortal now no more. 
As last of heroes, full libations pour." 

Diogenes the cynic, and Oenomaus the philosopher, 
strongly condemned Apollo because of this oracle. 
The inhabitants of Cyzicum declared Adrian to be 
the thirteenth god ; and that emperor himself deified 
his own catamite Antinous. Libanius does not term 
these ridiculous and contemptible absurdities, although 
he was familiar with these oracles, as well as with 
Lucian's* life of Alexander (the pseudo-prophet of 
Paphlagonia) : nor does he himself hesitate to dignify 
Porphyry in a similar manner, when after having pre- 

* Adrias in the original, Andrias in Flor. MS., Adrian according 
to Langus, and others write Arrian, all which Valesius doubts the 
authenticity of, believing that Socrates here alludes to the'AXi^ai^^poc 
// \l/evc6^avTic of Lucian. 


CHAP. XXIV.] JOVIAN. — A.D. 363. 291 

ferred Julian's books to his, he says, " May the Syrian 
be propitious to me." This digression will suffice to 
repel the scoffs of the sophist, without following him 
farther in what he has advanced ; for to enter into a 
complete refutation would require an express work. 
We shall therefore proceed with our history. 




After Jovian's return from Persia, ecclesiastical 
commotions were again renewed : for those who pre- 
sided over the churches endeavoured to anticipate 
each other, in the hope of influencing the emperor to 
favour their own tenets. He however had from the 
beginning adhered to the Homoousian faith, and 
openly declared that he preferred this to all others. 
He wrote also by way of encouragement to Athana* 
sius, who immediately after Julian's death had re- 
covered the Alexandrine church; and recalled from 
exile all those prelates whom Constantius had ba- 
nished, and who had not been re-established by 
Julian. Moreover the Pagan temples were again 
shut up, and their priests secreted themselves wher- 
ever they were able. The philosophers also laid 
aside their palliums, and clothed themselves in or- 
dinary attire. That public pollution by the blood of 
victims, which had been profusely lavished even to 
disgust in the preceding reign, was now likewise 
taken away. 




Meanwhile the state of the church was by no 
means tranquil; for the heads of each party as- 
siduously paid their court to the emperor, with a 
view of obtaining not only protection for themselves, 
but also power against their opponents. And first 
the Macedonians present a petition to him, in which 
they begged that all those who asserted the Son to 
be unlike the Father, might be expelled from the 
churches, and themselves allowed to take their place. 
This supplication was presented by Basil bishop of 
Ancyra, Silvanus of Tarsus, Sophronius of Pompei- 
opolis, Pasinicus of Zete, Leontius of Comani, Calli- 
crates of Claudiopolis, and Theophilus of Castabali. 
The emperor having perused it, dismissed them mth- 
out any other answer than this : " I abominate con- 
tentiousness ; but I love and honour those who exert 
themselves to promote unanimity." When this re- 
mark became generally known, it effected the empe- 
ror's purpose in making it, by subduing the violence 
of those who were desirous of altercation. At this 
time the real spirit of the Acacian sect, and their 
readiness to accommodate their opinions to those in- 
vested with supreme authority, became more con- 
spicuous than ever. For assembling themselves at 
Antioch in Syria, they entered into a conference with 
Meletius, who had separated from them a little before, 
and embraced the Homoousian opinion. This they 

CHAP. XXV.] SYNOD OF ANTIOCH. — A.D. 363. 293 

did because they saw Meletius was in high estimation 
with the emperor, who then resided at Antioch. 
Having therefore followed his example, and assented 
to the Nicene creed, they by common consent drew 
up a declaration of their sentiments, and presented it 
to Jovian. It was expressed in the following terms. 

" The Synod of bishops convened at Antioch out of 
various provinces, to the most pious and dear to God, 
our lord Jovian Victor Augustus. 

" That your piety has above all things aimed at 
estabUshing the peace and harmony of the church, we 
ourselves, most devout emj)eror, are fully aware. Nor 
are we insensible that you have wisely judged an 
acknowledgement of the orthodox faith to be the 
fountain-head of this unity. AVherefore lest we should 
be included in the number of those who adulterate 
the doctrine of the truth, we hereby declare to your 
piety that we embrace and steadfastly hold the faith 
of the holy Sjiiod fonnerly convened at Nice. Esj^e- 
cially since the term o/jloovo-lo^ consiibstantial^ which to 
some seems novel and inappropriate, has been judici- 
ously explained by the fathers to denote simply that 
the Son was begotten of the Father's substance, and 
that he is like the Father as to substance. Not indeed 
that any passion is to be understood in relation to that 
ineffable generation. Nor is the tenn (ovaia) substance 
taken by the fathers in any usual signification of it 
among the Greeks ; but it has been employed for the 
subversion of what Arius impiously dared to assert 
concerning Christ, viz. — ^that he was made of things 
not existing. Which heresy the Anomoians, who 
have lately sprung up, still more audaciously main- 
tain, to the utter destruction of ecclesiastical unity. 


We have therefore annexed to this our declaration, 
a copy of the faith set forth by the bishops assembled 
at Nice, which we also fully recognise. It is this : — 
* We believe in one God the Father Almighty/ and 
all the rest of the Creed.* We the undersigned, in 
presenting this statement, most cordially assent to its 
Cvontents. Meletius bishop of Antioch, Eusebius of 
Samosata, Evagrius of Sicily, t Uranius of Apamaea, 
ZoQus of Larissa, Acacius of Caesarea, Ajitipater of 
Rhosus, Abramius of Urimi, Ajistonicus of Seleucia- 
upon-Belus, Barlamenus of Pergamus, Uranius of 
Melitina, Magnus of Chalcedon, Eutychius of Eleuthe- 
ropolis, Isacoces of Armenia Major, Titus of Bostra, 
Peter of Sippi,i Pelagius of Laodicsea, Arabian of 
Antro^, Piso of Adani, Lamydrion a presbyter, 
Sabinian bishop of Zeugma, Athanasius of Ancyra, 
Orphitus aud Aetius presbyters, Irenius bishop of 
Gaza, Piso of Augusta, Patricius of Paltus, Lamyrion 
a presbyter, Anatolius bishop of Beroea, Theotinus of 
the Arabs, and Lucian of Arcen." 

This declaration we found recorded in that work of 
Sabinus, entitled " A Collection of the Acts of Synods." 
But the emperor had resolved to allay if possible the 
contentious spirit of the parties at variance, by bland 
manners and persuasive language toward them all; 
declaring that he would not molest any one on ac- 
count of his religious sentiments, and that he should 
love and highly esteem such as would zealously pro- 
mote the unity of the church. The philosopher 
Themistius attests that such was his conduct, in the 
oration he composed on his consulate; in which he 

* MaSfifiuTiQ. t ^iKeXwv, Siculi. 

X £/7r?r(iiv, Valesius says it should be Hippi. 



extols the emperor for his liberality in freely per- 
mitting every one to worship God according to the 
dictates of his conscience. And in allusion to the 
check which the sycophants received, he facetiously 
observes that experience has made it evident that 
such persons worship the purple and not the Deity ; 
and resemble the changeful Euripus,* which some- 
times rolls its waves in one direction, and at others 
the very opposite way. 



Thus did the emperor repress at that time the 
impetuosity of those who were disposed to cavil: and 
immediately departing from Antioch, he went to Tarsus 
in Cilicia, where after the due performance of the 
funeral obsequies of Julian, he was declared Consul. 
Proceeding thence direct to Constantinople, he arrived 
at a place named Dadastana, situated on the frontiers 
of Galatia and Bithynia. There Themistius the phy- 
losopher, with others of the senatorian order, met 
him, and pronounced the consular oration before 
him, which he aftenvards recited before the people 
at Constantinople. The Roman empire, blest with so 
excellent a sovereign, would doubtless have flourished 
exceedingly, as it is likelj* that both the civil and 
ecclesiastical departments would have been happily 
admuiistered, had not his sudden death bereft the 
state of so eminent a personage. But disease caused 
by some obstruction, having attacked him at the 

* The Straits of Negropont. 


place above-mentioned during the winter season, he 
died there on the 17th day of February, in his own 
and his son Varronian's consulate, in the thirty-third 
year of his age, after having reigned but seven 

This Book contains an account of the events 
which took place in the space of two years and five 





The army leaving Galatia after the death of Jovian, 
arrived at Nice* in Bithynia in seven days' march, and 
there unanimously proclaimed Valentinian emperor, 
on the 25th of February, in the same consulate. He 
was bom at Cibalis, a city of Pannonia, and being 
entrusted with a military command, had displayed 
great skill in tactics. He was moreover endowed 
with such greatness of mind, that he always appeared 
superior to any degree of honour he might have at- 
tained. After having been created emperor, he pro- 
ceeded forthwith to Constantinople ; and thirty days 
after his own jx)ssession of the imperial dignity, he 
makes his brother Valens his colleague in the empire. 
They both professed Christianity, but did not hold the 
same religious sentiments : for Valentinian respected 
the Niccne Creed; but Valens having been baptized 
by Eudoxius bishop of Constantinople, was prepos- 
sessed in favour of the Arian opinions. Each of them 
was zealous for the views of his own party ; but when 
they had attained sovereign power, they manifested 
very different dis2X)sitions. In the reign of Julian, 
when Valentinian was a military tribune, and Valens 

* N/icatav. 


held a command in the emperor's guards, they both 
proved their attachment to the faith, by declaring 
themselves willing to relinquish their military rank, 
rather than renounce Christianity by sacrificing. 
Julian however, knowing their , ability to serve the 
state, retained them in their respective places, as did 
also Jovian, his successor in the empire. On their 
being invested with imperial authority, they exhibited 
equal diligence in the management of public affairs, 
but behaved themselves very differently in relation 
to ecclesiastical matters: for Valentinian while he 
favoured those who agreed with him in sentiment, 
offered no violence to the Arians ; but Valens in his 
anxiety to promote the Arian cause, grievously dis- 
turbed those who differed from them, as the course 
of our history >vill show. Liberius at that time pre- 
sided over the Roman church. Athanasius was bishop 
of the Homoousians at Alexandria, while Lucius had 
been constituted George's successor by the Arians. 
At Antioch Euzo'ms was at the head of the Arians : 
but the Homoousians were divided into two parties, 
of one of which Paul was chief, and Meletius of the 
other. Cyril was re-established in the church at 
Jerusalem. The churches at Constantinople were 
under the government of Eudoxius, who openly 
taught the dogmas of Arianism, the Homoousians 
having but one small edifice in the city wherein to 
hold their assemblies. Those of the Macedonian he- 
resy who had dissented from the Acacians at Seleucia, 
then retained their churches in every city. Such was 
the state of ecclesiastical affairs at that tune. 

CHA1\ n.] VALENTINIAN ^A.D. 364. 299 



The exigencies of the state requiring the presence 
of one of the emperors in the western parts of the 
empire, Valentinian goes thither: meanwhile Valens 
residing at Constantinople, is addressed by most of 
the prelates of the Macedonian heresy, requesting 
that another Synod might be convened for the refor- 
mation of the creed. The emperor supposhig they 
agreed in sentiment vnth Eudoxius and Acacius, gave 
them permission to do so: these persons therefore 
made preparations for assembling in the city of 
Lampsacus. But Valens proceeds with the utmost 
despatch toward Antioch in Syria, fearing lest the 
Persians should violate the treaty into which they 
had entered for thirty years in the reign of Jovian, 
and invade the Roman territories. They however 
remained quiet; and Valens employed this season of 
external tranquillity to prosecute a war of extermi- 
nation against all who acknowledged the Homoousian 
doctrine. Paulinus their bishop, because of his emi- 
nent piety, alone remained unmolested. Meletius was 
sent into exile : and all who refused to communicate 
Avith Euzoius, were driven from the churches in An- 
tioch, and subjected to various losses and punish- 
ments. It is even affirmed that the emperor caused 
many to bo drowned in the river Orontes, which 
flows by that city. 




While Valens was thus occupied in Sjnria, there 
arose a tyrant at Constantinople named Procopius; 
who having collected a large body of troops in a 
very short time, meditated an expedition against the 
emperor. This intelligence, by creating solicitudes of 
another kind, checked for a while the persecution he 
had commenced against all who dared to differ from 
him in opinion. And while the commotions of a 
civil war were painfully anticipated, an earthquake 
occurred which did much damage to many cities. 
The sea also changed its accustomed boundaries, and 
overflowed to such an extent in some places, that 
vessels might sail where roads had previously ex- 
isted ; and it retired so much from other places, that 
the ground became dry. These events happened in 
the first consulate of the two emperors. 



. In this unsettled condition of things, in relation 
both to the church and state, those who had been 

CHAP, v.] VALENS AND PROCOPIUS. — A.D. 366. 301 

empowered by the emperor to hold a council, as- 
sembled at Lampsacus in the consulate just men- 
tioned, being seven years after the council of Seleucia. 
There, after confirming the Antiochian creed, to which 
they had subscribed at Seleucia, they anathematize 
that which had been set forth at Rimini by those 
prelates with whom they had formerly agreed in 
opinion. They moreover again condemn the party of 
Acacius and Eudoxius, and declare their deposition 
to have been just. The ci\'il war which was then 
imi>ending, prevented Eudoxius bishop of Constan- 
tinople from either gainsaying or revenging these 
determinations. Wherefore Eleusis bishop of Cyzicum 
and his adherents continued for a little while the 
stronger party ; inasmuch as they supported the views 
of Macedonius, which although before but obscurely 
knoAvn, acquired great publicity through the Synod 
at Lampsacus. Hence it was, I suppose, that the 
Macedonians became so numerous in the Hellespont, 
Lampsacus being situated in one of its narrow bays. 
Such was the issue of this council. 



The war was commenced in the following year 
under the consulate of Gratian and Dagalaifus. For 
as soon as the tyrant Pi^ocopius, leaving Constan- 
tinople, began his inarch at the head of his army 


toward the emperor, Valens on receiving inteUigence 
of it, hastens from Antioch, and comes to an engage- 
ment with him near Nacolia a city of Phrygia. 
The tyrant had the advantage in the first encounter; 
but soon after he was taken alive, through the trea- 
chery of Agilo and Gomarius, two of his generals, 
who together with their leader were despatched by 
the most extraordinary punishments. Valens had 
indeed pledged himself to spare the traitors, but 
disregarding his oaths, he caused them to be executed 
by being sawn asunder. Two trees standing near 
each other being forcibly bowed down, one of the 
tyrant's legs was fastened to each of them, after 
which the trees being suddenly permitted to recover 
their erect position, by their rise rent the tyrant into 
two parts, and thus miserably destroyed him. 



The emperor having thus successfully terminated 
the conflict, immediately began to disquiet the Chris- 
tians, with the design of inducing all persons to 
acknowledge Arian sentiments. But he was espe- 
cially incensed against those who had composed the 
Synod at Lampsacus, not only on account of their 
deposition of the Arian bishops, but because they had 
anathematized the creed published at Rimini. On 
arriving therefore at Nicomedia in Bithynia, he sent 
for Eleusis bishop of Cyzicum, who, as I have before 

CHAP. Vn.] EUNOMIUS. — A.D. 366. 303 

said, closely adhered to the opinions of Macedonius ; 
and having convened a council of Arian bishops, he 
commanded Eleusis to give his assent to their faith. 
At first he refused to do so, but on being terrified 
Avith threats of banishment and confiscation of pro- 
perty, he reluctantly submitted. Immediately after- 
wards he repented; and returning to Cyzicum, 
bitterly complained in presence of all the people of 
the violence which had been used to extort an in- 
sincere acquiescence. He then exhorted them to 
seek another bishop for themselves, since he had been 
compelled to renounce his own opinion. But the 
inhabitants of Cyzicum loved and venerated him too 
much to think of losing him ; they therefore refused 
to be subject to any other bishop, nor would they 
permit him to retire from his own church : and thus 
continuing under his oversight, they remained stead- 
fast in their own heresy. 



The bishop of Constantinople being informed of 
this circumstance, constitutes Eunomius bishop of 
Cyzicum, inasmuch as he was a person able by his 
eloquence to win over the minds of the multitude 
to his own way of thinking. On his arrival at 
Cyzicum an imperial edict was published in which 
it was ordered that Eleusius should be ejected, and 
Eunomius installed in his place. This being carried 


into effect, those who attached themselves to Eleusius, 
after erecting a sacred edifice* without the city, assem- 
bled there ^vith him. But enough has been said of 
Eleusius : let us now give some account of Eunomius. 
He had been secretary to Aetius, sumamed Athens, 
of whom we have before spoken, and had learnt from 
conversing with him, to imitate his sophistical mode 
of reasoning ; being little aware that while exercising 
himself in framing fallacious arguments, and in the 
use of certain insignificant terms, he was really 
deceiving himself. This habit however inflated him 
with pride, and falling into blasphemous heresies, he 
became an advocate of the dogmas of Arius, and in 
various ways an adversary to the doctrines of truth. 
He had but a very slender knowledge of the letter of 
Scripture, and was wholly unable to enter into the 
spirit of it. Yet he abounded in words, and was 
accustomed to repeat the same thoughts in diflferent 
terms, mthout ever arriving at a clear explanation of 
what he had proposed to himself. Of this his seven 
books on the Apostle's Epistle to the Romans, on 
which he bestowed a quantity of vain labour, is a 
remarkable proof: for although he has employed an 
immense number of words in the attempt to expound 
it, he has by no means succeeded in apprehending the 
scope and object of that epistle. All other works of 
his extant are of a similar character, in which he that 
would take the trouble to examine them, would find 
a great scarcity of sense, amidst a proftision of ver- 
biage. Such was the man promoted by Eudoxius to 
the see of Cyzicum; who being come thither, asto- 
nished his auditors by the extraordinary display of 

* EvAT^/ocoK oIkov, 

CHAP. VIII.] AN ORACLE FOUND. — A.D. 366. 305 

his dialectic art, and produced a great sensation : until 
at length the people unable to endure any longer the 
empty parade of his language, and the empty assump- 
tion of his menaces, drove him out of their city. lie 
therefore withdrew to Constantinople, and taking up 
his abode with Eudoxius, was regarded as a vacant* 
bishop. But lest we should seem to have said these 
things for the sake of detraction, let us hear what 
Eunomius himself has the hardihood to utt^r in his 
sophistical discourses concerning the Deity himself. 
" God," says he, " knows no more of his own sub- 
stance, than we do; nor is this more known to him, 
and less to us: but whatever we know about the 
Divine substance, that precisely is known to God; 
and on the other hand, whatever he knows, the same 
also you will find without any difierence in us." This 
is a fair specimen of the tedious and absurd fallacies 
which Eunomius, in utter insensibility to his o^vn 
folly, delighted in stringing together. On what 
account he afterwards separated from the Arians, 
we shall state in its proper place. 



An order was issued by the emperor that the walls 
of Chalcedon, a city op[)osite to Byzantium, should 
be. demolished: for he had sworn to do this, aft^r 
he should have conquered the tyrant, because the 

* S^oXaToc, titular. 



Chalcedonians had not only sided with Procopius, 
but had used insulting language toward Valens, and 
shut their gates against him as he passed by their 
citv. This decree therefore having been carried into 
execution, the stones were conveyed to Constantinople 
to serve for the formation of the public baths which 
are called Constantianaj. On one of these stones an 
oracle was found engraven, which had lain concealed 
for a long time, in which it was predicted that when 
the city should be supplied ^vith abundance of water, 
then should the wall serve for a bath ; and that innu- 
merable hordes of barbarous nations having overrun 
the provinces of the Roman empire, and done a 
great deal of mischief, should themselves at length 
be destroyed. We shall here insert this oracle for 
the gratification of the studious : — 

*' When nymphs their mystic dance with wat'ry feet 
Shall tread through proud Byzantium's stately street ; 
When rage the city wall shall overthrow, 
Whose stones to fence a hathing-place shall go : 
Then savage lands shall send forth myriad swarms. 
Adorned with golden locks and burnished arms, 
That having Ister's silver streams o'erpast. 
Shall Scvthian fields and Moesia's meadows waste. 
But when with conquest flushed they enter Thrace, 
Fate shall assign them there a burial-place." 

Such was the prophecy. And indeed it afterwards 
happened, that when Valens by building an aqueduct 
supplied the city ^\nth abundance of water, the bar- 
barous nations made various irruptions, as we shall 
hereafter see. But from the event, some have ex- 
plained the prediction othermse. For when that 
aqueduct was completed, Clearchus the governor of 
the city built a stately bath, to which the name of the 


Plentiful Water* was given, in that which is now called 
the Forum of Theodosiiis : on which account the 
people celebrated a festival with great rejoicings, 
whereby there was, say they, an^ accomplishment of 
those words of the oracle, — 

" their mystic dance with watVy feet 

ShaU tread through proud Byzantium's stately street." 

But the completion of the prophecy took place after- 
wards. When the walls were in the course of demo- 
lition, the Constantinopolitans besought the emperor 
to desist; and the inhabitants of Nicomedia and Nicet 
sending from Bithynia to Constantinople, made the 
same request. Valens being exceedingly exasperated 
against the Chalcedonians, was with difficulty pre- 
vailed upon to listen to these petitions in their 
favour : but that he might perform his oath, he com- 
manded that the walls should be pulled down, wliile 
at the same time the breaches should be repaired by 
being filled up mth other small stones. Whence it 
is that in the present day one may see in certain 
parts of the wall, very inferior materials laid upon 
prodigiously large stones, forming those unsightly 
patches which were made on that occasion. 




The emperor now resumed his persecution of those 
who embraced the doctrine of consubstantiality, 
dri\ing tliem away from Constantinople : and aa the 


Novatians acknowledged the same faith, they also 
were subjected to similar treatment, their churches 
being ordered to be shut up. He commanded also 
that Agelius their bishop should be sent into exile ; 
a person that had presided over their churches from 
the time of Constantine, and had led an apostolic 
life : for he always walked barefoot, -and used but one 
coat, observing the injunction of the gospel. But the 
emperor's displeasure against this sect was moderated 
by the efforts of a pious and eloquent man named 
Marcian, who had formerly been in military service 
at the imperial palace, but was at that time a pres- 
byter in the Novatian church, and taught Anastasia 
and Carosa, Valens's daughters, grammar; from the 
former of whom the public baths yet standing, which 
Valens erected at Constantinople, were named.* 
From respect for this person therefore, the Novatian 
churches which had been for some time closed, were 
again opened. The Arians however would not suffer 
this people to remain undisturbed, for they disliked 
them on account of the sympathy and love the Nova- 
tians manifested toward the Homoousians, with whom 
they agreed in sentiment. Sucli was the state of 
affairs at that time. We may here remark that the 
war against the tyrant Procopius was terminated 
about the end of May, in the consulate of Gratian 
and Dagalaifus. 

* Marcellinue affirms that the Anastasian baths were built by 
Constantine, and named after that emperor's sister. 





Soon after the conclusion of this war, and under 
the same consulate, a son was born to Valentinian 
the emperor in the Western parts, to whom the same 
name as his father's was given. His other son 
Gratian had been born previously to his becomuig 



On the 2nd of July of the following year, in the 
consulate of Lupicin and Jovian, there fell at Con- 
stantinople hail of such a size as would fill a man's 
hand.* Many afiirmed that this was an intimation 
of the Divine displeasure, because of the emperor's 
having banished several persons engaged in the sacred 
ministry, on account of their refusal to communicate 
with Eudoxius. During the same consulate, on the 
24th of August, the emperor Valentinian proclaimed 
his son Gratian Augustus. In the next year, when 
Valentinian and Valens were a second time consuls, 
there happened on the 11th of October, an earthquake 

* XetpOTrXtfOrii:. 


ill Bithynia which destroyed the city of Nice. This 
was about twelve years after Nicoinedia had been 
visited by a similar catastrophe. Soon afterwards the 
largest portion of Genua in the Hellespont was re- 
duced to ruins by another earthquake. Nevertheless 
no impression was made on the mind of either Eu- 
doxius the Arian bishop, or the emperor Valens, by 
these supernatural occurrences; for they were not 
deterred thereby from their relentless persecution of 
those who dissented from them in matters of faith. 
Meanwhile these convulsions of the earth were re- 
garded as typical of the disturbances w^hich agitated 
the churches: for many of the clerical body were 
sent into exile, as we have stated ; Basil and Gregory 
alone, by a special dispensation of Divine Providence, 
being on account of their eminent piety exempted 
from this punishment. The former of these indi- 
viduals was bisliop of Ca?sarea in Cai)padocia ; while 
the latter presided over Nazianzen, a little city in 
the vicinity of Ca3sarea. But we shall have occasion 
to mention both again in the course of our history. 



When the maintainers of the Homoousian doctrine 
had been thus severely dealt with, and put to flight, 
the persecutors began afresh to harass the Macedo- 
nians; who impelled by feai* rather than violence. 



send deputations to one another from city to city, 
declaring the necessity of appealing to Valentiiiian, 
the emperor's brother, and also to Liberius bishop 
of Rome: and that it was far better for them to 
embrace their faitli, than to communicate with the 
party of Eudoxius. They send for this purpose 
Eustathius bishop of Sebastia, who had been several 
times deposed, Silvanus of Tarsus in Cilicia, and 
Theophilus of Castabali in the same province ; charg- 
ing them to dissent in nothing from Liberius* con- 
cerning the faith, but to enter into connnunion with 
the Koman church, and confirm the Homoousian 
creed. These persons therefore proceeded to Old 
Rome, carrying with them the letters of those who 
had separated themselves from Acacius at Seleucia. 
To the emperor they could not have access, he being 
occupied in the Gallias with a war against the Sarmatse. 
They however presented their letters to Liberius, who 
at first refused to admit them; saying they were of 
the Arian faction, and could not possibly be received 
into communion by the church, inasmuch as they had 
rejected the Nicene Creed. To this they replied that 
by change of sentiment they had acknowledged the 
truth, having long since renounced the Anomoian 
Creed, and avowed the Son to be in every way like 
the Father : moreover that they considered the terms 
like and coiisubstantial to have precisely the same un- 
'\>oTt. When they had made this statement, Liberius 
demanded of them a written confession of their faith ; 

* Baron accuses Socrates of an anachronism here : since the Synod 
of Lampsacus was held in 365, and Damasus was hishop of Rome in 
3G8, for Liberius died in September, 367. Valesius judges that the 
legates were sent in Juue, 367. 


and they accordingly presented him a document in 
which the substiince of the Nicene Creed was inserted. 
I have not introduced here because of their length 
the letters from Smyrna, Asia, and from Pisidia, 
Tsauria, Pamphylia, and Lycia, in all which places 
they had held Synods : deeming it sufficient to tran- 
scribe the ^vritten profession which the deputies sent 
with Eustathius, delivered to Liberius. 

" To our Lord, Brother, and Fellow-Minister Libe- 
rius; Eustathius, Theophilus, and Silvanus, saluta- 
tions in the Lord. 

" On account of the insane opinion of heretics, who 
cease not to give offence to the catholic churches, we 
being desirous of checking their career, come forward 
to express our approbation of the doctrines recognized 
by the Synod of orthodox bishops which has been 
convened at Lampsacus, Smyrna, and various other 
places: from which Synod we being constituted a 
deputation, bring a letter to your benignity and all 
the Italian and Western bishops, by which we declare 
that we hold and maintain the catholic faith which 
was established in the holy council of Nice under the 
reign of Constantine of blessed memory, by three 
hundred and eighteen bishops, and has hitherto con- 
tinued entire and unshaken ; in which creed the term 
coiii^ubstantial is holily and devoutly employed in op- 
position to the pernicious doctrine of Arius. We 
therefore, together ^vith the aforesaid persons whom* 
we represent, profess under our own hand, that we 
have held, do hold, and will maintain the same faith 
even unto the end. We condemn Arius, and his im- 
pious doctrine, with his disciples, and the abettors of 
his sentmients ; ai> also the whole heres}' of Sabellius, 


the Patropassiaiis, the Marcionistse, the Photinians, 
the Marcelliani, that of Paul of Samosata, and those 
who countenance such tenets; in short all the here- 
sies which are opposed to the aforesaid sacred creed, 
which was piously and catholicly set forth by the 
holy fathers at Nice. But we especially anathema- 
tize that form of the creed which was recited at the 
Synod of Rimini, as altogether contrary to the be- 
fore-mentioned creed of the holy Synod of Nice,* to 
which the bishops at Constantinople affixed their 
signatures, being deceived by artifice and j)erjury, 
by reason of its having been brought from Nice,* a 
town of Thrace. Our o%vn creed, and that of those 
whose delegates we are, is this : — 

" ' We believe in one God the Father Almighty, 
the Maker of all things visible and invisible : and in 
one only-begotten God, tlie Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Son of God; begotten of the Father, that is of the 
substance » of the Father ; God of God, Light of Light, 
very God of very God; begotten not made, of the 
same: substance with the Father, by whom all things 
were made which are in heaven, and which are upon 
the earth: who for us men, and for our salvation, 
descended, became incarnate, and was made man; 
suffered, and rose again the third day ; ascended into 
the heavens, and >vill come to judge the living and 
the dead. We believe also in the Holy Spirit. But the 
Catholic and Apostolic Church of God anathematizes 
those who assert that there was a time when he was 
not, and that he was not before he was begotten, and 
that he was made of things which are not; or those 
that say the Son* of God is of another hypostasis 


or substance than the Father, or that he is mutxible, 
or susceptible of change.' 

" I Eustathius bishop of the city of Sebastia, with 
Theophilus and Silvanus, legates of the Synod of 
Lanipsacus, Smyrna, and other places, have volun- 
tarily subscribed this confession of faith with our 
own hands. And if, after the publication of this 
creed, any one shall presume to calumniate either us, 
or those who sent us, let him come with the letters 
of your holiness before such orthodox bishops as your 
sanctity shall approve of, and bring the matter to an 
issue with us before them ; and if any charge shall be 
substantiated, let the guilty be punished." 

Liberius having securely pledged the legates by 
this document, received them into coimnunion, and 
afterwards dismissed them \vith this letter. 


'' To our beloved brethren and fellow-ministers, 
Evethius, Cyril, Hyperechius, Uranius, Heron, Elipi- 
dius, Maximus, Eusebius, Eucarpius, Ileortasius, Neon, 
Eumathius, Faustinus, Procleus, Pasinicus, Arsenius, 
Severus, Didymion, Brittanius, Callicrates, Dahnatius, 
JEdesius, Eustochius, Ambrosa, Gelon, Pardalius, 
Macedonius, Paul, Marccllus, Ileraclius, Alexander, 
Adolius, Marcian, Stenelus, John, Macer, Charisius, 
Silvanus, Photinus, Antony, Anytho, Celsus, Euphra- 
nor, Milesius, Patricius, Severean, Eusebius, Eumol- 
pius, Athanasius, Diophantus, Menodores, Diodes, 
Chrysampelus, Neon, Eugenius, Eustathius, Calli- 
crates, Arsenius, Maityrius, Ileiracius, Leontius, 


Philagrius, Lucius, and to all the orthodox bishops 
in the East ; Liberius bishop of Italy, and the 
bishops throughout the West, salutations always in 
the Lord. 

" Your letters, beloved brethren, resplendent with 
the light of faith, delivered to us by our highly 
esteemed brethren, the bishops Eustathius, Silvanus, 
and Theophilus, brought to us the much longed for 
joy of peace and concord : and this chiefly because 
they have assured us that your opinion and senti- 
ments are in perfect harmony with those both of our 
insignificance,* and also with those of all the bishops 
in Italy and the Western parts. We acknowledge 
this to be the Catholic and Apostolic faith, which 
from the Nicene Synod hitherto has continued un- 
adulterated and unshaken. This creed your legates 
have professed that they themselves hold, and to our 
great joy have obliterated every vestige and impres- 
sion of an injurious suspicion, by attesting it not only 
in word, but also in writing. We have deemed it 
proper to subjoin to these letters a copy of this their 
declaration, lest we should leave any pretext to the 
heretics for entering into a fresh conspiracy, by which 
they might stir up the incentives of their own malice, 
and according to their custom, rekindle the flames of 
discord. Moreover our most esteemed brethren, 
Eustathius, Silvanus, aud Theophilus have professed 
this also, both that they themselv(»s, and also your 
love, have always held, and >vill maintain unto the 
last, the creed opproved of at Nice^ by 318 Orthodox 
Bishops; which contains the (perfect truth, and both 
confutes' and overthrows the whole swarm of heretics. 

* *EXttxt^ror*yra. t Ninraia. J *E7rc(rro/x/££c. 


For it was not of their own will, but by divine ap- 
pointment that so great a number of bishops was 
collected against the madness of Arius, as equalled 
that of those by whose assistance blessed Abraham 
through faith destroyed so many thousand of his 
enemies. This faith being comprehended in the terms 
Hypostasis and ffomooimoSj is a strong and impreg- 
nable fortress to check and repel all the assaults and 
vain machinations of Arian perverseness. Wherefore 
when all the Western bishops were assembled at 
Rimini, whither the craft of the Arians had drawn 
them, in order that either by deceptive persuasions, 
or to tell the truth, by the coercion of the secular 
power, they might erase, or indirectly revoke what 
had been introduced into the creed ^vith so much 
prudence, their subtlety was not of the least avail. 
For almost all those who at Rimini were either allured 
into error, or at that time deceived, have since taken 
a right view of the matter ; and after anathematizing 
the exposition of faith set forth by those who were 
convened at Rimini, have subscribed the Catholic and 
Apostolic Creed which was pronmlgated at Nice. 
These persons having entered into communion with 
us, regard both the dogma of Arius and his disciples, 
vnth increased aversion. Of which fact when the 
legates of your love saw the indubitable evidences, 
they aimexed yourselves to their own subscription ; ana- 
thematizing Arius, and what was transacted at Rimini 
against the creed ratified at Nice, to which even you 
yourselves, beguiled by perjury, were induced to 
subscribe. Whence it appeared suitable to us to 
write to your love, and to accede to your just request, 
especially since we are assured by the profession of 


your legates that the Eastern bishops have recovered 
their senses, and now concur in opinion with the 
orthodox prelates of the West. We further give you 
to understand, lest ye should be ignorant of it, that 
the blasphemies of the Rimini Synod have been ana- 
thematized by those who seem to have been at that time 
deceived by fraud, and that all have acknowledged 
the Nicene Creed. It is fit therefore that you should 
make it generally kno^vn that such as have had their 
faith vitiated by violence or guile, may now emerge 
from heretical darkness into the divine light of catholic 
liberty. But that whosoever of them, after this 
council, shall not disgorge the poison of corrupt 
doctrine, by abjuring all the blasphemies of Arius, 
and anathematizing them, are themselves, together 
with Arius and his disciples and the rest of the 
serpents, whether Sabellians, Patropassians, or the 
followers of any other heresy, dissevered and excom- 
numicated from the assemblies of the church, which 
does not admit of illegitimate children. May God 
preserve you steadfast,* beloved brethren." 

After Eustathius and those who accompanied him 
had received this letter, they proceeded to Sicily, 
where they caused a Synod of Sicilian bishops to be 
convened, and in their presence avowed the Homoou- 
sian faith, and professed their adherence to the Nicene 
Creed : then having received from those also a letter 
to the same effect as the preceding, they returned to 
those who had sent them. On the receipt of these 
letters, they sent legates from city to city to the pro- 
minent supporters of the doctrine of Consubstantiality, 


exhorting them to assemble simultaneously at Tarsus 
in Cilicia, in order to confirm the Nicene creed, and 
terminate all the contentions which had subsequently 
arisen. And this would probably have been accom- 
plished, had not the Arian bishop, Eudoxius, who at 
that time possessed great influence with the emperor, 
thwarted their purpose ; for on learning that a Synod 
had been summoned to meet at Tarsus, he became so 
exasperated, that he redoubled his persecution against 
them. That the Macedonians by sending legates to 
Liberius were admitted to communion with him, and 
professed the Nicene Creed, is attested by Sabinus 
himself, in his Collection of Synodic Transactions. 



About the same time Eunomius separated himself 
from Eudoxius, and held assemblies apart, because 
after he had repeatedly entreated that Ids preceptor 
Aetius might be received into communion, Eudoxius 
continued to oppose it. Yet Eudoxius in this did 
violence to liis own inclination, for he entirely coin- 
cided in opinion wdth Aetius; but he yielded to the 
prevailing sentiment of his own party, who objected 
to Aetius as heterodox. This was tlie cause of the 
division referred to, and such was the state of things 
at Constantinople. But the church at Alexandria 
was disturbed by an edict of the Praetorian Praefects, 


sent thither by means of Eudoxius. Whereupon 
Athanasius, dreading the irrational impetuosity of 
the multitude, and fearing lest he should be regarded 
as the author of any excesses that might be com- 
mitted, concealed himself for four months in his 
father's tx)mb. When however the people, on account 
of their affection for him, became seditious in impa- 
tience of liis absence, the emperor, on ascertaining 
tlie reason why such agitation prevailed at Alexan- 
dria, ordered by his letters that Athanasius should 
be suffered to preside over the churches ^vithout 
molestation ; in consequence of which the Alexan- 
drian church enjoyed tranquillity until the death of 
Athanasius. How the Arian faction became possessed 
of the churches after his decease, we shall unfold in 
the course of our history. 



The emperor Valens leaving Constantinople again 
set out towards Antioch ; but on his arrival at Nico- 
media his progress was arrested by the following 
circumstances. Eudoxius the Arian bishop, who had 
been in possession of the seat of the Constantinopo- 
litan church for nineteen* years, died soon after the 
emperor's departure from that city, in the third con- 
sulate of Valentinian and Valens. The Arians thercr 
fore appointed Demophilus to succeed him ; but the 

' Epiphanius says not hKaivriay but hKoiva eleven. 


Ilomoousians considering that an opportunity was 
afforded them, elected Evagrius, a person who main- 
tained their own principles, and caused him t^ be 
ordained by Eustathius, who after having been ejected 
from the see of Antioch, had been recalled from exile 
by Jovian. This prelate had privately come to Con- 
stantinople, for the purpose of confirming the adhe- 
rents to the doctrine of Consubstantiality. 



The Arians, exasperated by this election, renewed 
their persecution of the Homoousians : and the 
emperor on being informed of what had taken place, 
apprehending the subversion of the city in con- 
sequence of the popular tumult, immediately sent 
troops from Nicomedia to Constantinople; ordering 
that both he who had been ordained, and the one 
who had ordained him, should be apprehended and 
sent into exile. Eustathius therefore was banished 
to Bizya* a city of Thrace; and Evagrius was con- 
veyed to another place. After this the Arians be- 
coming more confident, grievously harassed the 
orthodox party, frequently beating and re\dling them, 
causing some to be imprisoned, and others to be 
fined; in short they practised such distressing and 
intolerable annoyances, that the sufferers were in- 
duced to appeal to the emperor for protection against 
their adversaries. But whatever hope of redress they 


might have cherished from this quarter, was alto- 
gether frustrated, inasmuch as they thus merely 
spread their grievances before him wlio was the very 
author of them. 




Eighty pious individuals of the clerical order, 
among whom Urbanus, Theodore, and Mendemus 
were the principal, proceeded to Nicomedia, and there 
presented to the emperor a supplicatory petition, com- 
plaining of the ill-usage to which they had been sub- 
jected. Valens dissembling his displeasure in their 
presence, gave Modestus the prsBfect a secret order 
to apprehend these persons, and put them to death. 
The manner in which they were destroyed being 
unusual, deserves to be recorded. The praefect fear- 
ing that he should excite the populace to a seditious 
movement against himself, if he attempted the public 
execution of so many, pretended to send them away 
into exile. Accordingly these men, who received the 
intelligence of their destiny with great firmness of 
mind, were embarked as if to be conveyed to their 
several places of banishment: but the sailors were 
commanded to set the vessel on fire, as soon as they 
reached the mid sea, that their victims being so 
destroyed, might even be deprived of burial. This 
injunction was obeyed; for when they arrived at the 
middle of the Astacian Gulf, the crew set fire to the 
ship, and then took refuge in a small barque which 



followed them, and so escaped. Meanwhile the burn- 
ing ship was fiercely driven by a strong easterly 
A\'ind whicli then blew, until it reached a port named 
Decidizus, where it was utterly consumed together 
Avith the men who were shut up in it. Many have 
asserted that this impious deed was not suffered to 
go unpunished: for there immediately after arose so 
great a famine throughout all Phrygia, that a large 
proportion of the inhabitants were obliged to abandon 
their country for a time, and betake themselves some 
to Constantinople and some to other provinces. For 
the former place, notwithstanding the vast population 
it supplies, yet always abounds with the necessaries 
of life, all manner of provisions being imported into 
it by sea from various regions ; and the Euxine which 
lies near it, furnishes it with bread-corn to any extent 
it may require. 



The emperor Valens, little affected by the calami- 
ties produced by the famine, went to Antioch in 
Syria, and during his residence there cruelly per- 
secuted such as would not embrace Arianism. For 
not content with ejecting out of almost all the 
churches of the East those who maintained the 
llomoousian opinion, he inflicted on them various 
punishments besides. A greater number even than 
before were bereft of their lives by many different 
kinds of death, but especially by being dro^vned in 
the river. 




But I must here mention a circumstance that 
occurred at Edessa in Mesopotamia. There is in 
that city a magnificent church* dedicated to St. 
Thomas the Apostle, wherein on account of the 
sanctity of the place, religious assemblies are in- 
cessantly held. The emperor Valens wished to in- 
spect this edifice; when having learnt that all who 
usually congregated there were opposed to the heresy 
which he favoured, he is said to have struck the 
praefect with his own hand, because he had neglected 
to expel them thence. The praefect after submitting 
to this ignominy, was most unwillingly constrained to 
subserve the emperor's indignation against them ; never- 
theless to prevent the slaughter of so great a number 
of persons, he privately warned them against resorting 
thither. But his admonitions and menaces were 
alike unheeded; for on the following day they all 
crowded to the church, t And when the praefect was 
going towards it with a large military force in order 
to satisfy the emperor's rage, a poor woman leading 
her own little child by the hand hurried hastily by 
on her way to the church, breaking through the 
ranks of the soldiery. The praefect irritated at this, 
ordered her to be brought to him, and thus addressed 

* Maprvpiov, generally applied to a Basilica, where the relics of 
some martyr are deposited, 
t KifKTtiptov rovoy, oratory. 


lier: "Wretched woman! whither are you running 
in so disorderly a manner?" She replied, " To the 
same place that others are hastening." " Have you 
not heard," said he, " that the praefect is about to 
put to death all that shall be found there?" " Yes," 
said the woman, " and therefore I hasten that I may 
be found there." " And whither are you dragging 
that little child ?" said the prsBfect : the woman an- 
swered, " That he also may be vouchsafed* the honour 
of martyrdom." The prajfect on hearing these things, 
conjecturing that a similar resolution actuated the 
others who were assembled tliere, immediately went 
back to the emperor, and informed him that all were 
ready to die in behalf of their own faith. He added 
tliat it would be preposterous to destroy so many 
persons at one time, and thus succeeded in restraining 
the emperor's wrath. In this way were the Edessenes 
})reserved from being massacred by order of their 



The cruel disposition of the emperor was at this 
time abused by an execrable demon, who induced 
certain persons to institute an enquiry by means of 
necromancy respecting the successor of Valens. To 
their magical incantations the demon gave responses 
not distinct and unequivocal, but as the general 


practice is, full of ambiguity ; for displaying the four 
letters 0^ e, o, and 5, he declared that the compounded 
name of the emperor's successor began with these. 
When Valens was apprised of this oracle, instead of 
committing to God, who alone can penetrate futurity, 
the decision of this matter, in contravention of those 
Christian principles to which he pretended the most 
zealous adherence, he put to death all of whom he 
had the slightest suspicion that they aimed at the 
sovereign power: thus such as were named Theo- 
dore, Theodotus, Theodosius, Theodulus, and the 
like, were sacrificed to the emperor's fears ; and among 
the rest was Theodosiolus, a very brave man, de- 
scended from a noble family in Spain. Many per- 
sons therefore, to avoid the danger to which they 
were exposed, changed the names which they had 
received from their parents in infancy. 




While Athanasius bishop of Alexandria was alive, 
the emperor restrained by the Providence of Grod, 
abstained from molesting Alexandria and Egypt : 
indeed he knew very well that Athanasius was gene- 
rally beloved there, and on that account he was 
careful lest the public affairs should be hazarded, by 
the Alexandrians, who are an irritable race, being 
excited to sedition. But that eminent prelate, after 
being engaged in so many and such severe conflicts 
on behalf of the church, departed this life in the 


second consulate of Gratian* and Probus, having 
governed that church amidst the greatest perils forty- 
six years. He left as his successor Peter, a devout 
and eloquent man. 



Upon this the Arians, emboldened by their know- 
ledge of the emperor's religious sentiments, again 
take courage, and hnmediately inform him of the 
circumstance. He was then residing at Antioch, 
and Euzoius who presided over the Arians of that 
city, eagerly embracing the favourable opportunity 
thus presented, begs permission to go to Alexandria, 
for the purpose of putting Lucius the Arian in pos- 
session of the churches there. The emperor acceding 
to this request, Euzoius proceeds forthwith to Alex- 
andria, attended by the imperial troops, and Magnus 
the emperor's treasurer : ^ they were also the bearers 
of an imperial mandate to Palladius the governor of 
Egypt, enjoining him to aid them with a military 
force. Wherefore having apprehended Peter, they 
cast him into prison ; and after dispersing the rest of 
the clergy, they place Lucius in the episcopal chair. 

* This would make it the year 371 ; but Jerome and others state 
that his demise took place in the year 373. 
t *0 €7ri Twy (iaffiXiKwv driffavpCjy. 

CHAP. XXII.] FLIGHT OF TETEIi. — A.U. 372. 327 



Of the outrages perpetrated upon the instalment 
of Lucius, and the treatment of those who were 
ejected, both by judicial authority and otherwise, 
some being subjected to a variety of tortures, and 
others sent into exile even after this excruciating 
process, Sabinus takes not the slightest notice. In 
fact being half disposed to Arianism himself, he pur- 
posely veils the atrocities of his friends. Peter how- 
ever has exposed them, in the letters he addressed 
to all the churches, when he had escaped from prison, 
and fled to Damasus bishop of Rome. The Arians 
though not very numerous, becoming thus possessed 
of the Alexandrian churches, soon after obtained an 
imperial edict directing the governor of Egypt to 
expel not only from Alexandria but even out of the 
country, the favourers of the Homoousian doctrine, 
and all such as were obnoxious to Lucius. After 
this they assailed the monastic institutions in the 
desert; armed men rushing in the most ferocious 
manner upon those who were utterly defenceless, and 
who would not lift an arm to repel their violence: 
so that numbers of unresisting victims were in this 
manner slaughtered with a degree of wanton cruelty 
beyond description. 





Since I liave refeiTed to the monasteries of Egypt, 
it may be proper here to give a brief account of them. 
They were founded probably at a very early period, 
but were greatly enlarged and augmented by a devout 
man whose name was Ammon. In his youth he had 
an aversion to matrimony; but when some of his 
relatives urged him not to contemn this ordinance, 
he was prevailed upon to marry. On leading the 
bride with the customary ceremonies from the ban- 
quet-room to the nuptial couch, after their mutual 
friends had withdrawn, he read to his wife Paul's 
Epistle to the Corinthians, and explained to her the 
apostle's admonitions to married persons. Adducing 
many considerations besides, he descanted on the 
inconveniencies and discomforts attending matrimo- 
nial intercourse, the pangs of child-bearing, and the 
trouble and anxiety connected with rearing a family. 
He contrasted with all this the advantages of chastity ; 
described the liberty, and immaculate purity of a life 
of continence ; and affirmed that virginity places per- 
sons in the nearest relation to the Deity. By these 
and other arguments of a similar kind, he persuaded 
his virgin bride to renounce mth him a secular life, 
prior to their having any conjugal knowledge of each 
other. Having taken this resolution, they retired 
together to the mountain of Nitria, and in a hut there 
inhabited for a short time one common ascetic apart- 

CHAP. XXIII.] LIST OF MONKS. — A.D. 373. 329 

ment, ^vithout regarding their diiFerence of sex, being 
according to the apostle, " one in Christ." But not 
long after, the recent and unpolluted bride thus 
addressed Ammon : " It is unsuitable," said she, 
" for you who practise chastity, to look upon a 
woman in so confined a dwelling ; let us therefore, if 
it is agreeable to you, perform our exercise apart." 
Both parties being satisfied with this arrangement, 
they separated, and spent the rest of their lives in 
abstinence from wine and oil, eating dry bread alone, 
sometimes passing over one day, at others fasting 
two, and sometimes more. Athanasius bishop of 
Alexandria asserts in his " Life of Antony," that the 
subject of his memoir who was cotemporary with this 
Ammon, saw his soul taken up by angels after his 
decease. Ammon's mode of life was adopted by a 
great number of persons, so that by degrees the 
mountains of Nitria and Scetis were filled with 
monks, an account of whose lives would require an 
express work. As however there were among them 
persons of eminent piety, distinguished for their 
strict discipline and apostolic lives, who said and did 
many things worthy of being recorded, I shall in- 
troduce a few particulars for the information of my 
readers. It is said that Ammon never saw himself 
naked, being accustomed to say that " it became not 
a monk to see his own person exposed." And when 
once he wanted to pass a river, but was unwilling to 
undress, he besought God to enable him to cross 
without his being obliged to break his resolution; 
and immediately an angel transported him to the 
other side of the river. Another monk named 
Didymus lived entirely alone to the day of his death, 


although he had reached the age of ninety years. 
Arsenius, another of them, would not separate young 
delinquents from communion, but only those that 
were advanced in age : " for," said he, " when a 
young person is excommunicated he becomes har- 
dened; but an elderly one is soon sensible of the 
misery of excommunication." Pior was accustomed 
to take his food as he walked along, assigning this as 
a reason to one who asked him why he did so: 
*' That I may not seem," said he, " to make eating a 
serious business, but rather a thing done by the 
way." To another putting the same question he 
replied, " Lest in eating my mind should be sensible 
of corporeal enjoyment." Isidore affirmed that he 
had not been conscious of sin even in thought for 
forty years ; and that he had never consented either 
to lust or anger. Pambos being an illiterate man, 
went to some one for the purpose of being taught a 
psalm ; and having heard the first verse of the thirty- 
eighth, " I said I will take heed to my ways, that I 
offend not -with my tongue," he departed without 
staying to hear the second verse, saying, this one 
would suffice, if he could practically acquire it. And 
when the person who had given him the verse, re- 
proved him because he had not seen him for the 
space of six months, he answered that he had not yet 
learnt to practise the verse of the psalm. After a 
considerable lapse of time, being asked by one of his 
friends whether he had made himself master of the 
verse, his answer was, " I have scarcely succeeded in 
accomplishing it during nineteen years." A certain 
individual having placed gold in his hands for dis- 
tribution to the poor, requested liim to reckon what 

CilAP. XXIII.] LIST OF MONKS. — A. D. 373. 331 

he had given hun. " There is no need of counting," 
said he, " but of integrity of mind." The same 
Pambos at the desire of Athanasius the bishop came 
out of the desert to Alexandria; and on beholding 
an actress tliere, he wept. When those present 
asked him the reason of his doing so, he replied, 
" Two causes have aflfected me : one is the destruction 
of this woman ; the other is that I exert myself less 
to please my God, than she does to please obscene 
characters." Another said that a monk who did not 
work, ought to be regarded as a covetous man. 
Petirus was well-informed in many branches of 
natural philosophy, and was accustomed to enter 
into an exposition of the principles sometimes of one 
department of science, and sometimes of another, 
but he always commenced his lectures with prayer. 
There were also among the monks of that period, two 
of the same name, of great sanctity, each being called 
Macarius; one of whom was from Upper Egypt, the 
other from the city of Alexandria. Both were cele- 
brated for their ascetic * discipline, the purity of their 
life and conversation, and the miracles which were 
wrought by their hands. The Egyptian Macarius 
performed so many cures, and cast out so many 
devils, that it would require a distinct treatise to 
record all that the grace of God enabled him to do. 
His manner toward those who resorted to him was 
austere, yet at the same time calculated to inspire 
veneration. The Alexandrian Macarius, while in 
many respects resembling his Egyptian namesake, 
diflfered from him in this, that he was always cheerful 
to his visitors; and the affability of his manners 


attracted many young men to enter upon a similar 
mode of life. Evagrius becoming a disciple of these 
men, acquired from them the philosophy of deeds, 
whereas he had previously known that which con- 
sisted in words only. He had been ordained deacon 
at Constantuiople by Gregory of Nazianzen, and 
afterwards went mth him into Egypt, where he 
became acquainted with these eminent persons, and 
emulated their coui'se of conduct: nor were the 
miracles done by his hands less numerous or impor- 
tant than those of his preceptors. He also composed 
some valuable works, one of which is entitled " The 
Monk, or. On Active* Virtue ;" another " The Gnostic, 
or. To hun who is deemed worthy of Knowledge:" 
this book is divided into fifty chapters. A third is 
designated " The Refutation," ^ which contains selec- 
tions from the Holy Scriptures against tempting 
spirits, distributed into eight parts, according to the 
number of the arguments, t He Avrote moreover 
" Six Hundred Prognostic Problems," and also two 
compositions in verse, one addressed " To the Monks 
living in Communities," and the other " To the 
Virgin." Whoever shall read these productions will 
be convinced of their excellence. It will not be out 
of place here, I conceive, to subjoin to what has 
been before stated, a few things mentioned by him 
respecting the monks. He thus speaks : — 

" It becomes us to enquire into the habits of the 
pious monks who have preceded us, in order that we 
may correct ourselves by their example : for un- 
doubtedly very many excellent things have been 
said and done by them. One of them was accus- 

* HpakTiiir^C' t 'AiTifipiyrcfcroc. J Aoyier/zwi'. 

CHAP. XXITT.] LIST OF MONKS. A. D. 373. 333 

tomed to say, that ' a drier and not irregular diet 
combined Avith love, would quickly conduct a monk 
into the haven of tranquillity.' The same individual 
freed one of his brethren from being troubled by 
apparitions at night, by enjoining him to minister 
while fasting to the sick. And being asked why he 
prescribed this : ' Such affections,' said he, ' are by 
nothing so effectually dissipated as by the exercise 
of compassion.' A certain philosopher of those times 
coming to Antony the Just, said to him, ' How can 
you endure, father, being deprived of the comfort of 
books?' 'My book, philosopher,' replied Antony, 
'is the nature of things that are made, and it is 
present whenever I wish to read the words of God.' 
That chosen vessel, the aged Egyptian Macarius, asked 
me, wliy we impair the strength of the retentive 
faculty of the soul by cherishing the remembrance 
of injuiy received from men; while by remembering 
those done us by devils we remain uninjured? And 
Avhen I hesitated, scarcely knowing what answer to 
make, and begged him to account for it : ' Because,' 
said he, ' the former is an affection contrary to nature, 
and the latter is conformable to the nature of the 
mind.' Going on one occasion to the holy father 
Macarius about mid-day, and being overcome with 
the heat and thirst, I begged some water to drink: 
' (Content yourself with the shade,' was his reply, 
' for many who are now journeying by land, or 
sailing on the deep, are deprived even of this.' Dis- 
cussing with him afterwards the subject of absti- 
nence, 'Take courage, my son,' said he: ' for twenty 
years I have neither eaten, drunk, nor slej)t to satiety ; 
my bread has always been weighed, my water mea- 


sured, and what little sleep I have had has been 
stolen by reclining myself against a wall.' The 
death of his father was announced to one of the 
monks : * Cease your blasphemy/ said he to the person 
that told him ; * my father is immortal.' One of the 
brethren who possessed nothing but a copy of the 
Gospels, sold it, and distributed the price in food to 
the hungry, uttering this memorable saying—* I have 
sold the book*' which says. Sell that thou hast and give 
to the poor.^ There is an island about the northern 
part of the city of Alexandria, beyond the lake 
Mareotis, where a monk from Parembole dwells, in 
high repute among the Gnostics. This person was 
accustomed to say, that the monks did nothing but 
for one of these five reasons; — on account of God, 
nature, custom, necessity, or manual labour. He 
moreover said that there was only one virtue in 
nature, but that it assumes various characteristics 
according to the dispositions t of the soul : just as the 
light of the sun is itself without form, but accommo- 
dates itself to the figure* of that which receives it. 
Another of the monks said, ' I withdraw myself 
from pleasures, in order to cut oif the occasions of 
anger: for I know that it always contends for plea- 
sures, disturbing my tranquillity of mind, and unfit- 
ting me for the attainment of knowledge.' One of 
the aged monks said that charity^ knows not how to 
keep a deposit either of provisions or money. He 
added, ' I never remember to have been twice deceived 
by the devil in the same thing.' Thus wrote Evagrius 
in his book entitled ' Practice.' And in that which 
he called ' The Gnostic,' he says, ' We leam from 

* Aoyoy* f ^vyafxe<n. { Qvpitri, § ^Ayairrj. 

CHAP. XXIII.] LIST OF MONKS. — A.D. 373. 335 

Gregory the Just, that there are four virtues, having 
distinct characteristics: — prudence, fortitude, temper- 
ance and justice. That it is the province of prudence 
to contemplate abstractedly those sacred and intelli- 
gent powers, which are unfolded by wisdom : of 
fortitude to adhere to tinith against all opposition, 
and never to turn aside to that which is unreal: of 
temperance to receive seed from the chief husband- 
man,* but to repel liim who would sow over it seed of 
another kind: and finally, of justice to adapt dis- 
course to every one, according to their condition and 
< rapacity ; stating some things obscurely, and others in 
a figurative manner, while for the instruction of the 
less intelligent the clearest explanations are given.' 
That pillar of truth, Basil of Cappadocia, used to say 
that the knowledge which men teach is perfected by 
constant study and exercise ; but that which the grace 
of God communicates, by the practice of justice, 
patience and mercy. That the former indeed is 
often developed in persons who are still subject 
to the passions ; whereas the latter is the portion 
of those only who are superior to their influence, 
and who during the season of devotion, contem- 
plate that peculiar light of the mind which illu- 
mines them. That luminary of the Egyptians, holy 
Athanasius, assures us that Moses was commanded 
to place the table on the norths side. Let the 
(irnostics therefore understand what wind is contrary 
to them, and sg nobly endure every temptation, and 
minister nourishment with a willing mind to those 
who apply to them. Serapion, the angel of the 
church of the Thmuitaj, declared that the mind is 

* Matt. xiii. 24. t Exod. xxvi. 35. 


completely purified by drinking in spiritual know- 
ledge : that charity cures the inflammatory tendencies 
of the soul ; and that the depraved lusts which spring 
up in it are restrained by abstinence. Exercise thy- 
self continually, said the great and enlightened teacher 
Didymus in reflecting on providence and judgment; 
and endeavour to bear in memory whatever discourses 
thou mayst have heard on these topics, for almost all 
fail in this respect. Thou Avilt find reasonings con- 
cerning judgment in the difierence of created* forms, 
and the constitution of the universe : sermons on 
providence comprehended in those means by which 
we are led from vice and ignorance to virtue and 

These are a few extracts from Evagrius which I 
thought it would be appropriate to insert here. There 
was another excellent man among the monks, named 
Ammonius, who had so little interest in secular mat- 
ters, that when he went to Rome with Athanasius, he 
paid no attention to any of the magnificent works 
of that city, contenting himself witli examining the 
CathedraU of Peter and Paul only. And when they 
were about to compel this same Ammonius to enter 
upon the episcopal office, he cut oft' his own right ear, 
that by mutilation of his person he might disqualify 
himself for ordination. Evagrius, whom Theophilus 
bishop of Alexandria wished to force the prelacy upon, 
having effx3cted his escape without maijning himself in 
any way, afterwards happened to meet Ammonius, 
and told him jocosely, that he had done wrong in 
cutting off* his own ear, as he liad by that means 

* ^wfiUTiMfy. t ^IdpTvpior, Basilicas. 


rendered himself criminal in the sight of Grod. To 
which Aramonius replied, " And do you think, Eva- 
grius, that you Avill not be punished, who from self- 
love have cut out your own tongue, to avoid the 
exercise of that gift of utterance which has been com- 
mitted to you?" There were at the same time in 
the monasteries very many other admirable and devout 
characters whom it would be too tedious to enumerate 
in this place, and besides if we should attempt to 
describe the life of each, and the miracles they did by 
means of that sanctity with which they were endued, 
we should necessarily digress too far from the object 
we have in view. Should any one desire to become 
acquainted with their history, in reference both to 
their deeds, and discourses for the edification of their 
auditors, as well tis their subduing ^vild beasts to 
their authority, there is a specific treatise on the 
subject, composed by the monk Palladius, who was a 
disciple of Evagrius, in which all these particulars 
are minutely detailed. In that work he also men- 
tions several women, who practised the same kind of 
austerities as the men that have been referred to. 
Both Evagrius and Palladius flourished a short time 
after the death of Valens. We nuist now return to 
the [)oint wlience we diverged. 



The emperor Valens having issued an edict com- 
manding that the orthodox should be expelled both 



from Alexandria and the i*est of Eg}^t, depopulation 
and ruin to an immense extent immediately followed : 
some were dragged before the tribunals, others cast 
into prison, and many tortured in various ways, all 
sorts of punishments l)eing inflicted upon persons who 
aimed only at peace and quiet. When these outrages 
had been perpetrated at Alexandria just as Lucius 
tliought proper, and Euzoius had returned to Antioch, 
Lucius the Arian, attended by the commander-in-chief 
of the army with a considerable body of troops, imme- 
diately proceeded to the monasteries of Egypt, where 
he in person assailed the assemblage of holy men with 
greater fury even than the ruthless soldiery. On 
reaching these solitudes they found the monks engaged 
in their customary exercises, praying, healing diseases^ 
and casting out devils : yet regardless of these extra- 
ordinary e\ddences of divine power, they suflTered 
them not to continue their solemn devotions, but 
drove them out of the oratories by force. Rufinus 
declares that he was not only a Avntness of these 
cruelties, but also one of the suflferers. Thus in them 
were renewed those things wliich are spoken of by 
tlie apostle :* for they were mocked, and had trial of 
scourgings, were stripped naked, put in bonds, stoned, 
slain with the sword, became tenants of the Avildemess 
clad in sheep-skins nnd goat-skins, being destitute, 
afflicted, tormented, of wliom tlie world was not 
worthy, wandering in deserts, in mountains, in dens 
and caves of the earth. In all these things the testi- 
mony of their faith was confirmed by their works, 
and the cures which the grace of Christ wrought by 
their hands. But it is probable that Divine Providence 

• Heb. xi. 

niAP. XXIV.] MONKS BANISHED. — A. J). 373. 339 

permitted them to endure these evils, having for them 
provided something better, that through their suffer- 
ings others might obtain the salvation of God, as 
subsequent events seem to prove. When therefore 
these excellent persons remained unmoved by all the 
violence- which was exercised toward them, Lucius in 
despair advised the military chief to send the fathers 
of the monks into exile: these were the Egyptian 
Macarius, and his namesake of Alexandria, both of 
whom were accordingly banished to an island where 
there was no Christian, and in which there was an 
idolatrous temple, and a priest whom the inhabitants 
worshipped as a god. The arrival of these holy 
men at the island, filled the demons of that place 
with fear and trepidation. Now it happened at 
the same time that the priest's daughter became 
suddenly possessed by a demon, and began to act with 
great fury, and to overturn everything that came in 
her way ; nor was any force sufficient to restrain her, 
but she cried with a loud voic« to these saints of God, 
saying: — "Why are ye come here to cast us out?" 
Then did they there also display the greatness of the 
power which they had received through divine grace : 
for having cast out the demon from the maid, and 
presented her cured to her father, they converted not 
only the priest himself, but also all the inhabitants of 
the island to the Christian faith. Whereupon they 
brake their images in pieces, and changed the form* 
of their temple into that*^ of a church; and having 
been baptized, they joyfully received instruction in 
the doctrines of Christianity. Thus these distin*^ 
guished individuals, after enduring persecution on 

* jSi\fifia* t Tviroy, 


ticcount of the Homoousijin faith, were themselves 
more approved, became the means of salvation to 
others, and confinned the truth of that for which 
they had suffered. 



About the same period God brought into observa- 
tion another faithful person, that by his testimony 
also the truth might 1x3 est^iblished : this was Didy- 
mus, a most acbnirable and eloquent man, instructed 
in all the learning of the age in which he lived. At 
a very early age, wlien he had scarcely acquired the 
first elements of literature, he Avas attacked by disease 
in the eyes which deprived him of sight. But God 
compensated to him the loss of corporeal vision, by 
bestowing increased intellectual acumen, enabling him 
to attain by means of his hearing, what he could not 
loarn by seeing ; so that being from his childhood en- 
dowed with excellent abilities, he soon far surpassed 
his youthful companions who possessed the keenest 
sight. He made himself master of the principles of 
grammar and rhetoric with astonishing facility; and 
proceeding thence to the study of philosophy, logic,* 
arithmetic, music, and the various other departments 
of knowledge to which his attention was directed, he 
so treasured up in his mind these branches of science, 
that he was prepared Avith the utmost readiness to 
enter into a discussion of these subjects with those 
who had become conversant therewith by the aid of 

* SmXfKTikrjv. 

CIIA1\ XXV.] DIDYMUS. A. D. 372. 341 

books. His acquaiiitiince with the Divine oracles 
contained in the Old and New Testament was so 
perfect, that he composed several treatises in ex|Mj- 
sition of them, besides three books on the Trinity. 
He published also commentaries on Origen's lxx)k 
" Of Principles," in which he shows the excellence 
of these writings, and the insignificance of those who 
caluimiiate their author, and s|>eak slightingly of las 
works; proving that his objectors were destitute of 
sufficient penetration to comprehend the profound 
wisdom of that extraordinary man. Those who may 
desire to form a just idea of the extensive erudition 
of Didynms, and the intense ardour of his miud, 
must peruse with attention his diversified and ela- 
l>orate works. It is said that after Antony had c*on- 
versed for some thne with Didyraus, long Ixjfore the 
reign of Valens, when he came from the desert to 
Alexandria on account of the Arians, {>erceiving the 
learning and intelligence of the man, he said to him, 
" Didynms, let not the loss of your l)odily eyes dis- 
tress you: for although you are deprived of such 
organs as confer a faculty of [)erception common to 
gnats and flies, you should rather rejoice that you 
have eyes such as angels see witli, by whicli the 
Deity himself is discerned, and his light compre- 
liended." This address of the pious Antony to Didy- 
nms was made long before the times we are describ- 
ing: in fact Didynms was then regarded as the great 
bulwark of the true faitli, and the most i)Owerful 
antagonist of tlie Arians, whose sophistic cavillings 
he fully exposed, triumi)hantly refuting all their vain 
subtilties and deceptive reasonuigs. 





The same Providence that opposed Didjonus to the 
Arians at Alexandria, raised up Basil of Csesarea and 
Gregory of Nazianzen to confute them in other cities. 
The merits of these two eminent characters, of whom 
it will be seasonable to give a brief account in this 
place, are recorded in the memories of all men ; and 
the extent of their knowledge is sufficiently per- 
ceptible in their writings to render any eulogy super- 
fluous. Since however the exercise of their talents 
was of great service to the church, tending in a high 
degree to the maintenance of the catholic faith, the 
nature of my history obliges me to take particular 
notice of these two persons. Whoever compares 
Basil and Gregory Avith one another, and considers 
the life, morals, and virtues of each, will find it diffi- 
cult to decide to which of them he ought to assign 
the pre-eminence: so equally did they both appear 
to excel, whether you regard the rectitude of their 
conduct, or their deep acquaintance with Greek lite- 
rature and the sacred Scriptures. In their youth 
they were pupils* at Athens of Himerius and Prohaj- 
resius, the most celebrated sophists of that age : sub- 
sequently they frequented the school of Libanius at 
Antioch in Syria, where they became highly accom- 
plished in rhetoric. Their proficiency induced many 
of their friends to recommend them to teach elo- 




quence as a profession; others persuaded them to 
practise the law; but despising both these pursuits, 
they abandoned their former studies, and embraced 
the monastic life. Having had some slight taste of 
philosophical science from him who then taught it at 
Antioch, they procured Origen's woi'ks, and drew from 
them the right interpretation of the sacred Scriptures ; 
and after a careful perusal of the writings of that great 
man, whose fame was at that time celebrated through- 
out the world, they contended against the Arians with 
manifest advantage. And when the defenders of 
Arianism quoted the same author in confirmation, 
as they imagined, of their own views, these two 
confuted them, and clearly proved that their oi)}X)- 
nents did not at all understand his reasoning. Indeed 
although Eunomius, who was then their champion, 
and many others on their side were considered men 
of great eloquence, yet whenever they attempted to 
enter into controversy with Gregory and Basil, they 
appeared in comparison \vitli them mere ignorant and 
illiterate cavillers. Meletius bishop of Antioch first 
promoted Basil to the office of deacon; and from 
that rank he was elevated to the bishopric of CsBsarea 
in Cappadocia, which was his native country. Thither 
he therefore hastened, fearing lest these Arian dogmas 
should have infected the provinces of Pontus ; and in 
order to counteract them, he founded several monas- 
teries, diligently instructed the people in his o>vn 
doctrines, and confirmed the faith of those whose 
minds were wavering. Gregory being constituted 
bishop of Nazianzen, a small city of Cappadocia 
over which his own father had before presided, 
pursued a course similar to that wliich Basil took; 


for he went through the various cities, strengthening 
the weak, and establishing the feeble-minded. I'o 
Constantinople in particular he paid frequent visits, 
and by his ministrations there, so comforted and 
assured the orthodox believers, that a short time 
after, by the suffrage of many bishops, he was in- 
vested with the prelacy of that city. When intelli- 
gence of the proceedings of these two zealous and 
devoted men reached the ears of the emperor Valens, 
he immediately ordered Basil to be brought from 
Caesarea to Antioch; where being arraigned before 
the tribunal of the prsefect, that functionary asked 
him why he would not embracp the emperor's faith ? 
Basil Avith much boldness condemned the errors of 
that creed which his sovereign countenanced, and 
vindicated the doctrine of consubstantiality : and when 
the praefect threatened him with death, "Would," said 
he, " that I might be released from the bonds of the 
body for the truth's sake." The prsefect having ex- 
horted him to re-consider the matter more seriously, 
Basil is reported to have said, "I am the same to-day 
that I shall be to-morrow : but I wish that you had 
not changed yourself." Basil therefore remained in 
custody. It happened however not long after that 
Galates, the emperor's infant son, was attacked with a 
dangerous malady, so that the physicians despaired of 
his recovery ; when the empress Dominica his mother 
assured the emperor that she had been greatly dis- 
quieted at night by terrific visions, which led her to 
believe that the child's illness was a chastisement on 
account of the ill treatment of the bishop. The em- 
peror after a little reflection sent for Basil, and in 
order to prove his faith said to him, " If the doctrine 


you maintain is the truth, pray that my son may not 
die." " If your majesty will believe as I do," replied 
Basil, " and will cause dissension and disunion to 
cease in the church, the child shall live." To these 
conditions the emperor would not agree : " Let God's 
will concerning the child be done then," said Basil ; 
upon which the emperor ordered him to be dismissed, 
and the child died shortly after. Such is an epitome 
of the history of these distinguished ecclesiastics, 
both of whom have left us many admirable works, 
some of which were translated into Latin by Rufinus, 
as he himself testifies. Basil had two brothers, Peter 
and Gregory; the former of whom adopted Basil's 
monastic mode of life ; while the latter emulated his 
eloquence in teaching, and completed after his death 
" Basil's Treatise on the Six Days' Work," which had 
been left unfinished. He also pronounced at Con- 
stantinople the funeral oration of Meletius bishop of 
Antioch; and many other orations of his ai'e still 



But since from the likeness of the name, and the 
title of the books attributed to Gregory, persons are 
liable to confound very different parties, it is impor- 
tant to observe that there was another Gregory, a 
native of Neocaesarea in Pontus, who was of greater 
antiquity than the one above referred to, inasmuch 
as he was a disciple of Origen. This Gregory's fame 
was cclebrdted at Athens, at Berytus, throughout the 


entire diocese of Pontus, and 1 might almost add the 
whole world. When he had finished his education in 
the schools of Athens, he went to Berytus to study 
civil law, where hearing that Origen expounded the 
Holy Scriptures at Caesarea, he quickly proceeded 
thither ; and after his understanding had been opened 
to perceive the grandeur of these divine books, bidding 
adieu to all further cultivation of the Roman laws, he 
devoted himself whoUy to the instructions of Origen^ 
from whom he acquired a knowledge of the true 
philosophy. Being recalled soon after by his parents 
he returned to liis own country ; and thei'e, while 
still a layman, he performed many miracles, healing 
the sick, and casting out devils even by his letters, 
insomuch that the Pagans were no less attracted to 
the faith by his acts, than by his discourses. Pain- 
philus Martyr mentions this person in the books 
wliich he wrote in defence of Origen ; to which there 
is added an oration of Gregory's, composed in praise 
of Origen, when he was under the necessity of leaving 
him. There were then, to be brief, several Gregories: 
the first and most ancient was the disciple of Origen ; 
the second was the bishop of Nazianzen; the third 
was Basil's brother; and there was another Gregory 
whom the Arians constituted bisliop during the exile 
of Athanasius. But enough has been said respecting 

CHAP. XXVIII.] NOVATUS. — A.I). 374. 347 



About this time the Novatians inhabiting Phrygia 
changed the day for celebrating the Feast of Easter. 
How this happened I shall state, after first explaining 
the reason of the strict discipline which is maintained 
in their church, even to the present day, in the pro- 
vinces of Phrygia and Paphlagonia. Novatus* a pres- 
byter of the Roman Church, separated from it, because 
Cornelius the bishop received into communion be- 
lievers who had sacrificed during the persecution 
which the Emperor Decius had raised against the 
church. Having seceded on this account, on being 
afterwards elevated to the episcopacy by such prelates 
as entertained similar sentiments, he wrote to all the 
churches insisting that they should not admit to the 
sacred mysteries those who had sacrificed; but ex- 
horting them to repentance, leave the pardoning of 
their offence to God, who has the power to forgive all 
sin. These letters made different impressions on the 
parties in the various provinces to whom they were 
addressed, according to their several dispositions and 
judgments. The exclusion from participation in the 
Lord's Supper^ of those who after baptism had com- 
mitted any deadly sin' appeared to some a cruel 
and merciless course : but others thought it just and 

* The Greeks usually term him Novatus, whose right name was 

t MviFTrjfiiwv, t Bi'v OdvaToy afiapriuy. 


necessary for the maintenance of discipline, and the 
promotion of greater devotedness of life. In the 
midst of the agitation of this important question, 
letters arrived from Cornelius the bishop, promising 
indulgence to delinquents after baptism. On these 
two persons writing thus contrary to one another, 
and each confirming his own procedure by the testi- 
mony of the divine word, as it usually happens, every 
one identified himself with that view which favoured 
his previous habits and inclinations. Those who had 
pleasure in sin, encouraged by the licence thus granted 
them, took occasion from it to revel in every species 
of criminality. The Phrygians however appear to Ix^ 
more temjxBrate than other nations, and are seldom 
guilty of swearing. The Scythians and Thi*acians 
are naturally of a very irritable disjx)sition : while 
the inhabitants of the East are addicted to sensual 
pleasures. But the Paphlagonians and Phrygians 
are prone to neither of these vices ; nor are the 8}X)rts 
of the circus nor theatrical exhibitions in much esti- 
mation among them even to the present day. And 
this ynll account as I conceive, for these }>eople, iis 
well as others of a similar temperament and habit 
in the West, so readily assenting to the letters then 
written by Novatus. Fornication and adultery are 
regarded among the Paphlagonians and Phrygians as 
the grossest enormities : and it is well known that 
there is no race of men on the face of the earth who 
more rigidly govern their passions in this respect. 
Yet although for the sake of stricter discipline 
Novatus became a separatist, he made no change in 
the time of keeping Easter, but invariably observed 
the practice that obtained in the Western churches, of 


(celebrating this feast after the equinox, according to 
the usage wliich had of old been delivered to them 
when first they embraced Christianity. He himself 
indeed afterwards suffered martyrdom in the reign of 
Valerian, during the persecution which was then 
mised against the Christians, liut those in Phrygia 
who from his name are termed Novatians, about this 
period chang(?d the day of celebrating Easter, being 
averse to communion ^vith other Christians even on 
this occasion. This was effected by means of a few 
obscure bishops of that sect convening a Synod at the 
village of Pazum, which is situated near the sources 
of the river Sangarius ; for there they framed a canon 
appointing its observance on the same day as that on 
which the Jews annually keep the feast of Unleavened 
liread. I obtained my information on this point 
from an aged man who was the son of a presbyter, 
nnd had been present with his father at this Synod. 
I>ut both Agelius bishop of the Novatians at Con- 
stantinoi)le, and Maximus of Nice, were absent, as 
also the bishops of Nicomedia and Cotuoeum, although 
the ecclesiastical affairs of that sect were for the most 
pait under the control of these prelates. How their 
church soon after wiis divided into two parties in 
consequence of this Synod, shall be related in its 
propel* coui^se : but we must now notice what t(X)k 
place about the same time in the Western parts. 




While the emperor Valentinian enjoyed the utmost 
tranquillity, and interfered with no sect, Damasus after 
Liberius undertook the administration of the Episco- 
patet at Rome ; whereupon a great disturbance was 
caused on the following account. Ursinus, a deacon 
of that church, had been nominated among others 
when the election of a bishop took place ; who unable 
to bear the frustration of his hope by Damasus being 
preferred, held schismatic assemblies apart from the 
church, and even induced certain bishops of little 
distinction to ordain him in secret. This ordination, 
which was made not in a church, but in a retired 
place called the Palace of Sicinius, excited much dis- 
sension among the people ; their disagreement being 
not about any article of faith or heresy, but simply 
this, who ought to obtain the 15piscopal chair ! Hence 
frequent conflicts arose, insonmch that many lives 
were sacrificed in this contention ; and many of the 
clergy as well as laity were punished on that account 
by Maximin the governor of the city. Thus was 
Ursinus obliged to desist from his pretensions at that 
time, and those who espoused his cause were reduced 
to order. 

* Jerome says this occurred in the year 367. t *Upfatrvyi)v, 

CHAP. XXX.] ELECTION OF AMimOSK. — A.D. 374. 351 



About the same time* another event happened at 
Milan well worthy of being recorded. On the death 
of Auxentius who had been ordained bishop of that 
churcli 1>y the Arians, the people again became tumul- 
tuous respecting the election of a successor; for as 
some proposed one person, and others favoured ano- 
ther, the city was full of contention and uproar. 
In this state of things, Ambrose the governor of 
the province, who was also of consular dignity, 
dreading some catiustrophe from the popular excite- 
ment, ran into the church in order to quell the 
disturbance. When his presence had checked the 
confusion that prevailed, and the irrational fury of 
the multitude was repressed by a long and appro- 
priate hortatory address, all present suddenly came 
to an unanimous agreement, crying out that Ambrose 
was worthy of the bishopric, and demancUng his ordi- 
nation : for by that means only, it was alleged, would 
the peace of the church be secured, and all be re- 
united in the same faith and judgment. The bishops 
then present, believing that such unanimity among 
the people proceeded from some divine appointment, 

* The date of this is rightly assigned, hut it was seven years after 
the promotion of Daniasus. 


immediately laid hands on Ambrose; and having 
baptized him, he being then but a catechumen, they 
were about to invest him with the episcopal office. 
But although Ambrose willingly received baptism, 
he with great earnestness refused to be ordained: 
upon which the bishops referred the matter to the 
emperor Valentinian. This prince regarding the 
universal consent of the people as the work of God, 
authorized the bishops to ordain him ; declaring that 
he was manifestly chosen of God to preside over the 
church, rather than elected by the people. Ambrose 
was therefore ordained ; and thus the Milanese who 
were before divided among themselves, were once 
more restored to unity. 



The SarmatflB* after this having made incursions 
into the Roman territories, the emperor marched 
against them >vith a numerous army: but when the 
barbarians imderstood the formidable nature of this 
expedition, they sent an embassy to him to sue for 
peace on certain conditions. On the ambassadors 
being introduced to the emperor's presence, and 
appearing to him to be a very contemptible set of 
fellows, he enquired whether all the Sarmatae were 
such as they were ? They replied that the noblest per- 
sonages of their whole nation had come to him. At 
this answer Valentinian became excessively enraged, 
and exclaimed with great vehemence, that the Roman 




empire was indeed most vn'etched in devolving upon 
him at a time when a nation of such despicable 
barbarians, not content >vith being pennitted to exist 
in safety wthin their own limits, dared to take up 
anns, invade the Roman territories, and break forth 
into open war. The violence of his manner and 
utterance of these words was so great, that his yeins 
were opened by the effort, and the arteries ruptured ; 
and from the vast quantity of blood which thereupon 
gushed forth he died. This occurred at Bergition 
Castle, after Gratian's third consulate hi conjunction 
with Equitius, on the seventeenth day of November, 
in the fifty-fourth year of his age, and the thirteenth 
of his reign. Six days after his death the soldiery 
proclaimed his son Valentinian, then a young child, 
emperor, at Acincum a city of Italy.* This prema- 
ture act greatly displeased the other two emperors, 
one of whom (Gratian) was the brother, and the 
other (Valens) the uncle of young Valentinian; not 
indeed because of his having been declared emperor, 
but on account of the military presuming to proclaim 
him without consulting them, when they themselves 
wislied to have done so. Thev both however ratified 
the transaction, and thus was Valentinian junior 
seated on his father's throne. Now this Valentinian 
was born of Justina, whom Valentinian senior married 
while Severa his former wife was alive, under the 
following circimistances. Justus the father of Justina, 
who had been governor of Picenum under the reign 
of Constantius, had a dream in which he seemed to 
himself to bring forth the imperial purple out of his 
right side. When this dream Iiad been told to many 

* Rather of Pannonia. 



persons, it at length came to the knowledge of Con- 
stantius, who conjecturing it to be a presage that a 
descendant of Justus would become emperor, caused 
him to be assassinated. Justina being thus bereft of 
her father, still continued a virgin. Some time after 
she became known to Severa, wife of the emperor 
Valentinian, and had frequent intercourse with the 
empress, until their intimacy at length grew to 
such an extent that they were accustomed to bathe 
together. Severa on seeing Justina in the bath was 
greatly struck with her virgin beauty, and spoke of 
her to the emperor; saying that the daughter of 
Justus was so lovely a creature, and possessed of 
such symmetry of form, that she herself, though a 
woman, was altogether channed >vith her. This 
discourse having made a strong impression on the 
emperor's mind, he considered Avith himself how he 
could espouse Justina, without repudiating Severa, 
who had borne him Gratian, whom he had created 
Augustus a little while before. He accordingly 
framed a law, and caused it to be published through- 
out all the cities, by which any man was permitted 
to have two laAvful Avives. Having promulgated 
this law, he married Justina, by whom he had Va- 
lentinian junior, and three daughters, Justa, Grata, 
and Galla ; the two fonner of whom persist^ in 
their resolution of continuing virgins : but Galla was 
afterwards married to the emperor Theodosius the 
Great, who had by her a daughter named Placidia. 
For that prince had Arcadius and Honorius by 
Flaccilla his former wife : we shcill however enter 
into particulars respecting Theodosius and his sons 
in the proper place. 




In the meanwhile Valens, making his residence at 
Antioch, was wholly undisturbed by foreign wars; 
for the barbarians on every side restrained themselves 
within their own boundaries. Nevertheless he him- 
self waged a most cruel war against those who 
maintained the Homoousian doctrine, inflicting on 
them more grievous punishments every day; until 
his severity was a little moderated by an oration 
addressed to him by the philosopher Themistius. 
In this speech he tells the emperor, " That he ought 
not to be surprised at the difference of judgment on 
religious questions existing among Christians; inas- 
much as that discrepancy was trifling when com- 
pared with the multitude of conflicting opinions 
current among the heathen,* amounting to above 
three hundred. That dissension indeed was an in- 
evitable consequence of this disagreement; but that 
God would be the more glorified by a diversity of 
sentiment, and the greatness of his majesty be more 
venerated, from its being thus made manifest how 
difficult it is to know him." This discourse softened 
the rigour of the emperor's persecution, but did not 
effect an abolition of it; for although he ceased to 
put ecclesiastics to death, he continued to send them 
into exile, until this fury of his was repressed by 
other causes. 





The barbarians termed Goths, dwelling beyond the 
Danube,* having engaged in a civil war among them- 
selves, were divided into two parties, one of which 
was headed by Fritigernes, the other by Athanaric. 
When the latter had obtained an evident advantage 
over his rival, Fritigernes had recourse to the Romans, 
and implored their assistance against his adversary. 
Tliis being reported to the emperor Valens, he ordered 
the troops which were engarrisoned in Thrace, to 
assist those barbarians who had appealed to him 
against their more powerful countrymen; and by 
means of tliis subsidy a complete victory was obtained 
over Athanaric beyond the Danube, his forces being 
totally routed. Because of this, many of the bar- 
barians professed the Cliristian religion: for Friti-. 
gernes to express his sense of the obligation the 
emperor had conferred upon him, embraced the re- 
ligion of his benefactor, and persuaded those who 
were under his authority to do the same. Therefore 
it is that so many of the Goths are even to the present 
time infected vnth the errors of Arianism, they having 
on the occiision referred to become adherents to that 
heresy on the emperor's account. Ulfila their bishop 
at that thne, after inventing tlie Gothic letters, trans- 
lated the sacred Scriptures into their own language, 
and undertook to instruct these barbarians in the 


Divine oracles. And as Ulfila did not restrict his 
labours to the subjects of Fritigernes, but extended 
Ihem to those who acknowledged the sway of Atha- 
naric also, that chief regarding this innovation as an 
insult offered to the religion of his ancestors, treated 
those who professed Christianity with great severity, 
so that many of the Arian Groths of that period 
became martyrs. Arius indeed, failing in his attempt 
to refute the opinion of SabcUius the Libyan, fell 
from the true faith, and asserted the Son of God to 
be a new God : but the barbarians embracing Chris- 
tianity with greater shnplicity of mind, despised the 
present life for the faith of Christ. With these re- 
marks we shall close our notice of the Christianized 



Not long after the barbarians had entered into a 
friendly alliance with one another, they were again 
vanquished by other barbarians their neighbours, 
called the Huns ; * and being driven out of their own 
country, they flee into the territory of the Romans, 
offering to be subject to the emperor, and to execute 
whatever he should command them. When Valens 
was made acquainted with this, not having the least 
presentunent of the consequences of his clemency, he 

* Ovyt'wy, 


ordered that the suppliants should be received with 
kindness and consideration; in this one instance 
alone showing himself compassionate. He therefore 
assigned them certain parts of Thrace for their 
habitation, deeming himself peculiarly fortunate in 
this matter: for he calculated that in future he 
should possess a ready and well-equipped army 
against all assailants ; and hoped that the barbarians 
would be a more formidable guard to the frontiers of 
the empire even than the Romans themselves. For 
this reason he in future neglected to recruit his army 
by Roman levies; and despising those veterans by 
whose bravery he had subdued his enemies in former 
wars, he put a pecuniary value on that militia which 
the inhabitants of the provinces, village by village, 
had been accustomed to furnish, ordering the col- 
lectors of his tribute to demand eighty pieces of gold* 
for every soldier, although he had never before 
lightened the public burdens. This change was the 
origin of many disasters to the Roman empire sub- 



The barbarians having been put into ix)ssessiou of 
Thrace, and securely enjoying that Roman province, 
were unable to bear their good fortune with modera- 
tion; but committing hostile aggressions u|)on their 
benefactors, devastated all Thrace and the adjacent 

* Each about the vahie of a cidwii. 


countries. When these proceedmgs came to the 
knowledge of Valens, he desisted from sending the 
Homoousians into banishment; and in great alarm 
left Antioch, and came to Constantinople, where also 
the persecution of the orthodox Christians was for 
the same reason put an end to. At the same time 
Euzoius, bishop of the Arians at Antioch, departed 
this life, in the fifth consulate of Valens, and the 
first of Valentinian junior; and Dorotheus was ap- 
{)ointed in his place. 



No sooner had the emperor departed from Antioch, 
than the Saracens who had before been in alliance 
Avith the Romans, revolted from them, being led by 
Mavia their queen, whose husband was then dead. 
All the regions of the East therefore were at that 
time ravaged by the Saracens: but their fury was 
repressed by the interference of Divine Providence 
in the manner T am about to describe. A person 
named Moses, a Saracen by birth, who led a monastic 
life in the desert, became exceedingly eminent for 
his piety, faith, and miracles. Mavia the queen of 
the Saracens was therefore desirous that this person 
should be constituted bishop over her nation, and 
promised on this condition to terminate the war. 
The Roman generals considering that a peace founded 
on such terms would be extremely advantageous, gave 


iiamediate directions for its ratification. Moses was 
accordingly seized, and brought from the desert to 
Alexandria, in order to his being initiated in the 
sacerdotal function's: but on his presentation for 
that purpose to Lucius, who at that time presided 
over the churches in that city, he refused to be or- 
dained by him, protesting against it in these Avords : 
" I account myself indeed unworthy of the sacred 
office; but if the exigences of the state require my 
bearing it, it shall not be by Lucius laying his hand 
on me, for it has been filled with blood." When 
Lucius told him that it was his duty to learn from 
him the principles of religion, and not to utter re- 
proachful language; Moses replied, "Matters of faith 
are not now in question: but your infamous prac- 
tices against the brethren sufficiently prove the 
inconsistency of your doctrines with Christian truth. 
A Christian is no striker, reviles not, does not fight; 
for it becomes not a servant of the Lord to fight. 
But your deeds cry out against you by those who 
have been sent into exile, who have been exposed 
to the wild beasts, and who have been delivered up 
to the flames. Those things which our own eyes 
have beheld, are far more convincing than what we 
receive from the report of another." Moses having 
expressed himself in this manner, was taken by his 
friends to the mountains, that he might receive ordi- 
nation from those bishops who lived in exile there. 
His consecration terminated the Saracen war: and 
so scrupulously did Mavia observe the peace thus 
entered into with the Romans, that she gave her 
daughter in marriage to Victor* the commander-in- 

* Bik'Topi, 


chief of the Roman army. Such were the transac- 
tions in relation to the Saracens. 



As soon as the emperor Valens left Antioch, all 
those who had any^vhere been suffering persecution, 
began again to take courage, and especially the Alex- 
andrians. Peter returned to that city from Rome, 
with letters from Damasus the Roman bishop, in 
which he confirmed the Homoousian faith, and sanc- 
tioned Peter's ordination. The people therefore re- 
suming confidence, expel Lucius, who immediately 
embarked for Constantinople : but Peter survived his 
re-establishment a very short time, and at Iiis death 
appointed his brother Timothy to succeed him. 



On the arrival of the emperor Valens at Constiin- 
tinople, on the 30th of May, in the sixth year of his 
own consulate, and the secondofValentinian junior's, 
he finds the people in a very dejected state of mind : 
for the barbarians who had already desolated Thrace, 
were now laying waste the very suburbs of Constan- 
tinople, there being no adequate force at hand to 
resist them. But when they presumed to make near 


approaches, even to the walls of the city, the people 
became exceedingly troubled, and began to murmur 
against the emperor; accusing him of having been 
the cause of bringing the enemy thither, and then 
indolently wasting his time there, instead of at once 
marching out against the barbarians. Moreover at 
the exhibition of the sports of the Hippodrome, all 
with one voice exclaimed against the emperor's neg- 
ligence of the public affairs, crying out with great 
earnestness, " Give us arms, and we ourselves will 
fight." The emperor provoked at these seditious 
clamours, marches out of the city, on the 11th of 
June; threatening that if he returned, he would 
punish the citizens not only for their insolent re- 
proaches, but for having heretofore favoured the 
pretensions of the tyrant Procopius. After declaring 
therefore that he would utterly demolish their city, 
and cause the plough to pass over its ruins, he ad- 
vanced against the barbarians, whom he routed with 
great slaughter, and pursued as far as Adrianople a 
city of Thrace, situated on the frontiers of Mace- 
donia. Having at that place again engaged the 
enemy, who had by this time rallied, he lost his life 
on the 9th of August, under the consulate just men- 
tioned, and in the fourth year of the 289th Oljanpiad. 
Some have asserted that he was burnt to death in a 
village whither he had retired, which the Goths 
assaulted and set on fire. But others affirm that 
having put off his imperial robe he ran into the 
midst of the main body of infantry ; and that when 
the cavalry revolted and refused to engage, the foot 
were surrounded by the barbarians, and completely 
destroyed. Among these it is said the emperor fell, 


but could not be distinguished, in consequence of his 
having laid aside his imperial habit. He died in the 
fiftieth year of his age, having reigned in conjunction 
wth his brother thirteen years, and three years after 
his death. This book therefore contains the course 
of events during the space of sixteen years. 




Before we commence the fifth book of our history, 
we must beg those who may peruse this work, not to 
censure us too hastily for intermingling with eccle- 
siastical matters, such an account of the wars coeval 
with the period under consideration, as could be duly 
authenticated. For this plan of ours has been de- 
liberately pursued for several reasons : first, in order 
to lay before our readers an exact statement of facts ; 
secondly, to relieve their minds from a wearisome 
repetition of the contentious disputes of bishops, and 
their insidious designs against one another ; but more 
especially that it might be made apparent, that when- 
ever the aiFairs of the State were disturbed, those of 
the Church, as if by some vital sympathy, became 
disordered also. Indeed whoever shall attentively 
examine the subject vdW. find, that the mischiefs of 
the state, and the troubles of the church have been 
inseparably connected ; for he will perceive that they 
have either arisen together, or immediately suc- 
ceeded one another. Sometimes the calamities of the 
church take precedence; then commotions in the 
state follow : so that I cannot believe this invariable 
interchange is merely fortuitous, but am persuaded 
that it proceeds from our iniquities, of which these 
reciprocal convulsions are the merited chastisements. 
The apostle truly says, " Some men's sins are oj)en 
beforehand, going before to judgment; and some 
men they follow after."* Hence it is that we have 

♦ 1 Tim. V. 24. 

CHAP. I.] THE GOTHS REPULSED. — A.D. 378. 365 

interwoven many affairs of the state with our eccle- 
siastical history. Of the wars carried on during the 
reign of Constantine we have made no mention, 
havinfr found no account of them that could be de- 
pended upon because of their antiquity : but we have 
given a cursory sketch of subsequent events, in the 
order of their occurrence, from the narration of living 
mtnesses. We have never failed to include the 
emperors in these historical details ; because from the 
time they began to profess the Christian religion, 
they have exercised a powerful influence over the 
affairs of the church, to such an extent indeed, that 
the greatest Synods have been, and still are convened 
by their appointment. Finally, we have particularly 
noticed the Arian heresy, from its having so greatly 
disquieted the churches. Having made these pre- 
fatory remarks, we shall now proceed with our 



After the emperor Valens had thus lost his life, 
in a manner which has never been satisfactorily as- 
cert^iined, the barbarians again approached the very 
walls of Con Stan tino})le, and laid waste the suburbs 
on every side of it. The people unable to endure 
this distressing spectacle, armed themselves with 


whatever weapons they could severally lay hands on, 
and sallied forth of their own accord against the 
enemy. The empress Dominica caused the same pay 
to be distributed out of the imperial treasury to such 
as volunteered to go out on this service, as was 
usually allowed to soldiers. On this occasion the 
citizens were assisted by a few of the Saracen con- 
federates, who had been sent by Mavia their queen, 
to whom allusion has been already made ; and by this 
united resistance, they obliged the barbarians to retire 
to a greater distance from the city. 



Gratian being now in possession of the empire, 
together with Valentinian junior, and condemning 
the cruel policy of his uncle Valens towards the 
orthodox Christians, recalled those whom he had 
sent into exile. He moreover enacted that persons 
of all sects, without distinction, might securely as- 
semble together in their oratories;* the Eunomians, 
Photinians, and Manichaeans only were excluded 
from the churches. Being also sensible of the lan- 
guishing condition of the Roman empire, and of the 
growing power of the barbarians ; perceiving too that 
the state was in need of a brave and prudent man, 
he created Thcodosius his colleague in the sovereign 
power. This person was descended from a noble 

* FAiKTTipioiC' 



family in Spain, and had acquired so distinguished 
a celebrity for his prowess in the wars, that he was 
universally considered worthy of that honour, even 
before Gratian's election of him. Having therefore 
proclaimed him emperor, at Sirmium a city of Illy- 
ricum, in the consulate of Ausonius and Olybrius, 
on the 16th of January, he divides with him the 
care of managing the war against the barbarians. 




Damasus who had succeeded Liberius then pre- 
sided over the church at Rome. Cyril was still in 
possession of that at Jerusalem. The Antiochian 
church, as we have stated, was divided into three 
parts : for the Arians had chosen Dorotheus as the 
successor of their bishop Euzoius ; while one portion 
of the rest was under the government of Paulinus, 
and the other yielded obedience to Meletius, who 
had been recalled from exile. Lucius although ab- 
sent, having been compelled to leave Alexandria, yet 
maintained the episcopal authority among the Arians 
of that city; the Homoousians there being headed 
by Timothy, who succeeded Peter. At Constanti- 
nople Demophilus the successor of Eudoxius presided 
over the Arian faction, and was in possession of the 
churches ; but those who were averse to communion 
with him, held their assemblies apart. 




After the deputation from the Macedonians to 
Liberius, that sect was admitted to entire commu- 
nion with the churches in every city, intermixing 
themselves indiscriminately with those who from the 
beginning had embraced the form of faith published 
at Nice. But when the emperor Gratian had passed 
the law which permitted the several sects to reunite 
in the public services of religion, they again resolved 
to separate themselves; and having met at Antioch 
in Syria, they came to the decision afresh that the 
word consuhstantial ought to be rejected, and that 
communion was by no means to be held with the 
supporters of the Nicene Creed. They however de- 
rived no advantage from this attempt; for the ma- 
jority of their own party being disgusted at the 
fickleness wth which they sometimes maintained one 
opinion, and then another, withdrew from them, and 
thenceforward became firm adherents to those who 
professed the doctrine of consubstautiality. 




About this time a serious contest was excited at 
Antioch in Syria, on account of Meletius. It has 


been already observed that Paulinus bishop of that 
city, because of his eminent piety was not sent into 
exile: and that Meletius after being restored by 
Julian, was again banished by Valens, and at length 
recalled in Gratian's reign. On his return to An- 
tioch, he found Paulinus greatly enfeebled by old 
age; his partisans therefore used their utmost endea- 
vours to get him associated with that prelate in the 
episcopal office. And when Paulinus declared that 
it was contrary to the canons to admit a coadjutor 
who had been ordained by the Arians, the people 
had recourse to violence, and caused him to be con- 
secrated in one of the churches without the city. 
A great disturbance arose from this transaction ; but 
the popular ferment was afterwards allayed by the 
following stipulations being agreed to. Having as- 
sembled such of the clergy as were considered worthy 
of being entrusted with the bishopric, they find them 
six in number, of whom Flavian was one. AH these 
they bound by an oath, not to use any efibrt to get 
themselves ordained, when either of the two prelates 
should die, but to permit the survivor to retain 
undisturbed possession of the see of the deceased. 
This arrangement appeased the jealousy of the con- 
tending parties: the Luciferians however separated 
themselves from the rest, because Meletius who had 
been ordained by the Arians was admitted to the 
episcopate. In this state of the Antiochian church, 
Meletius was under the necessity of going to Con- 





By the common suffrage of many prelates, Gregory 
was at this time translated from the see of Nazianzen 
to that of Constantinople in the manner before de- 
scribed. And about the same time the emperors 
Gratian and Theodosius each obtained a victory over 
the barbarians. Immediately after this Gratian set 
out for the Gallias, because the Alemanni* were 
ravaging those provinces : but Theodosius, ofter erect- 
ing a trophy, hastened towards Constantinople, and 
arrived at Thessalonica, where he was taken danger- 
ously ill, and expressed a desire to receive Christian 
baptism. Now he had been instructed in Christian 
principles by his ancestors, and professed the Ho- 
moousian faith. Becoming increasingly anxious to be 
baptized therefore, as his malady grew worse, he sent 
for the bishop of Thessalonica, and first asked him 
what doctrinal views he held? The bishop replied, 
that the opinion of Arius had not yet invaded the 
provinces of lUyricum, nor had the novelty to which 
that heretic had given birth begun to prey upon the 
churches in those countries; but they continued to 
preserve unshaken that faith which from the begin- 
ning was delivered by the apostles, and had been 
confirmed in the Niceiie Synod. On hearing tliis, 

* *AXa/Lm» oil'. 


the emperor was most gladly baptized by the bishop 
Ascholius ; and having recovered from his disease not 
many days after, he came to Constantinople on the 
twenty-fourth of November, in the fifth consulate of 
Gratian, and the first of his own. 



Gregory of Nazianzen, after his translation to 
Constantinople, held his assemblies within the city 
in a small oratory, adjoining to Avhich the emperor 
afterwards built a magnificent church, and named it 
Anastasia. But Gregory, who far excelled in elo- 
quence and piety all those of the age in which he 
lived, understanding that some murmured at his 
preferment because he Avas a stranger,* after ex- 
pressing his joy at the emperor's arrival, refused 
to remain at Constantinople. When the emperor 
found the church in this state, he began to consider 
by what means he could make peace, effect a union, 
and enlarge the churches. Immediately therefore he 
intimated his desire to Demophilus, who presided over 
the A rian party ; and enquired whether he was willing 
to assent to the Nicene Creed, and thus reunite the 
people, and establish concord. Upon Demophilus's 
declining to accede to this proposal, the emperor said 
to him, " Since you reject peace and unanimity, I 


order you to quit the churches." Which when 
Demophilus heard, weighing with himself the diffi- 
culty of contending against superior power, he con- 
voked his followers in the church, and standing in 
the midst of them, thus spoke : " Brethren, it is 
written in the Gospel, If they persecute you in one city^ 
flee ye into another. Since therefore the emperor 
excludes us from the churches, take notice that we 
will henceforth hold our assemblies without the city." 
Having said this, he departed ; not however as rightly 
apprehending the meaning of that expression in the 
Evangelist, for the real import of the sacred oracle 
is, that such as icovld avoid the course of this worlds 
must seek the heavenly Jerusalem. He therefore, mis- 
ap})lying the passage, went outside the city gates^ 
and there in future held his assemblies. With him 
also Lucius went out, who being ejected from Alex- 
andria, as we have before related, had made his 
escape to Constantinople, and there abode. Thus 
the Arians, after having been in possession of the 
churches for forty years, were in consequence of 
their opposition to the conciliatory measures of the 
emperor Theodosius, driven out of the city, in 
Gratian's fifth consulate, and the first of Theodosius 
Augustus, on the 26th of November. The professors 
of the Homoousian faith in this manner regained 
possession of the churches. 





After this the emperor without delay sumiiioned 
a Synod of the prelates of his own faith, in order 
that the Nicene Creed might be establishcKl, and a 
bishop of Constantinople ordained : and inasnmch as 
he was not without hope that the Macedonians might 
be won over to his own views, he invited those who 
presided over that sect to be present also. There met 
therefore on this occasion, of the Homoousian party, 
Timothy from Alexandria, Cyril from Jerusalem, who 
at that time recognised the doctrine of consubstan- 
tiality, having retracted his former opinion ; Meletius 
from Antioch, he having arrived there previously to 
assist at the installation of Gregory; Ascholius also 
from Thessalonica, and many others, amounting in all 
to one hundred and fifty. Of the Macedonians, the 
principal persons were Eleusius of Cyzicum, and Mar- 
cian of Lampsacus ; tliese with the rest, most of whom 
came from the cities of the Hellespont, were thirty-six 
in number. All being assembled in the month of 
May, under the consulate of Eucharius and Evagrius, 
the emperor used his utmost exertions, in conjunction 
with the bishops who entertained similar sentiments 
to his own, to bring over Eleusius and his adherents 
to his own side. They were reminded of the deputa- 
tion they hjid sent by Eustathius to Liberius then 
bishop of Rome ; that they had of their own accord 

* This was the second Gik^umeDicHl Council. 


not long since entered into promiscuous communion 
with the orthodox ; and the inconsistency and fickle- 
ness of their conduct was represented to them, in 
now attempting to subvert the faith which they 
once acknowledged, and professed agreement with 
the catholics in. But the Macedonians regardless 
alike of admonitions and reproofs, chose rather to 
maintain the Arian dogma, than to assent to the 
Homoousian doctrine. Having made this declara- 
tion, they departed from Constantinople ; and writing 
to their partisans in every city, they charged them 
by all means to repudiate the creed of the Nicene 
Synod. The bishops of the other party remaining 
at Constantinople, entered into a consultation about 
the ordination of a bishop; for Gregory, as we have 
before said, had renounced that see, and was preparing 
to return to Nazianzen. Now there was a person 
named Nectarius, of a senatorial family, mild and 
gentle in his manners, and admirable in his whole 
course of life, although he at that time bore the 
office of praBtor. This man the people seized upon, 
and elected to the episcopate, and he was ordained 
accordingly by the hundred and fifty bishops then 
present. The same prelates moreover published a 
decree, assigning the next prerogative of honour 
after the bishop of Rome, to the bishop of Constan- 
tinople, because that city was New Rome. They 
also again confirmed the Nicene Creed. Then too 
patriarchs were constituted, and the provinces dis- 
tributed, so that no bisjiop might exercise any juris- 
diction over other churches out of his own diocese: 
for this had been often indiscriminately done before, 
in consequence of the persecutions. To Nectarius 

CHAP. IX.] BODY OF PAUL. A. D. 382. 375 

therefore was allotted the great city* and Thrace. 
Helladius, the successor of .Basil in the bishopric of 
Ca3sarea in Cappadocia, obtained the patriarchate of 
the Pontic diocese, in conjunction mth Gregory 
Basil's brother, bishop of Nyssa in Cappadocia, and 
Otreius bishop of Meletina in Armenia. To Amphi- 
lochius of Iconium and Optimus of Antioch in 
Pisidia, was the Asian diocese assigned. The sui>er- 
intendence of the churches throughout Egypt was 
committed to Timothy of Alexandria. On Pelagius 
of Laodicea, and Diodorus of Tarsus, devolved the 
administration of the churches of the East ; Avithout 
infringement however on the prerogatives of honour 
reserved to the Antiochian church, and conferred on 
Meletius then present. They further decreed that if 
necessity required it, a Provincial S)'nod should deter- 
mine the ecclesiastic afFaii's of each province. These 
arrangements were confirmed by the emperor's appro- 
bation. Such was the result of this Synod. 



A SHORT time afterwards, the emperor caused to 
be removed from the city of Ancyra, the body of the 
bishop Paul, whom Philip the praefect of the Pne- 
torium had banished at the instigation of Macedonius, 
and ordered to be strangled at Cucusus a town of 
Armenia, as I have already mentioned. His remains 

* Constantinople. 


were therefore received by Theodosius with great 
reverence and honour, and deposited in the church 
which now takes its name from him; which the 
Macedonian party were formerly in possession of 
while they remained separate from the Arians, but 
were expelled from by the emperor, on their refusal 
to adopt his sentiments. About this period Mele- 
tius bishop of Antioch, fell sick and died: in whose 
praise Gregory, the brother of Basil, pronounced a 
funeral oration. The body of the deceased prelate 
was by his friends conveyed to Antioch ; where 
those who had identified themselves with his interests, 
again refused subjection to Paulinus, but caused Fla- 
vian to be substituted in the place of Meletius. Thus 
a fresh division arose among the people, rending the 
Antiochian church into rival factions, not grounded 
on any diflference of faith, but simply on a preference 
of bishops. 



Great disturbances occurred in other cities also, 
when the Arians were ejected from the churches. 
But I cannot sufficiently admire the emperor's pru- 
dence in this contingency, and the judicious course 
he pursued in order to arrest the disorders which 
prevailed: for conceiving that by a general confer- 

CHAP. X.] GENERAL SYNOD. — A.D. 383. 377 

ence of the bishops, their mutual difFerences would 
be likely to be adjusted, and unanimity established, 
he again ordered a Synod to be convened in which 
the leaders of all the schismatics were included. And 
I am persuaded that it was to recompense this anxiety 
of the emperor's to promote peace in the church, that 
his affairs were so prosperous at that time. In fact 
by a special dispensation of Divine Providence the 
barbarous nations were reduced to subjection: and 
among others, Athanaric king of the Goths made 
a voluntary surrender of himself to him, with all 
his people, and died soon after at Constantinople. 
At this juncture the emperor proclaimed his son 
Arcadius Augustus, on the sixteenth of January, 
in the second consulate of Merobaudes and Satur- 
ninus. In the month of June, under the same 
consulate, the bishops of every sect arrived from 
all places: the emperor therefore sent for Nectarius 
the bishop, and consulted with him on the best means 
of freeing the Christian religion from dissensions, and 
reducing the church to a state of unity. " The sub- 
jects of controversy," said he, " ought to be fairly dis- 
cussed, that by the detection and removal of the 
sources of discord, an universal agreement may be 
effected." As this proposition gave Nectarius the 
greatest uneasiness, he communicated it to Agelius 
bishop of the Novatians, inasmuch as he enter- 
tained the same sentiments as himself in matters of 
faith. This man though eminently pious, was by no 
means competent to maintain a dispute on doctrinal 
points ; he therefore proposed to refer the subject to 
Sisinnius his reader, as a fit person to manage a con- 
ference. Sisinnius, who was not only eloquent, but 


possessed of great experience, and well-informed both 
in the ex^wsitions of the sacred Scriptures, and the 
principles of philosophy, knowing that disputations, 
far from healing divisions, usually create heresies of 
a more inveterate character, thought it highly de- 
sirable to avoid them. His advice to Nectarius there- 
fore was, that since the ancients have nowhere attri- 
buted a beginning of existence to the Son of God, 
conceiving him to be co-eternal with the Father, it 
would be better to bring forward as evidences of the . 
truth the testimonies of the ancients, instead of en- 
tering into logical debates. " Let the emperor," 
said he, " demand of the heads of each sect, whether 
they would pay any deference to the ancients who 
flourished before schism distracted the church; or 
whether they would repudiate them, as alienated from 
the Christian faith ? If they reject their authority, 
then let them also anathematize them: and should 
they presume to tiike such a step, they would them- 
selves be instantly thrust out by the people, and so 
the truth will be manifestly victorious. But if, on 
the other hand, they are Avilling to admit the fathers, 
it Avill then be our business to produce their books, 
by Avhich our views will be fully attested." Nectarius 
approving of the counsel of Sisinnius, hastened to the 
palace, and acquainted the emperor with the plan 
which had been suggested to him ; Avho at once per- 
ceiving its Avisdom and propriety, carried it into 
execution mth consummate pinidence. For without 
discovering his object, he simply asked the chiefs of 
the heretics whether they had any resix^ct for and 
would recognise those doctors of the church wlio 
lived previous to the dissension? Wlien they un- 

CHAP. X.] GENERAL SYNOD. — A.D. 383. 379 

hesitatingly i^jplied that they highly revered them 
as their masters; the emperor enquired of them 
again whether they would defer to them as ac- 
credited witnesses of Christian doctrine? At this 
question, the leaders of the several parties, wth their 
logical champions who had come prepared for so- 
phistical debate, found themselves extremely embar- 
rassed. Some acquiesced in the reasonableness of the 
emperor's proposition; but others shrunk from it, 
conscious that it was by no means favourable to their 
interests : so that all being variously affected towards 
the writings of the ancients, they could no longer 
agree among themselves, dissenting not only from 
other sects, but those of the same sect diflfering from 
one another. Accordant malice therefore, like the 
tongue of the giants of old, was confounded, and their 
tower of mischief overturned. The emperor per- 
ceiving by their confusion that their sole confidence 
was in subtile arguments, and that they feared to 
api)eal to the expositions of the fathers, had recourse 
to another method: he commanded every sect to 
set forth in ^vi'iting their own peculiar tenets. Ac- 
cordingly those who were accounted the most skilful 
among them, drew up a statement of their respective 
creeds, couched in terms the most circumspect they 
could devise; and on the day appointed them, the 
bishops selected for this purpose presented themselves 
at the palace. Nectarius and Agelius appeared as 
the defenders of the Homoousian faith; Demophilus 
supported the Arian dogma; Eunomius himself under- 
took the cause of the Eunomians ; and Eleusius bishop 
of Cyzicum represented the opinions of those who 
were denominated Macedonians. The emperor gave 


them all a courteous reception; and receiving from 
each their written avowal of faith, he shut himself up 
alone, and prayed very earnestly that God would 
assist him in his endeavours to ascertain the truth. 
Then perusing with great care the statement which 
each had submitted to him, he condemned all the 
rest, inasmuch as they introduced a separation of the 
Trinity, and approved of that only which contained 
the doctrine of consubstantiality. This decision 
caused the Novatians to flourish again : for the em- 
peror delighted \vith the consonance of their pro- 
fession with that which he embraced, permitted them 
to hold their assemblies within the city ; and having 
promulgated a law securing to them the peaceful 
possession of their own oratories, he assigned to their 
churches equal privileges* with those to which he 
gave his more especial sanction. But the prelates 
of the other sects, on account of their disagreement 
among themselves, were despised and censured even 
by their own followers: so that overwhelmed with 
perplexity and vexation they departed, addressing 
consolatory letters to their adherents, whom they 
exhorted not to be troubled because many had de- 
serted them and gone over to the Homoousian party ; 
for said they, " Many are called, but few chosen" — 
an expression which they never thought of using, 
when by force and terror they succeeded in rendering 
the majority of the people their disciples. Never- 
theless the orthodox believers Avere not wholly 
exempt from inquietude; for the affairs of the An- 
tiochian church caused divisions among those who 
were present at the Synod. The bishops of Kgypt, 

CHAP. XI.] MURDER OF GRATIAN. — A.D. 383. 381 

Arabia and Cyprus, combined against Flavian, and 
insisted on his expulsion from Antioch : but those of 
l^alestine, Pha3nice, and Syria, contended with equal 
zeal in his favour. The issue of this contest \vill be 
spoken of in its proper place. 



Nearly synchronous with the holding of these 
Synods at Constantinople, the following events oc- 
curred in the Western parts. Maximus coming from 
the island of Britain, invaded the Roman empire, and 
t<K)k arms against Gratian, who was then engaged in 
a war with the Alemanni. In Italy, Valentinian 
being still a minor, Probus, a man of consular dig- 
nity, had the chief administration of affairs, and was 
at that time pnefcct of the Praetorium. Justina, tlie 
mother of the young prince, who entertained Arian 
sentiments, had been unable to molest the Homoou- 
sians during her husband's life; but going to Milan 
after the emperor's decease, she manifested great hos- 
tility to Ambrose the bishop, and commanded that 
he should be banished. While the people from their 
excessive attachment to Ambrose, were offering resist- 
ance to those who were charged with the execution of 
this order, intelligence was brought that Gratian had 
been assassinated by the treachery of the tyrant Max- 
imus. Andragathius, a general under Maximus, having 
concealed himself in a litter resembling a couch, which 


was carried by mules, ordered his guards to spread a 
report before hiin that the litter contained the emperor 
Gratian's wife. They met the emperor near the city 
of Lyons* in France just as he had crossed the river: 
who believing it to be his wife, and not suspecting 
any treachery, fell into the hands of his enemy as a 
blind man into the ditch ; for Andragathius suddenly 
springing forth from the litter, slew him. Gratian 
thus perished in the consulate of Merobaudes and 
Satuminus, in the tAventy-fourth year of his age, 
and the fifteenth of his reign. This incident re- 
pressed the empress Justina's indignation against 
Ambrose. Afterwards Valentinian most unmllingly, 
but constrained by the necessity of the time, ad- 
mitted Maximus as his colleague in the empire. 
Probus alarmed at the power of Maximus, resolved 
to retreat into the regions of the East : leaving Italy 
therefore, he proceeded to lUyricum, and fixed his 
residence at Thessalonica a city of Macedonia. 



BuT^the emperor Theodosius, filled with the utmost 
solicitude, levied a powerful army against the tyrant, 
fearing lest he should meditate the destruction of the 
young Valentinian also. While engaged in this pre- 
paration, an embassy arrived from the Persians, rc- 

* Aovy^vyov. 

CHAP. Xll.] BIRTH OF HONORIUS. — A.D.387. 383 

questing i)eace from the emperor. Then also tlie 
empress Flaccilla bore him a son named Honoriua, on 
the 9th of September, in the consulate of Richomeres 
and Clearchus. Under the same consulate, and a 
little before the birth of this prince, Agelius bishop 
of the Novatians died. In the year following, wherein 
Arcadius Augustus bore his first consulate in con- 
junction with Bauton, Timothy bishop of Alexandria 
died, and was succeeded in the episcopate by Theo- 
philus. About a year after this, Demophilus the 
Arian prelate having departed this life, the Arians 
sent for Marinus a leader of their own heresy out of 
Thrace, to whom they entrusted the bishopric: but 
he did not long occupy that position, for under him 
that sect was divided into two parties, as we shall 
hereafter explain; they therefore invited Dorotheus 
to come to them from Antioch in Syria, and consti- 
tuted him their bishop. Meanwhile the emperor 
Theodosius proceeded to the war against Maximus, 
leaving his son Arcadius with imperial authority at 
Constantinople. On his arrival at Thessalonica he 
finds Valentinian and those about him in great 
anxiety, because through compulsion they had ac- 
knowledged the tyrant as emperor. Without how- 
ever giving expression to his sentiments, he neither 
rejected nor admitted the embassy of Maximus : but 
unable to endure tyrannical domination over the 
Roman empire, under the assumption of an imperial 
name, he hastily mustered his forces and advanced to 
Milan, whither the usurper had already come. 




While the emperor was thus occupied on his mili- 
tary expedition, the Arians excited a great tumult at 
Constantinople by such devices as these. Men are 
fond of fabricating statements respecting matters 
about which they are kept in ignorance; and the 
tendency to do this is greatly stimulated, when in 
addition to the general love of change, circumstances 
render them peculiarly desirous of promoting it, as 
they are then tempted to spread reports favourable 
to their own wishes. This was strongly exemplified 
at Constantinople on the present occasion: for each 
invented news concerning the war which was carry- 
ing on at a distance, according to his own caprice, 
always presuming upon the most disastrous results; 
and before the contest had yet commenced, they spoke 
of transactions in reference to it, of which they knew 
nothing, Avith as much assurance as if they had been 
spectators on the very scene of action. Thus it was 
confidently affirmed that the tyrant had defeated the 
emperor's army, even the number of men slain on 
both sides being specified ; and that the emperor him- 
self had nearly fallen into the tyrant's hands. Then 
the Arians, who had been excessively exasperated by 
those being put in possession of the churches within 
the city who had previously been the objects of their 
persecution, began to augment these rumours by ad- 
ditions of their o^vn. The currency of such stories 
with increasing exaggeration, in time imposed upon 

rilAP. XIV.] DEATH OF MAXIMUS. — A. D. 388. 385 

even the framers themselves ; until they were induced 
to believe that they were not really fictions of their 
oAvn imagination, but literal and positive facts. For 
those Avho had circulated them from hearsay, affirmed 
to the authors of these falsehoods, that the accounts 
they had received from tliem had been fully corro- 
borated elsewhere. Thus deluded, the Arians were em- 
boldened to commit acts of violence, and among other 
outrages, to set fire to the house of Nectarius the 
bishop. This was done in the second consulate* of 
Theodosius Augustus, which he bore with Cynegius. 



The intelligence of the formidable preparations 
made by the emperor against the tyrant, so alarmed 
the troops under Maximus, that instead of fighting 
for him, they delivered him bound to the emperor, 
who caused him to be put to death, on the twenty- 
seventh of August, under the same consulate. An- 
dragathius, Avho Avith his ovm hand liad slain Gratian, 
understanding the fate of Maximus, precipitated 
himself into an adjacent river, and was drowned. 
Both the \actorious emperors then made their public 
entiy into Rome, accompanied by Honorius the son 
of Theodosius, still a mere boy, whom his father had 
sent for from Constantinople immediately after Max- 
imus had been vanquished. They continued therefore 
at Rome celebrating their triumphal festivals : during 

* In this year the works of Porphyry were burnt by order of 



which time the emperor Theodosius exhibited a re- 
markable instance of clemency toward Symmachus, 
a man who had borne the consular office, and was 
at the head of the senate at Rome. This person 
was distinguished for his eloquence, and many of 
his orations are still extant comiX)sed in the Latin 
tongue : but inasmuch as he had written a panegj'ric 
on Maximus, and pronounced it before him publicly, 
he was afterwards impeached for high treason ; where- 
fore to escape capital punishment he took sanctuary 
in a church. The emperor's veneration for religion 
led him not only to honour the prelates of his own 
communion, Init to treat with consideration those 
of the Novatians also, who embraced the Homoousian 
creed : to gratify therefore Leontius the bishop of the 
Novatian church at Rome, who interceded in behalf 
of Synnnachus, he graciously i)ardoned that criminal. 
Symmachus, after he had obtained his pardon, wrote 
an apologetic address to the emperor Theodosius. 
Thus was the war, which at its commencement ap- 
peared so terrible, brought to a speedy termination. 



About the same period, the following events took 
place at Antioch in Syria. After the death of Pau- 
linus, the peoi)le Avho had been under his sui>erinten- 
dence refused to submit to the authority of Flavian, 
but caused Evagrius to be ordained bishop of their 
own party. He not having long survived his ordina- 
tion, Flavian had the address to prevent any other 

CHAP. XV.] FLAVIAN. A.D. 388. 387 

being constituted in his place: nevertheless those 
who disliked Flavian on account of his having vio- 
lated his oath,* held their assemblies apart. Mean- 
while Flavian left no stone unturned, as the phrase 
is, to bring these also under his control ; and this 
he soon after effected, when he had appeased the 
anger of Theophilus then bishop of Alexandria, by 
whose mediation he conciliated Damasus bishop of 
Rome also. For both these prelates had been greatly 
displeased with Flavian, as well for the perjur}^ of 
which he had been guilty, as for the schism he had 
occiisioned among the people who had lioen previously 
united. Theophilus therefore lx»ing pacified, sent 
Isidore a presbyter to Rome, and thus reconciled 
Damasus who was still offended ; representing to 
him the propriety of overlooking Flavian's miscon- 
duct, for the sake of producing concord among the 
people. Communion being in this way restored to 
Flavian, the people of Antioch were in the course 
of a little while induced to lay aside their opposition 
to him. Such was the conclusion of this affair at 
Antioch. But the Arians of that city being ejected 
from the churches, were accustomed to hold their 
meetings in the suburbs. Moreover Cyril bishop 
of Jerusalem having died about this time, was suc- 
ceeded by John. 

* See chap. v. and xi. of this book. 




At the solicitation of Theophilus bishop of Alex- 
andria, the emperor issued an order at this time for 
the demolition of the heathen temples in that city; 
commanding also that it should be put in execution 
under the direction of Theophilus, which occasioned 
a great commotion. For thus autliorised, Theophilus 
exerted himself to the utmost to expose the Pagan 
mysteries to contempt. Mithra's adytum he caused 
to be cleared out, and exhibited to public view the 
tokens of its bloody mysteries. The temple of 
Serapis he destroyed : and to show how full of 
extravagance the superstitions connected with that 
idol and the other false gods were, he had the phalli 
of Priapus carried through tlie midst of the forum. 
The Pagans of Alexandria, and especially the pro- 
fessors of philosophy, unable to repress their rage 
at this exposure, exceeded in revengeful ferocity 
their outrages on a foinner occasion: for with one 
accord, at a pre-concerted signal, they rushed im- 
petuously upon the Christians, and murdered every 
one they could lay hands on ; and as an attempt 
was made to resist the assailants, tlie mischief was 
the more augmented. This desperate affray was 
prolonged until both parties were exhausted, when 
it was discovered that verj^ few of the heathens had 
been killed, but a great number of Christians ; while 
the amount of wounded on each side was almost 

CHAl*. XVI.] TUMULT AT ALEXANDRIA.— ^A. I). 388. 38^ 

incredible. The Pagans thus sated with blood and 
slaughter absconded, being apprehensive of the em- 
peror's disjJeasurc : some fled in one direction, some 
in another, and many quitting Alexandria, dispersed 
tliemselves in various cities. Among these were the 
two grammarians Helladius and Ammonius, whose 
pupil 1 was in my youth at Constantinople. The 
former was said to be the priest of flupiter, the 
latter of Simius.* After this disturbance had been 
thus tenninated, the governor of Alexandria, and 
the cominander-in-cliief of the troops in Egypt, 
assisted Theophilus in demolishing the heathen tem- 
])les. These worv therefore razed to the ground, tmd 
the images of their gods molten into pots and other 
convenient utensils for the use of the Alexandrian 
church; for the emperor had instructed Theophilus 
to so distribute them for the relief of the poor. All 
tlie images weixi accordingly broken to pieces, except 
one statue of the god' before mentioned, which Theo- 
|)hilus preserved and set up in a public place; " Lest," 
said he, '* at a future time the heathens should deny 
that they had ever worshipped such gods." This 
action gave great umbrage to Ammonius the gram- 
marian in particular, who to my knowledge was 
accustomed to say, that the religion of the, Gentiles 
was grossly abused and misrepresented by the i"eser- 
vation of this one image only, in order to render 
that religion ridiculous. Helladius however did not 
scruple to boast, that he had the satisfaction in that 
desperate onset of sacrificing nine victims wth his 
own hand at the shrine of the hisulted deities. Such 
were the doings in Alexandria at that time. 

"^^ i. e. the ^^e, f Simius. 





When the Temple of Serapis was torn down and 
Imd bare, there were found in it, engraven on stones, 
certain characters which they call hieroglyphics, 
having the forms of crosses. Both the Christians 
and Pagans on seeing them, thought they had re- 
ference to their respective religions : for the Chris- 
tians who affirm that the cross is the sign of Christ's 
saving passion, claimed this character as peculiarly 
theirs ; but the Pagans alleged that it might apper- 
tain to Christ and Serapis in common ; "for," said they, 
" it symbolizes one thing to Christians and another 
to Heathens." Whilst this point was controverted 
amongst them, some of the heathen converts to 
Christianity, who were conversant with these hiero- 
glyphic chai'acters, interpreted that in the form of 
a cross to signify Life to come. This the Christians 
exultingly laid hold of, as decidedly favourable to 
their religion. But after other hieroglyphics had 
been deciphered containing a prediction that Wheji 
(the character in the form of a cross, representing) 
Life to come should apjyear^ the Temple of Serapis 
woxdd be destivyed^ a very great number of the 
Pagans embraced Christianity, and confessing their 
sins, were baptized. Such are the reports I have 
heard respecting the discovery of this symbol in form 
of a cross. But I cannot imagine that the Egyptian 
priests foreknew the things concerning Christ, when 
they engraved the figure of a cross. For if tiie 



mystery of our Saviour's advent iccis hid from ayes 
and from geiieratimis^ as the apostle declares; and 
if the devil himself, the prince of wickedness, knew 
nothing of it, his ministei'S the Egyptian priests 
are likely to have been still more ignorant of the 
matter. Providence doubtless purposed that in the 
inquiry concerning this character, there should some- 
thing tiike place analogous to what happened hereto- 
fore at the preaching of Paul. For he, made wise 
by the Divine Spirit, employed a similar method in 
relation to tlie Athenians, many of whom he brought 
over to the faitli, when on reiiding the inscription on 
one of their altars,'' he accommodated it to his own 
discourse. Unless indeed any one should say, that 
the Word of God wrought in the Egyptian priests, 
as it did on Balmim^ and Caiapluis,t causing them to 
utter prophecies of good things in spite of themselves. 




During the short stay of the emperor Theodosius 
in Italy, he conferred the greatest benefit on the city 
of Rome, by grants on the one hand, and abrogations 
on the other. His largesses were very munificent; 
and he removed two most infamous abuses which 
existed in that mighty city. There were buildnigs of 
iimnense magnitude, erected in former times, in wliicli 
bread was made for distribution among the people. 
Those who had the charge of tliesc edifices, whom 

* Acts xvii. 23. f Num. xxiv. X John xi. 51. 


the Romans in their language term Mancipes, in 
process of time converted them into receptacles for 
thieves. Now the bake-houses* in these structures 
being placed underneath, they built tavemst ait the 
side of each, where prostitutes were kept ; by which 
means they entrapped many of those who went thither 
either for the sake of refreshment, or to gratify their 
lusts, for by a certain mechanical contrivance they 
precipitated them from the tavern into the bake- 
house below. This was practised chiefly upon 
strangers ; and such as were in this way trepanned, 
were compelled to work in the bake-houses, where 
they were immured until old age, their friends con- 
cluding that they were dead. It happened that one 
of the soldiers of the emperor Theodosius fell into 
this snare ; who being shut up in the bake-house, and 
hindered from going out, drew a dagger which he 
wore and killed those who stood in his way : the rest 
being terrified, suffered him to escape. When the 
emperor was made acquainted with the circumstance 
he punished the Mancipes, and ordered these haunts of 
lawless and abandoned characters to be pulled doAvn. 
This was one of the disgraceful nuisances of which 
the emperor purged the imperial city : the other was 
of this nature. When a woman was detected in 
adultery, they punished the delinquent in a way that 
rather aggravated her offence, than tended to refonn 
her. For shutting her up in a narrow brothel, they 
obliged her to prostitute herself in a most disgusting 
manner; causing little bells to be rung at the time, 
that those who passed by might not be ignorant of 
what was doing within. This was doubtless intended 

* MvXdoyei:. \ KuTrr/Xfla. 


to brand the crime with greater ignominy in public 
opinion. As soon as the emperor was apprised of 
this indecent usage, he would by no means tolerate 
it; but having ordered the Sistra (for so these places 
of penal prostitution were denominated) to be pulled 
down, he appointed other laws for the punishment of 
adulteresses. Thus did the emperor Theodosius free 
the city from two of its most discreditable abuses: 
and when he had arranged all other affairs to his 
satisfaction, leaving the young emj^eror VaJenthiian 
at Rome, he returned vnth his son Honorius to Con- 
stantinople, and entered that city on the 10th of 
November, in the consulate of Tatian and Symmachus. 



It was deemed requisite at this time to abolish 
the office of those presbyters in the churches who 
superintended the confessional : this was done on the 
follo-Nving account. When the Novatians separated 
themselves from the church because they would not 
connnunicate with those who had lapsed during the 
persecution under Decius, the bishops added to the 
ecclesiastical canon a presbyter whose duty it should 
be to receive the confession of penitents who had 
sinned after baptism. And this mode of discipline 
is still maintained among other heretical institutions 
by all the rest of the sects; the Homoousians only, 
together with the Novatians who hold the same doc- 
trinal views, having rejected it. The latter indeed 
would never admit of its establishment: and the Ho- 


moousians who are now in possession of the churches, 
after retaining this function for a considerable period, 
abrogated it in the time of Nectarius, in consequence 
of what occurred in the Constantinopolitan church. 
A woman of noble family coming to the penitentiary, 
made a general confession of those sins she had com- 
mitted since her baptism : and the presbyter enjoined 
fasting and prayer continually, that together with the 
acknowledgment of error, she might have to show 
works also meet for repentance. Some time after 
this, the same lady again presented herself, and con- 
fessed that she had been guilty of another crime, a 
deacon of that church having lain Avith her. On this 
information the deacon was ejected from the church : 
but the people were very indignant, being not only 
offended at what had taken plaCe, but also because 
the exposure of the fact had brought scandal and 
degradation upon the church. When in consequence 
of this, ecclesiastics were subjected to taunting and 
reproach, Eudsemon a presbyter of that church, by 
birth an Alexandrian, persuaded Nectarius the bisho]> 
to abolish the office of penitentiary presbyter, and to 
leave every one to his own conscience mth regard to 
the participation of the sacred mysteries:* for thus 
oi Jy, in his judgment, could the church be preserved 
from obloquy. I have not hesitated to insert this in 
, my history, since I myself heard the explanation of 
the matter from EudaBmon: for as I have often 
remarked, I have spared no pains to procure an 
authentic account of affairs from those who were 
best acquainted with them, and to scrutinize everj^ 
reix>rt, lest I sliould advance wliat might be untrue. 

* i. c. communion. 



My observation to EudaBmon, when he first related 
the circumstance, was this : " Whether, presbyter, 
your counsel has been profitable for the church or 
otherwise, God knows ; but I see that it takes away 
the means of rebuking one another's faults, and pre- 
vents our acting upon that precept of the apostle, 
Have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of dark- 
ness^ but rather reprove theni^ 



I CONCEIVE it right moreover to notice the jwoceed- 
ings of the other religious bodies, viz. the Arians, 
Novatians, and those who received their denomina- 
tions from Macedonius and Eunomius. For the 
church once being divided, rested not in that schism, 
but the separatists taking occasion from the most 
frivolous pretences, disagreed among themselves. The 
manner and time, as well as the causes for which 
they raised mutual dissensions, will be stated as we 
proceed. But let it be observed here, that the em- 
peror Theodosius persecuted none of them except 
Eunomius, whom he banished; because by holding 
meetings in private houses at Constantinople, where 
he read the works he had composed, he corrupted 
many with his doctrines. The other heretics were 
not interfered with by the emperor, nor did he con- 
strain them to hold communion with himself; but he 
allowed them all to assemble in their own conven- 
ticles, and to entertain their own opinions on points 
of Christian faith. Permission to build themselves 


oratories without the cities was granted to the rest: 
but inasmuch as the Novatians held sentiments pre- 
cisely identical with his o^vn as to faith, he ordered 
that they should be suffered to continue unmolested 
in their churches Avithin the cities, as I have before 
noticed. I think it opportune however to give in 
tliis place some farther account of them, and shall 
therefore rcti'ace a few circumstances in their history. 



The Novatian church at Constantinople was pre- 
sided over by Agelius for the space of forty years, 
viz. from the reign of Constantine until the sixth 
year of that of the emperor Theodosius, as I remem- 
ber to have stated elsewhere. He perceiving his end 
approaching, ordains Sisinnius to succeed him in 
the bishopric. This person was a presbyter of the 
churcli over which Agelius presided, remarkably 
eloquent, and had been instructed in philosophy by 
Maximus, at the same time as the emperor Julian. 
The Novatian laity were dissatisfied Avith this election, 
and -Nnshed rather that he had ordained Marcian, a 
man of eminent piety, by whose influence their sect 
had been left unmolested during the reign of Valens ; 
Agelius therefore to allay his people's discontent, laid 
his hands on Marcian also. Having recovered a little 
from his illness, on again entering the church he thus 
of his own accord addressed the congregation : '^ After 
my decease let Marcian be your bislio]); and aft^r 
Marcian, Sisinnius.'' lie survived these words but a 

CHAP. XXI.] NOVATIAN SCHISM. — A.I). 391. 397 

short time, Jiiul Marcian was constituted his imme- 
diate successor; during Avhose episcopate a division 
arose in their cluirch also, from this cause. Marcian 
had promoted to the iimk of presbyter a converted 
Jew named Sabbatius, who nevertheless continued to 
retain many of his Jewish prejudices ; and moreover 
he was very ambitious of being made a bishop. 
Having therefore attached to his interest two pres- 
byters, Theoctistus and Macarius, who were cognizant 
of his designs, he resolved to defend that innovation 
made by the Novatians in the time of Valens, at 
Pazum a village of Phrygia, concerning the festival 
of Kaster, to which I have already adverted. And 
in the first place, under pretext of more ascetic 
austerity, he privately withdrew from the church, 
saying that he wjus grieved on account of certnin 
persons whom he suspected of being unworthy of 
[)ai'ticipation of the mysteries.* Tt was however soon 
discovered that his object was to hold .assemblies 
apart: which when Marcian understood, he bitterly 
complained of his own error, in ordaining to the 
presby terate persons so intent on vain-glory ; and 
frequently said, "That it had been better for him 
to. have laid his hands on thorns, than to have im- 
}X>sed them on Sabbatius." To check his proceedings, 
he procured a Synod of Novatian bishops to be con- 
vened at Sangarum, a commercial^ town near Helen- 
opolis, whi»re Sal>batius was summoned, and desired 
to explain the cause of his discontent. Ujwn his 
affirming that he was troubled about the disagree- 
ment that existed respecting the Feast of Easter, 
and that it ought to be kept according to the 


custom of the Jews, and agreeable to that sanction 
which those convened at Pazum had appointed; the 
bishops present at the Synod imagining this assertion 
to be a mere subterfufice to dis<2:uise his desire after 
the episcopal chair, obliged him to pledge himself on 
oath that he would never accept a bishopric. When 
he had so sworn, they passed a canon respecting this 
feast, which they entitled dStd(f>opoi/* declaring that 
a disagreement on such a point was not a sufficient 
reason for separation from the church ; and that the 
council of Pazum had done nothing prejudicial to the 
catholic canon. That although the ancients who 
lived nearest to the Apostolic times differed about 
the observance of this festival, it did not prevent 
their communion vnih one another, nor create anv 
dissension. That the Xovatians at imperial Rome 
had never followed the JcAvish usage, but always 
kept Easter after the equinox ; ^ and yet they did not 
separate from those of their ovm faith, who celebrated 
it on a different day. From these and many such 
considerations, they made the Indifferent Canon, 
above-mentioned, concerning Easter, whereby every 
one was left at liberty to do as his o^vn predilection 
led him in this matter, Avithout violating the unity of 
the church. After this rule had been thus esta- 
blished, Sabbatius being bound by his oath, antici- 
pated the fast by keeping it in private, whenever 
any discrepancy existed in the time of the Paschal 
solemnity, and having watched all night, he celebrated 
the sabbath of the passover ; then on the next day he 
went to church, and with the rest of the congregation 
partook of the mysteries. Ho pursued this course 

* i. e. Indifferent. f '\<ni^ipiav. 



for many years, so that it could not be concealed 
from the people; in imitation of whicli some of tlie 
more ignorant, and chiefly the Phrygians and Gala- 
tlans, supposing this precedent a sufficient justifica- 
tion for them, also kept the Passover in secret. But 
Sabbatius afterwards disregarding the oath by which 
he had renounced the episcopal dignity, held schis- 
matic meetings, and was constituted bishop of his 
followers, as we shall show hereafter. 



T MAY perhaps he permitted here to make a few 
refi(»ctions on Easter. It appears to me that neither 
tlie ancients nor moderns who have affected to follow 
the Jews, have had any rational foundation for con- 
tending so obstinately about it. For they have 
altogether lost sight of the fact that when our reli- 
gion supei'seded the Jewish economy, the obligation 
to observ'e the Mosaic law and the ceremonial types 
ceased. That it is incompatible with Christian faith 
to practise Jewish rites, is manifest from the Apostle's 
expressly forbidding it; and not only rejecting cir- 
cumcision, but also deprecating contention about 
festival days. In his Epistle to the Galatians* he 
writes, '' Tell me, ye that desire to 1x3 under the law, 
do ve not hear the law?" And continuinfj^ his train 

* Gal. iv. 21. 


i)f argument, he demonstrates that the Jews were 
in bondage as servants, but that Christians are 
called into the liberty of sons. Moreover he exhorts 
them to disregard days, and months, and years. Again 
in his Epistle to the Colossians* he distinctly declares, 
that such observances are merely shadows : wherefore 
he says, " Let no man judge you in meat, or in drink, 
or in respect of any holy-day, or of the new moon, 
or of the sabbath-days ; which are a shadow of things 
to come." The same truths are also confirmed by 
him in the epistle to the Hebrews t in these words : 
" For the priesthood being changed, there is made of 
necessity a change also of the law." Neither the 
apostle therefore, nor the evangelists, have any where 
imposed the yoke of servitude on those who have 
embraced the gospel ; but have left Easter and ever}'^ 
other feast to be honoured by the gratitude of the 
recipients of grace. Men love festivals, because they 
afford them cessation from labour: and therefore it 
is that each individual in every place, according to 
his own pleasure, has by a prevalent custom cele- 
l)rated the memory of the saving passion. The 
Saviour and his apostles have enjoined us by no law 
to keep this feast : nor in the New Testament are we 
tlireatened with any penalty, punishment, or curse 
for the neglect of it, as the Mosaic law does the Jews. 
It is merely for the sake of historical accuracy, and 
for the reproach of the Jews, because they polluted 
themselves with blood on their very feasts, that it is 
recorded in the gospels that our Saviour sufi^ered " in 
the days of unleavened bread." The apostles had no 
thought of appointing festival days, but of promoting 

* Col. ii. 16,17. t Heb. vii. 12. 


a life of blamclessness and piety. And it seems to 
mc that the feast of Easter has been introduced into 
the church from some old usage, just as many other 
(customs have been established. In Asia Minor most 
people kept the fourteenth day of the moon, dis- 
regarding the sabbath : yet they never separated from 
those who did otherwise, until Victor bishop of Rome, 
influenced by too ardent a zeal, fulminated a sentence 
of excommunication against the Quartodecimani * in 
Asia. But Irenajus bishop of Lyons in France, severely 
censured Victor by letter for his immoderate heat; 
telling him that although the ancients differed in their 
celebration of Easter, they did not depart from inter- 
communion. Also that Polycarp bishop of Smyrna, 
who aftenv^ards suffered martyrdom under Gordian, 
continued to communicate mth Anicetus bishop of 
Rome, although he himself, according to the usage of 
his country, kept Easter on the fouiteenth day of the 
moon, as Eusebius attests in the fifth book of his 
" Ecclesiastical History." ^ While therefore some in 
Asia Minor observed the day above-mentioned, others 
in the East kept that feast on the sabl)ath indeed, 
but not in the same month. The former thought the 
Jews should be followed, though they were not exact : 
the latter kept Easter after the equinox, refusing to 
be guided by the Jews; "for," said they, " it ought 
to be celebrated when tlxe sim is in Aries,* in the 
month which the Antiochians term Xanthicus, and 
the Romans April." In this practice, they averred, 
th(»v conformed not to the modern Jews, wlio are 

* Those wlio observed the fourteenth dav of the moon. 
t Of whicli lui Enghsh translation has recently been published, 
1842, p. 230. &c. ' t Kpi'P. 



mistaken in almost everything, but to the ancients of 
that nation, and what Josephus has written in the 
third book of his '* Jewish Antiquities." Thus these 
people were at issue. But all other Christians in the 
Western parts, as far as the ocean itself, are found to 
have celebrated Easter after the equinox, from a very- 
ancient tradition, and have never disagreed on this 
subject. It is not true, as some have pretended, that 
the Synod under Constantine altered this festival: 
for that emperor himself, Avriting to those who differed 
respecting it, recommended them, as few in number, 
to agree with the majority of their brethren. His 
letter is given at length by Eusebius in his third book 
of the life of that sovereign ; but the part relative to 
Easter runs thus : — " It is a becoming order which 
all the churches in the Western, Southern, and 
Northern parts of the world observe, and some places 
in the East also. Wherefore all on the present occa- 
sion have judged it right, and I have pledged myself 
that it will have the acquiescence of your prudence,* 
that what is unanimously observed in the city of 
Rome, throughout Italy, Africa, and Egypt, in Spahi, 
France, Britain, Libya, and all Greece, the Asian and 
Pontic diocese, and Cilicia, your wisdom ^ also wiH 
readily embrace; considering not only that the 
number of churches in the aforesaid places is greater, 
but also that wliile there should be a universal con- 
currence in what is most reasonable, it becomes us to 
have notliing in common with the perfidious Jews." 
Such is the tenor of the emperor's letter. Moreover 
the Quartodecimani affirm that the observance they 
maintain wiis delivered to them by the apostle John : 
Avhile the Romans and those in the Western parts assure 


US that their usage originated with the apostles Peter 
and Paul. Neither of these parties however can 
produce any written testimony in confirmation of 
what they assert. But that the time of keeping 
Easter in various places is dependant on usage, I 
infer from this, that those who agree in faith, differ 
among themselves on this question. And it will not 
perhaps be unseasonable to notice here the diversity 
of customs in the churches. The fasts before Easter 
are differently obser\'ed. Those at Rome fast three 
successive weeks before Easter, excepting Saturdays 
and Sundays. The Illyrians, Achaians and Alex- 
andrians observe a fast of six weeks, which they term 
" the forty days' fast."* Others commencing their 
fast from the seventh week before Easter, and fasting 
three five days only, and that at int-ervals, yet call 
that time " the forty days' fast." It is indeed sur- 
prising that thus differing in the number of days, 
they should both give it one common appellation; 
but some assign one reason for it, and others another, 
according to their several fancies. There is also a 
disagreement about abstinence from food, as well as 
the number of days. Some wholly abstain from things 
that have life : others feed on fish only of all living 
creatures: many together vnth fish, eat fowl also, 
saying that according to Moses, these were likewise 
made out of the waters. Some abstain from eggs, 
and all kinds of fruits: others feed on dry bread 
only ; and others eat not even this : while others 
having fasted till the ninth hour, afterwards feed on 
any sort of food without distinction. And among 
various nations there are other usages, for which 

* Lent. 


innumerable reasons are assigned. Since however 
no one can produce a written command as an au- 
thority, it is evident that the apostles left each one 
to his own free will in the matter, to the end that 
the performance of what is good might not be tlie 
result of constraint and necessity. Nor is there less 
variation in the services performed in their religious 
assemblies, than there is about fastings. For although 
almost all churches throughout the world celebrate 
the sacred mysteries on the sabbath of every week, 
yet the Christians of Alexandria and at Rome, on 
account of some ancient tradition, refuse to do this. 
The Egyptians in the neighbourhood of Alexandria, 
and the inhabitants of Thebais, hold their religious* 
meetings on the sabbath, but do not participate of the 
mysteries in the manner usual among Christians in 
general : for after having eaten and satisfied themselves 
with food of all kinds, in the evening making their ob- 
lations,+ they partake of the mysteries. At Alexandria 
again, on the 4th Feria^ (i. e. the Wednesday in Pas- 
sion week) and on that termed the Preparation day, 
(Good Friday) the scriptures are read, and the doctors 
expound them; and all the usual services are per- 
formed in their assemblies, excej)t the celebration of 
the mysteries. This practice in the city is of great 
antiquity, for it is well known that Origen most com- 
monly taught in the church on these days. He being 
very learned in the Sacred Books, and perceiving that 

t IlfHxr^tpoi'rtc. This expression is ambiguous and may implv 
the offering of the consecrated elements as a sacrifice. Tlie 
Romanists are still guilty of this abomination in the elevation of the 
Host in the Eucharist. 


the secret* of the Mosaic Law could not be explained 
literally, gave it a spiritual interpretation; declaring 
that there has never been but one true Passover, 
Avhich our Saviour celebrated Avhen he hung upon 
the cross : for that he then vanquished the adverse 
powers, and erected this trophy against the devil. 
In the same city of Alexandria, readers and chanterst 
are chosen indiflferently from the catechumens and the 
faithful ; Avhereas in all other churches the faithful 
only are promoted to these oflSices. I myself also, 
when in Thessaly, knew another custom. If a clergy- 
man in that country, after taking orders, should sleep 
with his wdfe, whom he had legally married before 
his ordination, he would be degraded.! In the East 
indeed all clergymen, and even the bishops themselves, 
abstain from their wives : but this they do of their 
own accord, there being no law in force to make it 
necessary ; for there have been among them many 
bishops, who have had children by their lawful wives, 
during their episcopate. It is said that the author of 
the usage Avhich obtains in Thessaly, was Heliodorus 
bishop of Trica in that country ; under whose name 
there are love books extant, entitled " Ethiopici," § 
which he composed in his youth. The same custom 
prevails at Thessalonica, and in Macedonia, and 
Achaia. I have also remarked another peculiarity 
in ThessjJy, which is, that they baptize there on the 
days of Easter only ; in consequence of which a very 
great number of them die Avithout having received 
this rite. At Antioch in Syria the site of the church 
is inverted ; so that the altar instead of looking tOAvard 

* To aOvvaroy (Rom. viii. 3). i 'Ytto/IoXcTc^ I ^AttokIipvktos. 

§ Or the amours of Tlieageucs and Chariclea. 


the East, faces the West. In Achaia and Thessaly, 
and also at Jerusalem, they go to prayers as soon as 
the candles are lighted, in the same manner as the 
Novatians do at Constantinople. At Ccesarea like- 
wise, and in Cappadocia, and the Isle of Cyprus, the 
bishops and j)resbyters expound the scriptures in the 
evening, after the candles are lighted. The Novatians 
of the Hellespont do not perform their prayers alto- 
gether in the same manner as those of Constantinople ; 
in most things however their usage is similar to that 
of the catholic* church. In short you will scarcely 
find anywhere, among all the sects, two churches 
which agree exactly in their ritual respecting prayers. 
At Alexandria no presbyter is allowed to preach : a 
regulation which was made after Arius had raised a 
disturbance in that church. At Rome they fast every 
Saturday. At Casarea they exclude from communion 
those who have sinned after baptism, as the Novatians 
do. The same discipline was practised by the Mace- 
donians in the Hellespont, and by the Quartodecimani 
in Asia. The Novatians in Phrygia do not admit 
such as have t^vice married ; ^ but those of Constanti- 
nople neither admit nor reject them openly, while 
in the Western parts they are openly received. This 
diversity was occasioned, as I imagine, by the bishops 
who in their respective eras governed the churches; 
and those who received these several rites and usages, 
transmitted them as laws to posterity. It would be 
diflSicult, if not impossible, to give a complete ciita- 
logue of all the various customs and ceremonial ob- 

* KpaTouffrj, imperial, established. 

t Acya/KovC) Bigamists, but not in the sense we usually attach to 
the word, of having two wives at the same time. 

CHAP. XXII.] DISCREl'ANl^ CUSTOMS. — A.D. 391. 407 

servaiices in use throughout every city and country : 
but the instances we have adduced are sufficient to 
show, that the Easter Festival was from some remote 
precedent differently celebrated in every particular 
province. They talk at random therefore who assert 
that the time of keeping Easter was altered in the 
Nicene Synod ; for the bishops there convened ear- 
nestly laboured to reduce the first dissident minority 
to uniformity of practice with the rest of the people. 
Now that differences of this kind existed in the first 
ages of the church, was not unknown even to the 
ai)03tles themselves, as the Book of The Acts testifies. 
For when they understood that the peace of the 
Ijelievers wtis disturbed by a dissension of the Gen- 
tiles, having all met together, they promulged a 
divine law, giving it the form of a letter. By 
this sanction they liberated Christians from the 
bondage of fonnal observances, and all vain conten- 
tion about these things ; teaching them the path 
of true piety, and only prescribing such things as 
were conducive to its attainment. The epistle itself, 
which I shall here transcribe, is recorded in The Acts 
of the Ajyostles* " The ajK)stles and elders and bre- 
thren send ffreetint^ unto the brethren which are of 
the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia. For- 
asmuch as we have heard, that certain which went 
out from us have troubled you with words, subvert- 
ing your souls, saying. Ye must be circumcised, and 
keep the law ; to whom we gave no such coimnand- 
ment : it seemed good unto us, being assembled with 
one accord, to send chosen men unto you, Avith our 
beloved Barnabas and Paul, men that have hazarded 

* Acts XV. 23 — 29. 


their lives for tlie name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
We have therefore sent Judas and Silas, who shall 
also tell you the saine thing by mouth. For it seemed 
good to the Holy Ghost and to us, to lay upon you 
no greater burden than these necessary things : that 
ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from 
blood, and from things strangled, and from fornica- 
tion ; from which if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do 
Avell. Fare ye well." These things indeed pleased 
God : for the letter expressly says, " It seemed good 
to the Holy Ghost to lay upon you no greater burden 
than these necessary things." There are nevertheless 
some who disregarding these precepts, suppose all for- 
nication to be an indifferent matter; but contend 
about holy-days* as if their lives were at stake. Such 
persons contravene the commands of God, and legis- 
late for themselves, not respecting the decree of the 
ai)ostles : neither do they perceive that they are them- 
selves practising the contrary to those things which 
God ai)proved. We might easily have extended our 
discourse respecting Easter, and have demonstrated 
that the Jews observe no exact rule either in the time 
or manner of celebrating the paschal solemnity : and 
that the Samaritans, who are a schism of the Jews, 
always celebrate this festival after the equinox. But 
this subject ^ would require a distinct and copious 
treatise: I shall therefore merely add, that those 
who affect so much to imitate the Jews, and are so 
very anxious about an accurate observance of types, 
ought to depart from them in no particular. For 
if they have resolved on being so correct, they must 
not only observe days juid months, but all other 

* 'Hfjitpwy toprfjcn f *Yn6deaii» 



things also, which Christ (who Avas " made under the 
law") did in the manner of the eJews; or which he 
unjustly suffered from them; or wrought typically 
for the good of all men. Thus when he entered into 
a ship and taught : Avhen he ordered the Passover to 
be made ready in an upper room: when he com- 
manded an ass that was tied to be loosed : when he 
proposed a man bearing a pitcher of water as a sign 
to them for hastening their preparations for the Pass- 
over. To be consistent they must observe all these 
things, with an infinite number of others of this na- 
ture which are recorded in the gospels. And yet 
those who suppose themselves to be justified by keep- 
ing this feast, would think it absurd to observe any 
of these things in a bodily manner. No doctor, for 
instance, ever dreams of going to preach from a ship 
— no person imagines it necessary to go up into an 
upper room, and celebrate the Passover there — ^they 
never tie, and then loose an ass again — and finally no 
one enjoins another to carry a pitcher of water, in 
order that the symbols might be fulfilled. They have 
justly regarded such things as savouring rather of 
Judaism than Christianity: for the Jews are more 
solicitous about outward solemnities, than the obe- 
dience of the heart ; and therefore are they under the 
curse, not disceniing the spiritual bearing of the 
Mosaic law, but resting in its types and shadows. 
Those who favour the Jews tidinit the allegorical 
meaning of these things ; and yet they pertinaciously 
contend about days and months, Avithout applying to 
them a similar sense: thus do they necessarily in- 
volve themselves in a common condemnation Avith 
the Jews. But enough has been said concerning 


these things. Let us now return to the subject we 
were previously treating of, the subdivisions that 
arose on the most trivial grounds among the schis- 
matics, after their separation from the church. The 
Novatians, as I have stated, were divided among 
themselves on account of the feast of Easter, the 
controversy not being restricted to one point only. 
For in the different provinces some took one view 
of the question, and some another, disagreeing not 
only about the month, but the days of the week also, 
and other unimjiortant matters ; in some places hold- 
ing separate assemblies because of it, in others uniting 
in iimtual communion. 




But dissensions arose among the Arians also on 
this account. The contentious questions which wei'e 
daily agitated among them, led them to start the 
most presumptuous propositions. For whereas it 
has been always believed in the church that God is 
the Father of the Son, the Word, it was asked 
whether God could be called Father before the Son 
had subsistence? Thus from a denial of the main 
article of faith, in asserting that the Word of God 
was not begotten of the Father, but was created 
out of nothing, they deservedly fell into absurd 
cavillings about a mere name. Dorotheus therefore, 
whom they had sent for from Antioch, maintahied 
that God neither was, nor could Ix* called Father 


before tlie Son existed. But Marinus who had been 
summoned out of Thrace before Dorotheus, and Avas 
piqued at the superior deference which was paid to 
his rival, undertook to defend the contrary opinion. 
Their controversy respecting this term produced divi- 
sion, and each party held separate meetings. Those 
under Dorothcus retained their original places of 
assembly : but the followers of Marinus built distinct 
oratories* for themselves, and asserted that the Father 
had always sustained that character, even when the 
Son was not. This section of the Arians was deno- 
minated Psathyrians, because one of the most zealous 
defenders of this opinion was Theoctistus, a Syrian 
by birth, and a Psathyropolat by trade. Selenas 
bishop of the Goths adopted the views of this party : 
he was of a mixed descent, a Goth by his father's 
side, and by his mother's a Phrygian, by which 
means he taught in the church with great readiness 
in both these languages. This faction however soon 
quarrelled among themselves, Marinus disagreeing 
with Agapius, whom he himself had pi'eferred to the 
bishopric of Ephesus. Their dispute was not about any 
})oint of religion, but they strove in narrow-minded- 
ness t about precedence,^ in which the Goths sided 
with Agapius. Wherefore many of the ecclesiastics 
under their jurisdiction, abominating the vain-glorious 
contest between these two, abandoned them both, and 
became adherents to the Homoousian faith. The 
Arians having continued thus divided among them- 
selves during the space of thirty-five years, were 
reunited in the reign of Theodosius junior, under 

* Chapels. t ^aOypo7raiXiyc» »• e. a coke-seller- 

J Mikpoyj/vxifanyrfi;, J ilipi TrfwiCfua^, primacy. 


the consulate of Plintha the cominander-in chief of 
the army, the Psathyrians being prevailed on to 
desist from contention. They afterwards passed a 
resolution, giving it all the cogency of law, that the 
question which had led to their separation, should 
never be mooted again. But this reconciliation ex- 
tended no farther than Constantinople; for in other 
cities where any of these two parties were found, 
they persisted in their former separation. 



1>UT neither did the Eunomians remain without 
dissensions: for Eunomius hunself had long before 
this separated from Eudoxius Avho ordained him 
bishop of Cyzicura, because that prelate refused to 
restore to conununion his master Aetius who had 
been ejected. But those who derived their name 
from him Avere subsequently divided into several 
factions. For first Theophronius a Cappadocian, 
who had been instructed in the art of disputation* 
by Eunomius, and had acquired a smattering of 
Aristotle's '' Categories," and his " Book of Inter- 
pretation," liaving written some treatises which he 
entitled '' On the Exercise of the Mind," drew down 
upon hunself the reprobation of his own sect, and 
was ejected as an apostate. He afterwards held 
assemblies apart from them, and left behind him a 
heresy which bore his own name. Then Eutychius 
at Constantinoj»le, from some absurd dispute, with- 

* *E/!)i(7rtica, wrangling. 


drew from the Eunomians, and still continues to hold 
separate meetings. The followers of Tlieophroniiis 
are denominated Eunomiotheophronians ; and those of 
Eiitychiiis have the appellation of Eunomieutychians. 
What those nonsensical terms were about whicli they 
differed, I consider unworthy of being recorded in 
this history, lest I should go into matters foreign to 
my purpose. I shall merely observe that they adid- 
terated baptism : for instead of baptizing in the 
name of the Trinity,* they baptize into the death of 
Christ. Among the Macedonians also there was for 
some time a division, when Eutropius a presbyter 
held separate assemblies, in consequence of a differ- 
ence of opinion bet^veen him and Carterius. There 
are possibly in other cities sectarians which have 
emanated from these: but living at Constantinople, 
where I was bom and educated, I propose to describe 
more particularly what has taken place in that city ; 
both because I have myself witnessed some of these 
transactions, and also because the events which have 
there occurred are of preeminent importance, and are 
therefore more worthy of commemoration. I^et it 
however l)e understood that what T have here related 
happened at different periods, and not at the same 
time. Now if any one should be desirous of knowing 
the names of the various sects, he may easily satisfy 
himself, by reading a book entitled " Ancoratus,"t 
composed by Epiphanius bishop of Cyprus: but I 
shall content myself with what I have already stated. 
The public affairs were tlien throAvn into agitation 
from a cause I shall now refer to. 





There was in the West a grammarian named Euge- 
nius, who after having for some time taught the 
Latin language, left his school,* and accepted an 
appointment at the palace, being constituted chief 
secretaryt to the emperor. Possessing a considerable 
degree of eloquence, and being on that account 
treated A\nth greater distinction than others, he was 
unable to bear his good fortune with moderation. 
For associating with himself Arbogastes, a native of 
Galatia Minor, a man of a naturally ferocious and 
desperate character, Avho then had the principal com- 
mand of the army, he determined to usurp the 
sovereignty. These two therefore agreed to murder 
the emperor Valeiitinian ; and having corrupted the 
eunuchs of the imj^erial bed-chamber by the most 
tempting promises of promotion, they induced them 
to strangle the emjx^ror in his sleep. Eugenius 
immediately assumed the supreme authority in the 
Western parts of the empire, and conducted himself 
in such a manner as might be expected from a tyrant. 
When the emperor Theodosius was made acquainted 
with these things, he was exceedingly distressed, per- 
ceiving that his defeat of Maximus had only prepared 
the way for fresh troubles. He however assembled 
his military forces, and having proclaimed his son 
Honorius Augustus, on the 10th of January, in his 

* UaidevTiipin. f 'AiTiy^a^fwc. 

CIIAV. XXV.] EUGENIUS. A.I). 393. 415 

own third consulate which he bore with Abundantms, 
he again set out in great haste toward the Western 
parts, leaving both his sons invested >vith imperial 
authority at Constantinople. A very great number 
of the barbarians beyond the Danube volunteered 
their services against the tyrant, and followed him in 
this expedition. After a rapid march he arrived in 
the Gallias with a numerous army, where Eugenius 
awaited him, also at the head of an immense body of 
troops. They came to an engagement near the river 
tVigidus,* which is about thirty-six miles distant 
from Aquileia. In that part of the battle where the 
Romans fought against their own countrymen, the 
conflict was doubtful : but where the barbarian aux- 
iliaries of the emperor Theodosius were engaged, the 
forces of Eugenius had greatly the advantage. When 
the emperor saw the teirible slaughter made by the 
enemy among the barbarians, he cast himself in great 
agony upon the ground, and invoked the help of God 
in this emergency: nor Avas his request unheeded; 
for Riicurius his principal officer, inspired with sud- 
den and extraordinary ardour, inished with his van- 
guard to the part where the barbarians were hardest 
pressed, broke through the ranks of the enemy, and 
put to flight those who a little before were them- 
selves engaged in pursuit. Another marvellous cir- 
cumstance also occurred. A violent wind suddenly 
arose, which retorted upon themselves the darts cast 
by the soldiers of P^ugenius, and at the same time 
drove those hurled by the imperial forces with in- 
creased impetus against their adversaries. So pre- 
valent was the emperor's prayer. The success of the 


struggle being in this way turned, the tyrant threw 
himself at tlie emperor's feet, and l)egged that his life 
might be spared: but the soldiery beheaded him on 
the s[)ot, as he lay a prostrate suppliant, on the (Uh of 
September, in the third consulate of Arcadius, and 
the second of Ilonorius. Arljogastes, who had been 
the chief cause of so much mischief, having continued 
his flight for two days after the l)attle, and seeing no 
chance of escape, despatched himself with his own 



The anxiety <and fatigues connected with this war 
threw the emperor Theodosius into an ill state of 
health ; and believing the which had attacked 
him would be mortal, he became more concerned 
about the public affairs than his o^^^l life, revolving 
in his mind the calamities in which the people are 
often involved after the death of their sovereign. He 
therefore hastily summoned his son Honorius from 
Constantinople, being principally desirous of setting 
in order the state of things in the Western parts of 
the empire. After his son's arrival at Milan, he 
seemed to recover a little, and gave directions for the 
celebration of the games of the Hippodrome on ac- 
count of his victor}^ Before dinner he was pretty 
well, and a spectator of th(» s])orts ; but after he had 
dined \w. became too ill to return to them, and sent 
his son to i)reside in his stead. On the following 
night he died, being the 17th of January, under the 


consulate of Olybrius and Probus, in the first year of 
the two hundred and ninety-fourth Ol3mipiad. The 
emperor Theodosius lived sixty years, and reigned 
sixteen. This book therefore comprehends the trans- 
actions of sixteen years and eight months. 



The commission with which you charged me, O 
holy man of God, Theodore, I have executed in the 
five foregoing books; in which to the best* of my 
ability, 1 have comprised the history of the church 
from the time* of (jonstantiiie. You will perceive that 
I have been by no means studious of style ; for [ con- 
sidered thcit too groat fastidiousness about elegance of 
cxpi-ession might defeat the object 1 had in view. But 
even supposing my puqx)se could still have been ac- 
complished, I was wholly precluded from the exercise 
of that discretionary power of which ancient historians 
seem to have so largely availed themselves, whereby 
any one of them imagined himself quite at liberty to 
amplify or curtail matters of fact. Moreover refined 
composition would be utterly lost' upon simple-minded' 
and illiterate men, who are intent merely on knowing 
what was really transacted, and pay not the least re- 
gard to beauty of diction. In order therefore to render 
my production not unprofitable to both classes of 
readers, — to the learned on the one hand, whom no 
elaboration of language could satisfy to rank it with the 



magniloquence of the Avriters of antiquity, and to the 
unlearned on the other, whose understandings would 
be clouded by a parade of words, — I have purposely 
adopted a style, divested indeed of all afFectation of 
sublimity, but at the same time clear and perspicuous. 
Before however entering on our sixth book, I must 
premise this, that in undertaking to detail the events 
of our own age, I am apprehensive of advancing such 
things as may be unpalatable to many : either because, 
according to the proverb, " Truth is bitter;" or on 
account of my not mentioning ^vith encomium the 
names of those whom some may love ; or from my not 
lauding their actions. The zealots of our churches will 
condemn me for not calling the bishops " Most dear 
to God," '' Most holy," and sucli like. Others vdW be 
litigious because I do not bestow the appellations 
''Most divine," and "Lords"* on the emperors, nor 
apj>ly to them such other epithets as they are com- 
monly assigned. But since I coidd easily prove from 
the testimony of ancient authors,t that among them 
servants were accustomed to address their masters 
simply by name, without reference to their dignity or 
titles, on account of the pressure of business, I shall 
in like manner obey the laws of history, which demand 
a simple and faithful narration, unobscured by a veil 
of any kind. My course will therefore be to record 
accurately what I have either myself seen, or have 
been able to ascertain from actual observers; having 
tested the truth with unsparing labour, and by every 
means 1 could possibly command, where there was the 
least discre[)ancy of statement among the many parties 
consulted who professed to be intimately acquainted 
with these things. 

* AeairoTar, f Menander, Plautus, and Terence, for instance. 

CHAP. I.] DEATH OF RUFINUS.-^A. D. 397. 419 



After the death of the emperor Theodosius, his two 
sons undertook the admhiistration of the Roman em- 
pire, Arcadius having the government of the East, 
and Honorius of the West. At that time Damasus 
presided over the church at Imperial Rome, and Theo- 
pliilus that of Alexandria; John was bishop of Jeru- 
salem, and Flavian of Antioch; w^hile the episcopal 
chair at Constantinople or New Rome was filled by 
Nectarius, as w^e mentioned in the foregoing book. 
The body of the ein]ieror Theodosius was taken to 
Constantinople on the 8th of November in the same 
consulate, and was honourably int:erred by his son 
Arcadius with tha usual funeral solemnities. On the 
28th day of the same month the army also arrived, 
which had served under the emperor Theodosius in 
the war against the tyrant Eugenhis. When there- 
fore according to custom the emperor Arc^idius met 
the army without the gates, the soldiery slew Rufinus 
the Praetorian praefect. F'or he was suspected of as- 
piring to the sovereignty, and of ha\dng invit^.d into 
the Roman territories the Huns, a barbarous nation, 
who had already ravaged Armenia, and w^ere then 
making predatory incursions into other provinces of 
the East. On the very day on which Rufinus was 
killed, Marcian bishop of the Novatians died, and was 
succeeded in the episcopate by Sisinnius, of whom we 
have already spoken. 




A SHORT time after Nectarius also, bishop of Con- 
stantinople died, on the 27th of September, under the 
consulate of Caesarius and Atticus. A contest there- 
upon immediately arose respecting the appointment of 
a successor, some proposing one person, and some 
another : at length however it was determined to send 
for John,* a presbyter of the church at Antioch, who 
was very celebrated for his learning ^ and eloquence. 
By the general consent therefore of both the clergy 
and laity, he was summoned to Constantinople by the 
emperor Arcadius : and to render the ordination more 
authoritative and imposing, several prelates were re- 
quested to be present, among whom also was Theophi- 
lus bishop of Alexandria. This person did every thing 
he could to detract from John's reputxition, being de- 
sirous of promoting to tliat see, Isidore a presbyter of 
his own church, to whom he was greatly attached, on 
account of a very delicate and perilous affair which 
Isidore had undertaken to serve his interests. The 
nature of this obligation I shall now unfold. While 
the emperor Theodosius was preparing to attack the 
tyrant Maximus, Theophilus sent Isidore with gifts 
and letters, enjoining him to present them to him who 
should become the victor. In accordance with these 
injunctions Isidore on his arrival at Rome, awaited 
there the event of the war. But this business did not 
long remain a secret : for a reader who accompanied 
him privately possessed himself of the letters ; upon 
which Isidore in great alarm returned to Alexandria. 

* Suroamed Chrysostom, i. e. Golden-mouth, I Ai^jcrin'oc. 


This WHS the reason why Theophilus so warmly fa- 
voured Isidore. The court however gave the pre- 
ference to John : and Avhen many had revived tlie 
accusations against Theophilus, and prepared for pre- 
sentation to the bishops then convened memorials of 
various charges, Eutropius the chief officer of the im- 
perial bcd-chamlxjr collected these documents, and 
showed them to Theophilus, bidding him choose be- 
tween ordaining John, and undergoing a trial on the 
charges made against him. Theophilus terrified at this 
alternative, consented to ordain John ; who was in- 
vested with the episco])al dignity on the 2()th of 
February, under the following consulate, which the 
emi)eror Honorius celebrated with public games at 
Rome, and Eutychian, then Praetorian praefect, at 
Constantinople. But since this John is famous, both 
for the writings he has left, and the many troubles 
he fell into, it is not proper that I should pass over 
his affairs in silence : I shall therefore relate as com- 
pendiously as possible of what extraction he was, with 
the particulars of his elevation to the episcopate, and 
the means by which he was subsequently degraded ; 
and finally why he was more honoured after his death, 
than he had been during his life. 




John was born at Antioch in Syria-Ccele, of a 
noble family in that country, his father's name being 
Secundus, and that of his mother Anthusa. He 
studied rhetoric under Libanius the sophist, and philo- 
sophy under Andragathius. When he had already pre- 


pared himself for the practice of Civil Law^ reflecting 
on the restless and unjust course of those who devote 
themselves to the practice of the Forensic Courts,* 
he resolved to adopt a more tranquil mode of life. 
Following therefore the example of Evagrius, who 
had been educated under the same masters, and had 
some time before retired from the tumult of public 
business, he laid aside his legal habit, and applied his 
mind to the reading of the sacred scriptures, frequent- 
ing the church with great assiduity. He moreover 
induced Theodore and Maximus, who had been his 
fellow-students under Libanius the sophist, to forsake 
a profession whose primary object was gean^ and 
embrace pursuits of greater simplicity. Of these 
two persons, Theodore afterwards became bishop of 
Mopsuestia^ in Cilicia, and Maximus of Seleucia in 
Isauria. Being at that time ardent aspirants after 
perfection, t they entered upon the ascetic life, under 
the guidance of Diodorus and Carterius, who then 
presided over the monasteries. The former of these 
was subsequently elevated to the see of Tarsus, and 
wrote many treatises, in which he limited his ex- 
positions to the literal sense of scripture, without 
attempting to explain that which was mystical.^ But 
we must return to John, who was then living on 
the most intimate terms with Basil, at that time 
constituted a deacon by Meletius, but afterwards 
ordained bishop of CaBsarea hi Cappadocia. He was 
appointed reader iu the church at Antioch by Zeno 
the bishop on his return from Jerusalem : and while 
he continued in that capacity, || he composed a book 
against the Jews. Meletius having not long after 

* AiKatrrrfpioii:. f M6\(/ov ktrria^, X 'Afjcnji', 

§ Olivias. II Tafc*. 


CllAr. 111.] JOHN CHUYSOSTOM A.D. 398. 423 

confoiTed on him the mnk of deacon, he i)roduced 
his work '' (.)ii the Priesthood," and those " Against 
Stagirius"; and moreover those also '' On the Incom- 
prehensibility* of the Divine Nature,'^ and " On tlie 
Woment Avho lived with the Ecclesiastics." After 
the death of Meletius at Constantinople, whither he 
had gone on account of Gregory of Nazianzen's ordi- 
nation, John withdrew from the Meletians, without 
entering into communion with Paulinus, and spent 
three whole years in retirement. When Paulinus 
was dead, he was ordained a presbyter by Evagrius 
the successor of Paulinus. Such is a brief outline 
of John's career previous to his call to the episcopal 
office. It is said that his zeal for tem|)erance ren- 
dered him stern and severe ; and one of his early 
friends hiis admitted that in his youth lie manifested 
a proneness to irritability, rather than to forbearance. 
Because of the rectitude of his life, he wtis free from 
anxiety alx)ut the future, and his simplicity of cha- 
racter rendered him open and ingenuous; nevertheless 

the liberty of speech he allowed himself was offensive 
to very many. In public t^jaching the great end he 
proposed was the reformation of the morals of his 
auditors ; but in private conversation he was fre- 
(luently thought haughty and assuming by those 
who did not know him. 




Such being John's disposition and manners, he was 
led to conduct himself toward his clergy, after his 

* * AKarnXiiiTTov. 

t ^vteieraKTwv, These Sisters were inBtructed, it was said, in piety. 


promotion to the episcopate, with a measure of aus- 
terity beyond what they could bear : but his intention 
was in this way to discountenance any laxness of 
moral discipline among them. Having thus chafed 
the temper of the ecclesiastics under him, and incurred 
their displeasure, many of them stood aloof from him 
as a passionate man, and others became his bitter 
enemies. Serapion whom he had ordained deacon, 
incited him to alienate their minds still more from 
him; and once in presence of the whole assembled 
clergy he cried out with a loud voice to the bishop — 
" You will never be able to govern these men, my 
lord, unless you visit them all vnth a rod." This 
speech of his excited a general feeling of animosity 
against the bishop, who not long after expelled many 
of them from the church, some for one cause, and 
some for another. Those who were thus dealt with, 
as it usually happens when governors adopt such 
violent measures, formed a combination, and inveighed 
against him to the people. What contributed greatly 
to gain credence for these complaints was the bishop's 
always eating alone, and never accepting an invitation 
to a feast. His reasons for thus acting no one knew 
with any certainty, but some persons in justification 
of his conduct state that he had a very delicate 
stomach, and weak digestion, which obliged him to 
be careftil in his diet ; while others impute his refusal 
to eat in company with any one, to his rigid and 
habitual abstinence. Whatever the real motive may 
have been, the circumstance itself was made a serious 
ground of accusation by his calumniators. The people 
nevertheless continued to regard him with love and 
veneration, on account of his valuable discourses in 
the church, and therefore those who sought to traduce 

CHAl'. v.] THE EUNUCH EUTKOPIUS. A. D. 398. 425 

liini, only brought themselves into contempt. How 
eloquent, convincing, and persuasive his sermons 
were, both those which were published by himself, 
and such as were noted down by short-hand* writers 
as he delivered them, we need not stay to declare; 
but those who desire to fonn an adequate idea of 
tiiem, must read for themselves, and will thereby 
derive both pleasure and profit. 



As long as John attacked the clergy only, the 
machinations of his enemies were utterly powerless; 
but when he proceeded to rebuke the nobles also with 
his characteristic vehemence, the tide of unpopularity 
began to set against him with far greater impetus, 
and the stories which were told to his disparagement 
found many attentive listeners. This grooving pre- 
judice was not a little increased by an oration which 
he pronounced at that time against Eutropius, the 
chief eunuch of the imperial bed-chamber, and the 
first of all eunuchs that was admitted to the dignity 
of consul. He desiring to inflict vengeance on certain 
persons who had taken refuge in the churches, induced 
the emperor to make a law excluding delinquents 
from the privilege of sanctuary, and authorizing the 
seizure of those who had sought the shelter of the 
sacred edifices. But its author was punished for this 
almost immediately; for scarcely had the law been 
promulgated, before Eutropius hunself, having in- 


curred the displeasure of the emperor, fled for pro- 
tection to the church. The bishop therefore, while 
Eutropius trembling with fear lay under the table of 
the altar, mounting the pulpit from which he was 
accustomed to address the people in order to be the 
more distinctly heard, uttered the severest invective 
against him: an act that excited general disgust, a.s 
it seemed not only to deny compassion to the 
wretched, but to add insult to cruelty. By the em- 
peror's order however, Eutropius though bearing the 
consulate, was decapitated, and his name effaced from 
the list of consuls, that of Theodore his colleague 
being alone suffered to remain as in office for that 
year. John is said to have afterwards used the same 
licence towards Gainas, who was then commander-in- 
chief of the army ; treating him with excessive rude- 
ness, because he had presumed to request the em|)eror 
to aissign the Arians, with whom he agreed in sen- 
timent, one of the churches Avithin the city. Many 
others also of the higher orders, for a variety of 
causes, were censured by him wth the same uncere- 
monious freedom, so that by these means he created 
many powerful adversaries. Theophilus bishop of 
Alexandria had been plotting his overthrow from the 
moment of his having been compelled to ordain him ; 
and concerted measures for this purpose in secret, 
l)oth mth the friends who were around him, as well 
jis by letter Avith such as were at a distance. It was 
not so much the boldness with which John lashed 
whatever was obnoxious to him, that affected Theo- 
l)hilus, as his ovm failure to place his favourite pres- 
byter Isidore in the episcopal chair of Constantinople. 
Such was the state of John's affairs at that time, 
mischief having thus threatened him at the very com- 

CHAP. VI.] GAINAS THE GOTH. A. D. 899. 427 

mencement of his episcopate. But we shall enter 
into these things more at large as we proceed. 



I SHALT, now refer to some memorable circum- 
stances that occurred at that period, in which it will 
be seen how Divine Providence interposed by exti'a- 
ordinary agencies for the preservation of the city and 
Roman empire from the utmost peril. Gainas was a 
barbarian by extraction, who after becoming a Roman 
subject, had engaged in military service, and risen by 
degrees from one rank to another, until he was at 
length apjx)inted generalisshno both of the Roman 
horse and foot. When he had attained this lofty 
position, his ambition knew no bounds short of ren- 
dering himself master of the Roman empire. To 
accomplish this he sent for the Goths out of their 
ovm country, and gave the principal commissions 
in the army to his relations. Then when Tribi- 
gildus, one of his kinsmen who had the command of 
the forces in Phrygia, had at the instigation of Gainas 
broken out into open revolt, and was filling that 
country with confusion and dismay, he took care 
that the emperor Arcadius, who had not the slightest 
suspicion of his treasonable designs, should depute 
him to settle matters in the disturbed province. 
Gainas therefore immediately set out at the head of 
an immense number of the barbarous Goths, on this 
pretended expedition against Tribigildus, but with 
the real intention of establishing his own unjust 


domination. On reaching Phrygia he began to sub- 
vert every thing ; so that the Romans were suddenly 
thrown into great consternation, not only on account 
of the vast barbarian force which Gainas had at his 
command, but also lest the most fertile and opulent 
regions of the East should be laid desolate. In this 
emergency the emperor acted with much prudence, 
seeking to arrest the course of the traitor by address : 
he accordingly sent him an embassy \nth instructions 
to appease him for the present by every kind of con- 
cession. Gainas having demanded that Saturn inus 
and Aurelian, two of the most distinguished of the 
senatorial order, and men of consular dignity, whom 
he knew to be unfavourable to his pretensions, should 
be delivered up to him as hostages, the emperor most 
unwillingly yielded to the exigency of the crisis ; and 
these two magnanimous personages, prepared to die 
for the public good, nobly submitted themselves to 
the emperor's disposal. They therefore proceeded 
towards the barbarian, to a place called the Hippo- 
drome, some distance from Chalcedon, resolved to 
endure whatever he might be disposed to inflict ; but 
however they suffered no harm. The tyrant simula- 
ting dissatisfaction, advanced to Chalcedon, whither 
the emperor Arcadius also went to meet him. Both 
then entered the church where the body of the mar- 
tyr Euphemius is deposited, and there entered into a 
mutual pledge on oath that neither would plot against 
the other. The emperor indeed kept his engagement, 
having a religious regard to an oath, and being on 
that account beloved of God. But Gainas soon vio- 
lated it, and instead of abandoning his purpose, wjxs 
intent on carnage, plunder, and conflagration, not 
only at Constantinople, but also throughout the whole 

CHAP. VI.] USURPATION OF GAINAS. — A.l). 399. 429 

extent of the Roman empire, if he could by any means 
oarry it into, effect. The city was quite inundated 
by the barbarians, and the citizens were reduced to 
a condition ahnost like that of captives. Moreover 
a comet of prodigious magnitude, reaching from 
heaven even to the earth, such as was never before 
seen, presaged the danger that impended over it. 
Gaina^ first most shamelessly attempted to make a 
seizure of the silver publicly exposed for sale in the 
sliops : but when the proprietors forewarned by 
rejx)rt of his intention, abstained from exposing it 
on their counters, his thoughts were diverted to 
another object, which was to send an hnmense body 
of barbarians at night to burn down the palace. 
Then indeed God distinctly manifested his providential 
care over the city : for a multitude of angels appeared 
to the rebels, in the form of armed men of gigantic 
stature, whom the barbarians imagining to be a lai'ge 
army of brave troops, turned away from with terror 
and amazement. Wlien this was reported to Gainas, 
it seemed to him quite incredible; for he knew that 
the greatest part of the Roman army was at a dis- 
tance, dispersed as a garrison over the Eastern cities. 
He sent therefore others for several successive nights, 
who constantly returned with the same statement, 
for the angels always presented themselves in the 
same manner; whei'eupon he detennined to be him- 
self a spectator of this prodigy. Then supposing 
what he saw to be really a body of soldiers, who 
concealed themselves by day, and baffled his designs 
by night, he desisted from his attempt, and took 
anotlier resolution which he conceived would be detri- 
mental to the Romans ; but the event proved it to be 
greatly to their advantage. Pretending to be Under 


demoniacal possession, he went forth as if for prayer 
to the church of St. John the Apostle, which is seven 
miles distant from the city. The barbarians who 
accompanied him carried out arms with them, con- 
cealed in casks and other specious coverings; which 
when the soldiers who guarded the city gates de- 
tected, and would not suffer to pass, the barbarians 
put them to the sword. A fearful tumult thence 
arose in the city, and death seemed to threaten every 
one; nevertheless the city continued secure at that 
time, its gates being every where well defended. The 
emperor instantly proclaimed Gainas a public enem}^ 
and ordered that all the Goths who remained shut up 
in Constantinople should be slain. Accordingly the 
day after the guards of the gates had been killed, 
the Romans attacked the barbarians within the walls 
near the church of the Goths, for thither such of 
them as had been left in tlie city had betaken them- 
selves ; and after destroying a great number of them, 
they set the church on fire, and burnt it to the 
ground. Gainas being informed of the slaughter 
of those of his party who were unable to get out 
of the city, and perceiving the failure of all his 
artifices, left St. John's church, and advanced rapidly 
towards Thrace. On reaching the Chersonnese he 
endeavoured to pass over from thence and take Lamp- 
sacus, in order that from that place he might make 
himself master of the Eastern parts. As the emperor 
had immediately despatched forces in pursuit both by 
land and by sea, another miraculous interposition of 
Divine Providence occurred. For while the barba- 
rians destitute of ships, were attempting to cross on 
rafts, and in vessels hastily put together, suddenly 
the Roman fleet appeared, and the west Avind began 

CHAP. VI.] DEATH OF GAINAS. — A.D. 400. 431 

to blow hard. This afforded an easy passage to the 
Romans ; but the barbarians with their horses, tossed 
up and down in their frail barks by the violence of 
the gale, were at length overwhelmed by the waves, 
and many of them also were destroyed by the 
Romans. In this passage an incredible number of 
barbarians perished; but Gainas escaped thence and 
fled into Thrace, where he fell in Avith another body 
of the Roman forces by whom he was slain, together 
with tlie Goths that attended him. Let this cursory 
notice of Gainas suffice here. Those who may desire 
more minute details of the circumstances of that war, 
should read " The Gainea'' of Eusebius Scholasticus, 
who was at that time an auditor of Troilus the sophist; 
and having been a spectator of the war, related the 
events of it in an heroic poem consisting of four 
books, wliich acquired for him great celebrity while 
the i*ecollection of these things was fresh. The poet 
Annnonius also has recently composed another de- 
scription in verse of the same transactions, which he 
recited liefore the emperor in the sixteenth consulate 
of Theodosius junior, which he bore with Faustus. 
This war was terminated imder the consulate of 
Stiliclio and Aurelian. In the year following, Fra- 
vitus a Goth by extraction, was honoured with the 
dignity of consul, to reward the fidelity and attach- 
ment he had evinced toward the Romans, and the 
important services he had rendered them in this very 
war. On the 10th of April in that year there was 
a son bom to the emperor Arcadius, Tlieodosius the 
Good. But while the affairs of the state were thus 
troul)Ied, the dignitaries of the church refrained not 
in the least from their disgracefid cabals against eiich 
other, to the great reproach of the Christian religion ; 


for they were incited to tumult and reciprocal abuse 
by a source of mischief which originated in Egypt in 
the following manner. 



The question had been started a little before, 
whether God has a corporeal existence, and the form 
of man; or whether he is incorporeal, and without 
either the human or any other bodily shape? From 
this question arose strifes and contentions among a 
very great number of persons, some favouring one 
opinion on the subject, and others patronising the 
opposite. The major part of the more simple ascetics, 
asserted that God is corporeal, and has a human 
figure: but most others condenmed their judgment, 
and contended that God is incorporeal, and void of 
all form whatever. This was the view taken by 
Theophilus bishop of Alexandria, who in the church 
before all the people inveighed against those who 
attributed to God a human form, expressly teaching 
that the Divine Being is wholly incorporeal. When 
the Egyptian ascetics were apprised of this, they left 
their monasteries and came to Alexandria; where 
they excited a tumult against the bishop, accusing 
him of impiety, and threatening to put him to death. 
Theophilus aware of his danger, after some considera- 
tion had recourse to this expedient to extricate him- 
self from it. Going to the monks, he in a conciliatory 
tone thus addressed them: "In seeing you, I behold 
the face of God."* The fury of these men being a 

CHAP. VII.] THE LONG MONKS. — ^A.D. 401. 433 

little moderated by this expression, they replied : *' If 
you really admit that God's countenance is such as 
ours, anathematize Origen's book ; for some have 
drawn arguments from them in contrariety to our 
opinion. If you refuse to do this, expect to be 
treated by us as an impious person, and the enemy 
of God." " Do not be angry with me," said The- 
ophilus, "and I will readily do what you require: 
for I myself also disapprove of Origen's works, 
and consider those who countenance them deserving 
of censure." Thus he succeeded in appeasing the 
monks at that time; and probably the whole matter 
would have been set at rest, had it not been for 
another circumstance which happened immediately 
after. The monasteries in Egypt were under the 
superintendence of four devout persons named Dis- 
corus, Ammonius, Eusebius, and Euthymius: these 
men were brothers, and had the appellation of the 
Long Monks given them on account of their stature. 
They were moreover no less distinguished for the 
sanctity of their lives, than the extent of their eru- 
dition, and for these reasons their reputation was 
very high at Alexandria. Theophilus in particular, 
the prelate of that city, loved and honoured them 
exceedingly : insomuch that he constituted Discorus, 
one of them, bishop of Hermopolis against his will, 
having forcibly drawn him from his retreat. Two 
of the others he entreated to continue with him, 
and with difficulty prevailed upon them to do so, by 
the exercise of his episcopal authority: when there- 
fore he had invested them with the clerical office, he 
committed to their charge the management of eccle- 
siastical affair's. They, constrained by necessity, per- 
formed the duties thus imposed on them with credit 



to themselves; nevertheless they felt severely the 
privation of philosophical pursuits, and such ascetic 
exercises as their new position rendered impracticable. 
When however in process of time, they observed the 
bishop to be devoted to gain, and greedily intent on the 
acquisition of wealth, believing this example injurious 
to their own souls, they refused to remain with him 
any longer, declaring that they loved solitude, and 
greatly preferred it to living in the city. As long as 
he was ignorant of the true motive for their de- 
parture, he earnestly begged them not to leave him ; 
but when he perceived that they were dissatisfied 
with his conduct, he became excessively irritated, and 
threatened to do them all kinds of mischief. Regard- 
less of his menaces they retired into the desert ; upon 
which Theophilus,- who was evidently of a hasty and 
malignant temperament, raised a great clamour against 
them, and set in motion every contrivance likely to 
do them injury. After this he viewed with jealous 
dislike their brother Discorus also, bishop of Her- 
mopolis; being extremely annoyed at the esteem 
and veneration in which he was held by the ascetics. 
Aware however that these persons would be perfectly 
safe from his malevolence unless he could alienate 
the minds of the monks from them, he used this 
artifice to effect it. He well knew that Discorus and 
his brothers in their theological discussions with him, 
had often maintained that the Deity was incorporeal, 
and by no means had a human form; because, they 
argued, such a constitution would involve the necessary 
accompaniment of human passions, as Origen and 
other ancient writers have demonstrated. Now al- 
though Theophilus entertained the very same opinion 
respecting the Divine nature, yet to gratify his vin- 


dictive feelings, he did not hesitate to impugn what 
he and they had rightly taught : and by this means 
he succeeded in imposing upon the credulity of the 
sincere but ignorant monks, the greater part of whom 
were quite illiterate men. Sending letters to the 
monasteries in the desert, he advises them not to give 
heed either to Discorus or his brothers, inasmuch as 
they affirmed that God had not a body. " Whereas," 
says he, " the sacred Scripture testifies that God has 
eyes, ears, hands, and feet, as men have ; the partisans 
of Discorus, being followers of Origen, introduce the 
blasphemous dogma that God has neither eyes, ears, 
feet, nor hands." Abusing the simplicity of these 
monks by this sophism, he stirred up a hot dissension 
among them. Such as had a cultivated mind indeed 
were not beguiled by this plausibility, and therefore 
still adhered to Discorus and Origen; but the more 
ignorant who greatly exceeded the others in number, 
inflamed by an ardent zeal Avithout knowledge, im- 
mediately raised an outcry against theii* brethren. 
A division being thus made, both parties branded 
each other as impious ; the one side being reproach- 
fully termed " Origenists," and the other " Anthropo- 
morphitas," between whom violent altercation arose, 
and an inextinguishable war. Theophilus on re- 
ceiving intimation of the success of his device, went 
to Nitra where the monasteries are, accompanied by 
a multitude of persons, and armed the monks against 
Discorus and his brethren; who being in danger of 
losing their lives, made their escape wth great diffi- 
culty. John bishop of Constantinople was ignorant 
meanwhile of the things that were doing in Egypt; 
but the eloquence of his discourses rendered him 
increasingly celebrated. He first enlarged the prayers 


contained in the nocturnal hymns, for the reason I 
am about to assign. 



The Arians, as we have said, held their meetings 
without the city. As often therefore as the festal 
days occurred, that is to say the sabbath and Lord's- 
day of each week, on which assemblies are usually 
held in the churches, they congregated within the 
city gates about the public piazzas, and sang respon- 
sive verses adapted to the Arian heresy. This they 
did during the greater part of the night : and again 
in the morning, chanting the same responsive com- 
positions, they paraded through the midst of the city, 
and so passed out of the gates to go to their places of 
assembly. But since they incessantly made use of 
insulting expressions in relation to the Homoousians, 
often singing such words as these : " Where are they 
that say three things are but one power?" — John 
fearing lest any of the more simple should be drawn 
away from the church by such kind of hymns, opposed 
to them some of his own people, that they also em- 
ploying themselves in chanting nocturnal hymns, 

* This word, if written Qeo<l>6pocj denotes a divine person, one 
whose soul is full of God; but Qi6<l>opoc has a passive import, and 
implies one borne or carried by God, This title is said to have been 
conferred on Ignatius, from his being the very child whom our 
Saviour took up in his arms^ and set in the midst of his disciples. 
(Mark ix. 36). 

CHAP. Vni.] ALTERNATIVE HYMNS. — ^A. D. 401. 437 

might obscure the effort of the Arians, and confirm 
his own party in the profession of their faith. John's 
aim indeed seemed to be good, but it issued in tumult 
and danger. For as the Homoousians performed 
their nocturnal hymns with greater display, John 
having invented silver crosses for them on which 
lighted wax-tapers were carried, provided at the 
expense of the empress Eudoxia, the Arians who 
were very numerous, and fired with envy, resolved 
to revenge themselves by a desperate attack upon 
their rivals. This they were the more ready to do 
from the remembrance of their own recent domination, 
and the contempt with which they regarded their 
adversaries. Without delay therefore, on one of 
these nights, they assailed the Homoousians; when 
Briso, one of the eunuchs of the empress, who was 
leading the chanters of these hymns, was wounded by 
a stone in the forehead, and some of the people on 
both sides were killed. The emperor incensed at this 
catastrophe, forbad the Arians to chant their hymns 
any more in public. We must however make some 
allusion to the origin of this custom in the church of 
singing responsive hymns.* Ignatius third bishop of 
Antioch in Syria from the apostle Peter, who also 
had conversed familiarly with the apostles themselves, 
saw a vision of angels hjnmning in alternate chants 
the Holy Trinity: after which he introduced the 
mode of singing he had observed in the vision into 
the Antiochian church, whence it was transmitted by 
tradition to all the other churches. Such is the 
account we have received in relation to these resi>on- 
sive hymns. 

* *AvTUl>WPOV£, 




Not long after this, the monks together with 
Discorus and his brothers, came from the desert 
to Constantinople. Isidore was also with them, 
once the most intimate friend of the bishop Theo- 
philus, but then become his bitterest enemy, because 
of what I am about to mention. Theophilus being 
irritated against Peter, at that time the archpres- 
byter of the Alexandrian church, determined to eject 
him ; and as the ground of expulsion, he charged liim 
with having admitted to a participation of the sacred 
mysteries, a woman of the Manichaean sect, before 
she had renounced her heresy. Peter in his defence 
declared, that not only had the errors of this woman 
been previously abjured, but that the bishop himself 
had sanctioned her admission to the eucharist : upon 
which Theophilus in a great rage, as if he had been 
grievously calumniated, affirmed that he was alto- 
gether unacquainted with the circumstance. To sub- 
stantiate his statement, Peter summoned Isidore as 
one who could testify to the facts of the case. Isidore 
was then at Rome, on a mission from Theophilus to 
Damasus the prelate of the imperial city, for the pur- 
pose of effectin^f a reconciliation between him and 
Flavian bishop of Antioch, from whom the adherents 
of Meletius had separated in detestation of his perjury, 
as we have already observed. When Isidore had 
returned from Rome, and was cited as a witness by 
Peter, he deposed that the woman was received by 
consent of the bishop, who himself had administered 


the sacrament to her : upon which Theophilus imme- 
diately ejected them both. Isidore therefore went to 
Constantinople with Discorus and his brethren, in 
order to submit to the cognizance of the emperor, and 
John the bishop, the injustice and violence with which 
Theophilus had treated them. John on being in- 
formed of their business, gave them all an honourable 
reception ; and admitting them at once to communion 
of tlic prayers, only postponed their communion of 
the sacred mysteries, until their affairs should be 
examined into. li\Tiilst matters were in this posture, 
a false report was carried to Theophilus, that John 
had both admitted them to a participation of the 
mysteries, and also taken them under his protection ; 
wherefore he resolved not only to be revenged on 
Isidore and Discorus, but also if possible to cast John 
out of his episcopal chair. With this design he wrote 
to all the bishops of the various cities, and concealing 
his real motive, ostensibly condemned therein the books 
of Origen merely : forgetting that Athanasius, who 
preceded him long before, had in confirmation of his 
OAvn faith, frequently appealed to the testimony and 
authority of Origen's writings, in his orations against 
the Arians. 



He moreover renewed his friendship with Epipha- 
nius bishop of Constantia in Cyprus, with whom he 
had formerly been at variance, having accused that 
prelate of entertaining low thoughts of God, by sup- 
posing him to have a human form. Now although 


Theophilus was really unchanged in sentiment, and 
had thus denounced the Anthropomorphite error, 
yet on account of his hatred of others, he openly 
denied his o^vn convictions; for he now professed 
to agree in opinion with Epiphanius, as if lie had 
altered his mind. He then urged him by letter to 
convene a S)Tiod of the bishops in Cyprus, in order 
to condemn the writings of Origen. Epiphanius 
being a person more eminent for his extraordinary 
piety than intelligence, was easily influenced by the 
crafty representations of Theophilus: having there- 
fore assembled a council of the bishops in that island, 
he caused a prohibition to be therein made of the 
reading of Origen's works. He also wrot€ to John 
bishop of Constantinople, exhorting him to abstain 
from the further study of Origen's books, and to 
convoke a Sjmod for decreeing the same thing as he 
had done. When TheophUus had in this way wrought 
upon Epiphanius, whose devout character gave great 
weight to his proceedings, seeing his design prosper 
according to his wish, he became more confident, and 
himself also assembled a great number of bishops. In 
that convention, pursuing the same course as Epipha- 
nius, he caused a like sentence of condemnation to be 
pronounced on the writings of Origen, who had been 
dead nearly two hundred years : this indeed not 
being his primary object, but subsidiary to his pur- 
pose of revenge on Discorus and his brethren. John 
paid but little attention to the communications of 
Epiphanius or Theophilus, being intent on his own 
ecclesiastical duties; and while his celebrity as a 
preacher increased more and more, he wholly disre- 
garded the plots which were laid against him. But 
ns soon as it became apparent to every body that 



Theophilus was endeavouring to divest John of his 
bishopric, then all those who had any ill-will against 
John, combined in calumniating him. Many of the 
clergy, as well as of the persons of influence about the 
court, believing that an opportunity was now afforded 
them of punishing John, exerted themselves to pro- 
cure the convocation of a Grand Synod at Constan- 
tinople, despatching letters and messengers in all 
directions for that purpose. 




The odium against John Chrysostom was con- 
siderably increased by another cause. Two bishops 
flourished at that time, Syrians by birth, named 
Severian and Antiochus; the former of whom pre- 
sided over the church at Gabali, a city of Syria, 
the latter over that of Ptolemais in Phoenicia. They 
were both renowned for their eloquence ; but although 
Severian was a very learned man, his pronunciation 
of Greek was defective, from his retaining somewhat 
of the Syriac accent. Antiochus came first to Con- 
stantinople, where he preached in the churches for 
some time with great zeal and ability; and having 
thereby amassed a large sum of money, he returned 
to his own church. Severian hearing that Antiochus 
had enriched himself by his visit to Constantinople, 
determined to follow his example : he therefore exer- 
cised himself for the occasion, and having prepared a 
quantity of sermons, set out for the imperial city. 
He was most kindly received by John, whom at first 
he soothed and flattered, and was beloved and honoured 
by him : meanwhile his discourses gained him great 



celebrity, so that he attracted the notice of many 
persons of rank, and even of the emperor himself. 
It happened at that time that the bishop of Ephesus 
died, on which account John was obliged to go thither 
for the purpose of ordaining a successor. On his arri- 
val at that city, finding the people divided in their 
choice, some proposing one person, and some another, 
and perceiving from the pertinacity of the contending 
parties that nothing but altercation was likely to 
ensue, he resolved to quietly* end the dispute by 
preferring to the bishopric Heraclides a deacon of 
his own, and a Cypriot by descent. As however 
the disorder was increased for awhile by clamours 
against this election, and allegations of the unfit- 
ness of Heraclides for the office, the settlement of 
this affair detained him a long time at Ephesus; 
during which Severian continued to preach at Con- 
stantinople, and daily grew in favour with his audi- 
tory. Of this John was not left ignorant, for he 
was continually made acquainted mth whatever oc- 
curred by Serapion, of whom we have before spoken. 
To this person John had the greatest attachment, 
and had entrusted to him the entire charge of the 
episcopate, inasmuch as he was pious, faithful^ ex- 
tremely trustworthy, and very devoted to his in- 
terests. By him the bishop was aroused to a feeling 
of jealousy, by the assurance that Severian was 
troubling the church. Having therefore among 
other matters, deprived many of the Novatians and 
Quartodecimani of their churches, he returned to 
Constantinople, and resumed the care of the churches 
under his own especial jurisdiction. But Serapion's 
arrogance was beyond all bearing ; for thus possessing 

* 'Aifoiria^Tri. 


John's unbounded confidence and regard, he was so 
puffed up by it, that he treated every one with con- 
tempt. And this contributed not a little to inflame 
the minds of the insulted parties against the bishop 
who patronised him. But between Serapion the 
deacon, and Severian the bishop, much dissension 
arose ; the former opposing Severian because he 
endeavoured to outshine John in eloquence, and 
the latter envying Serapion because of John's love 
for him, and the administration of the bishopric 
having been committed to him. While their minds 
were thus affected toward one another, an incident 
occurred which greatly increased their mutual enmity. 
On one occasion when Severian passed by him, Sera- 
pion neglected to pay him the homage due to his 
dignity, by retaining his seat instead of rising, as if 
to show how little he cared for his presence. Severian 
being indignant at this supposed rudeness and con- 
tempt, said Avith a loud voice to those present, " If 
Serapion dies a Christian, Christ has not been incar- 
nate." Serapion took occasion from this remark, to 
publicly incite Chrysostom against Severian : for sup- 
pressing the first clause of the sentence, " If Serapion 
dies a Christian," he accused him of having asserted 
" Christ has not been incarnate;" and this charge was 
sustained by several witnesses of his own party. The 
whole matter having aftenvard come under the cogni- 
zance of a Synod, Serapion affirmed on oath that he 
did not see the bishop ; on which account those con- 
vened pardoned him, and entreated Severian to accept 
this excuse. John moreover as some atonement to 
Severian, suspended Serapion from his office of deacon 
for a week, although he used him as his right hand 
in all ecclesiastical matters, in which he had great 


expertness. But Severian wished him to be not only 
divested of his diaconate, but excommunicated also, 
to which John would by no means consent : but going 
out of the council in disgust, he left the bishops to de- 
termine the cause, saying, " Do you decide as you 
think fit, for I will have nothing to do in the matter." 
The whole Synod rose at these words, censuring the 
obduracy of Severian, and leaving the case as it 
before stood. From that time John admitted of no 
further intimacy with Severian, but advised him to 
leave the city, and return to his own country, ad- 
dressing him thus: — "It is inexpedient, Severian, 
that you should so long absent yourself from your 
diocese, which must now need the presence of its 
bishop. Hasten back therefore to the churches en- 
trusted to your care, and neglect not the gift with 
which God has endowed you." He accordingly de- 
parted. But when this became known to the em- 
press* Eudoxia, she severely reprimanded John, and 
ordered that Severian should be immediately recalled 
from Chalcedon in Bithynia, whither he had gone. 
He returned forthwith; but John would hold no 
intercourse whatever with him, nor could he be in- 
duced to do so by the mediation of any one. At 
length the empress Eudoxia herself, in the church 
called the Apostles^ placed her son Theodosius (who 
now so happily reigns, but was then quite an infant) 
before John's knees, and adjuringt him repeatedly by 
the young prince her son, with difficulty prevailed 
upon him to be reconciled to Severian. In this 

* Avyowora. 

t Addressing him thus, '* By this little child of mine, and your 
spiritual son, whom I brought forth, and whom you received out of 
the sacred font, be reconciled to Severian." 

CHAP. XII.] EPIPHANIUS. — A. D. 402. 445 

manner was there an appearance of friendship re- 
newed between these persons; but they nevertheless 
retained a rancorous feeling toward each other. Such 
was the origin of their mutual animosity. 




Not long after this, at the suggestion of Theo- 
philus, the bishop Epiphanius again comes from 
Cyprus to Constantinople, taking with him a copy 
of a S)Tiodical decree by which without excommu- 
nicating Origen himself, his books were condemned. 
On reaching St. John's church, which is seven miles 
distant from the city, he disembarked, and there held 
an assembly ; then after having ordained a deacon, he 
entered Constantinople. In complaisance to Theo- 
philus he declined John's courtesy, and instead of 
accepting accommodation at the episcopal palace, 
engaged apartments in a private house. He after- 
wards assembled all the bishops who were then in 
that capital, and producing his copy of the Synodical 
decree* condemnatory of Origen's works, recited it 
before them ; but without being able to assign a 
better reason for this judgment, than that it seemed 
fit to Theoi)hilus and himself to reject them. Some 
indeed subscribed this decree from a reverential 
respect for Epiphanius; but many refused to do 
this, among whom was Theotinus bishop of Scjrthia, 
who thus addressed Epiphanius: — " I choose not, 
Epiphanius, to insult the memory of one who ended 
his life piously long ago ; nor dare I be guilty of so 

* Ta KadaipeTiKu. 


impious an act, as that of condemning what our 
predecessors by no means rejected: and especially 
when I know of no evil doctrine contained in Origen's 
books." Having said this, he brought forward one of 
that author's works, and reading a few passages there- 
from, shewed that the sentiments propounded were in 
perfect accordance with the orthodox faith. He then 
added, " Those who attempt to fix a stigma on these 
writings, are unconsciously casting dishonour upon 
the sacred volume whence their principles are drawn." 
Such was the reply which Theotinus, a prelate emi- 
nent for his piety and rectitude of life, made to 


THE author's defence OF ORIOEN. 

But since many persons, imposed on by his detrac- 
tors, have been deterred from reading Origen, as 
though he were a blasphemous ^vriter, I deem it not 
unseasonable to make a few observations respecting 
him. Worthless characters, and such as are destitute 
of ability to attain eminence themselves, often seek to 
get into notice by decrying those who excel them. 
And first Methodius, bishop of a city in Lycia 
named Olympus, laboured under this malady; next 
Eustathius, who for a short time presided over the 
church at Antioch ; after him Apollinaris ; and lastly 
Theophilus. This quaternion* of revilers has tra- 
duced Origen, but on very different grounds, one 
having hatched one cause of accusation against him, 
and another another; and thus each has demonstrated 
that what he has taken no objection to, fully has 

* TirpakTVQ. 


his sanction. For since one has attacked one 
opinion in particular, and another has found fault 
with another, it is evident that each has admitted 
as tnie what he has not cavilled at, giving a tacit 
approbation to what he has not assailed. Methodius 
indeed, when he had in various places railed against 
Origen, afterwards as if to disavow* all he had pre- 
viously said, expresses his admiration of the man, 
in a Dialogue which he entitled " Xenon." + But I 
affirm that from the censure of these men, greater 
commendation accrues to Origen. For those who 
have sought out whatever they deemed worthy of 
reprobation in him, and yet have never charged him 
Avith holding unsound views respecting the holy 
Trinity, do in this way most distinctly attest his 
orthodox piety : and by not reproachuig him on this 
point, they commend him by their own testimony. 
But Athanasius the defender of the doctrine of con- 
substantiality, in his " Discourses against the Arians," 
continually cites this author as a witness of his own 
faith, interweaving his words with his own. Thus 
for instance: " The most admirable and laborious 
Origen," says he, " by his own testimony confirms 
our doctrine concerning the Son of God, affirming 
hhn to be co-eternal with the Father." Those there- 
fore who load Origen with vituperation, overlook the 
Ikct that their maledictions fall at the same time on 
Athanasius, the eulogist of Origen. Having thus vin- 
dicated Origen, wc shall return to the course of our 

* *E«f 7ra\iy^dia£. 

i' i. e. the house of cntcrtainmeut for strangers. 




John was not offended because Epiphanius, con- 
trary to the ecclesiastical canon, had made an ordi- 
nation in his church ; but invited him to remain with 
him at the episcopal palace. He replied that he 
would neither stay nor pray with him, uidess he 
would expel Discerns and his brethren from the 
city, and with his own hand subscribe the condem- 
nation of Origen's books. When John deferred the 
l>erformance of these things, saying that nothing 
ought to be done rashly before the decision* of a 
general council, John's adversaries led Epiphanius 
to adopt another course. For they contrived that at 
the next assembly which was to be held in the church 
named The Apostles^ Epiphanius should come forth 
and before all the people condeum the books of 
Origen, excommunicate Discerns with his followers, 
and charge John with countenancing them. John, 
on being informed of these things, sent this message 
by Serapion on the following day to Epiphanius just 
as he entered the church: "You do many things 
contrary to the canons, Epiphanius. In the first 
place you have made an ordination in the churches 
under my jurisdiction : then without my appointment, 
you have on your o\vn authority officiated in them. 
Moreover, when heretofore I invited you hither, you 
refused to come, and now you allow yourself that 
liberty. Beware therefore, lest a tumult being ex- 
cited among the people, even you yourself should incur 

* Siayvutaew£, 


danger therefrom." Epiphanius becoming alarmed on 
hearing these admonitions, left the church ; and after 
accusing John of many things, he set out on his 
return to Cyprus. Some say that when he was about 
to depart., he said to John, " I hope that you will 
not die a bishop:" to which John replied, " I hope 
that you will not anive at your own country." I 
cannot vouch for the truth of this report ; but never- 
theless the event was correspondent to it in the case 
of both. For Epiphanius did not reach Cyprus, 
having died on ship-board after his departure; and 
John a short time afterwards was driven from his 
See, as we shall show in proceeding. 




When Epiphanius was gone, it was intimated to 
John that the empress Eudoxia had stimulated Epi- 
phanius against him. And being of a fiery tem- 
perament, and of a ready utterance, he soon after pro- 
nounced a public invective against women in general, 
which the people considered was intended to apply 
indirectly* to the empress. This speech was laid 
hold of by evil-disposed persons, and reported to 
those in authority, until at length it reached the 
empress; who immediately complained of it to her 
husband, telling him that the insult offered to herself 
equally affected him. The emperor therefore au- 
thorised Theophihis to convoke a Synod without 
delay against John ; which Scverian also co-operated 
in promoting, for he still regarded ('hrysostom with 

* 'lie (iiytyfiii, 




aversion. In a little while therefore Theophilus ar- 
rived, accompanied by several bishops from different 
cities, who had been summoned by the emperor's 
orders. Those especially who had some cause of pri- 
vate pique against John flocked together; and all 
whom he had deposed in Asia, when he went to 
Ephesus and ordained Heraclides, did not fail to be 
present. It was arranged that they should assemble 
at Chalcedon in Bithynia. Cyrin was then bishop 
of that city, an Egyptian by birth, who said many 
things to the bishops in disparagement of John, 
denouncing him as an impious, haughty, and in- 
exorable person, very much to the satisfaction of 
these prelates. But Maruthas bishop of Mesopotamia 
having accidentally trod on Cyrin's foot, he was so 
severely hurt by it as to be unable to embark with 
the rest for Constantinople, and was therefore obliged 
to remain behind at Chalcedon. Theophilus had so 
openly avowed his hostility to John, that none of the 
clergy would go forth to meet him, or pay him the 
least honour ; but some Alexandrian sailors happening 
to be there, whose vessels had been laden with com, 
greeted him with joyful acclamations. He refused to 
enter the church, and took up his abode at one of the 
imperial mansions called " The Placidian." Then a 
torrent of accusations began to be poured forth 
against John; for no mention was now made of 
Origen, but all were intent on urging a variety of 
criminations, many of which were ridiculous. Pre- 
liminary matters being settled, the bishops were con- 
vened in the suburbs of Chalcedon, at a place called 
" The Oak," and John was immediately cited to 
answer the charges which were brought against him. 
Serapion the deacon, Tigris the eunuch presbyter, 


and Paul the reader, were likewise summoned to 
appear there with him, for these men were included 
in the impeachments, as participators in his guilt. 
John taking exception to those who had cit^d him, 
on the ground of their being his enemies, reftiscd to 
attend, and demanded a general * council. They re- 
peated their citation four times in succession; and 
when he persisted in his rejection of them as his 
judges, always giving the same answer, they con- 
demned him for contumacy, and deposed him without 
assigning any other cause for his deposition. This 
decision was announced towards evening, and incit<5d 
the people to a most alarming sedition; insomuch 
that they kept watch all night, and would by no 
means suflfcr him to be removed from the church, 
crying out that his cause ought to be determined in 
a larger assembly. The emperor however commanded 
that he should be immediately expelled, and sent into 
exile; which as soon as John was apprised of, he 
voluntarily surrendered himself about noon unknown 
to the populace, on the third day after his condemna- 
tion: for he dreaded any insurrectionary movement 
on his account, and was accordingly led away. 



The people then became intolerably tumultuous; 
and as it frequently happens in such cases, many 
who before were clamorous against him, now changed 
their hostility into compassion, and said of him whom 
they had so recently desired to see deposed, that he 

• OtKovfjLtyiKiiy. 


had been traduced. By this means therefore they 
were very numerous who exclaimed against both the 
emperor and the Sjmod of bishops; but they raged 
more particularly against Theo])hilus as the author of 
this ])lot. For his fraudulent conduct could no longer 
be concealed, being exposed by many other indi- 
cations, and especially by the fact of his having com- 
municated with Discorus, and those termed the Lontj 
Monkfi^ immediately after John's deposition. But 
Severian preaching in the church, and thinking it a 
suitable occasion to declaim against John, said : " If 
John had been condemned for nothing else, yet the 
haughtiness of his demeanour was a crime sufficient 
to justify his deposition. Men indeed are forgiven 
all other sins: but * God resisteth the proud,'* as 
the divine Scriptures teach us." These reproaches 
incensed the people still more; so that the emi)eror 
gave orders for his immediate recall. Briso a eimuch 
in the service of the empress was therefore sent after 
him, who finding him at Pi'ajnetum, a commercial 
Xoxm situated over against Nicomedia, brought him 
back toward Constantinople. When they reached 
Mariana?, a village in the suburbs, John refused to 
enter the city, and declared he would abide there, 
until his innocence had been admitted by a higher 
tribunal. His delay at that place increased the 
popular commotion, and caused them to break forth 
into very indignant and opprobrious language against 
their rulers. To check their fury John was con- 
strained to proceed ; and ])eing met on his way by a 
vast nuiltitude, who vied \\\\\\ each other in their 
expressions of veneration and honour, he was con- 
ducted immediately to the church, on reaching which 

* JameR iv. 6. 


the people entreated him to seat himself in the episco- 
pal chair, and give them his accustomed benediction. 
When he sought to excuse hhnself, saying that he 
ought not to do so \vithout an order from his judges, 
and that those who condemned hun must first revoke 
their sentence, they were only the more inflamed 
Avith the desire of seeing him reinstated, and of 
hearing him address them again. Thus pressed, he 
resumed his seat, and prayed as usual for peace ujx)n 
the people; after which, acting under the same con- 
straint, he preached to them. This compliance on 
John's part aiforded his adversaries another ground 
of crimination, although they took no notice of it at 
that time. 



In the first place then, Theophilus attempted to 
call in question the legitimacy of Heraclides's ordina- 
tion, that thereby he might if possible find occasion 
of again deposing John. Heraclides was not present 
at this scrutiny ; nevertheless they condemned him in 
his absence, on the charge of having unjustly beaten 
some persons, and afterwards dragged them in chains 
through the midst of the city of Ephesus. John and 
his adherents remonstrated against the mjustice of 
passing sentence upon an absent person ; but the 
Alexandrians contended that his accusers ought to 
be heard, although he was not i)resent. A sharp 
contest therefore ensued between the Alexandrians 
and the Constantinopolitans w^hich led to blows, 


whereby many persons were wounded, and some 
few killed. Theophilus seeing what was done, in- 
stantly fled to Alexandria ; and the other bishops, 
except the few who supported John, followed his 
example, and returned to their respective Sees. After 
these transactions, Theophilus was degraded in every- 
one's estimation : but the odium attached to him was 
exceedingly increased by the shameless way in which 
he continued to read Origen's works. And when he 
was asked why he thus countenanced what he had 
publicly condemned? he replied, " Origen's books are 
like a meadow enamelled with flowers of every kind. 
If therefore I chance to find a beautiful one among 
them, I cull it : but whatever appears to me to be 
thorny, I pass by, as that which would prick." But 
Theophilus gave this answer without reflecting on the 
saying of the wise Solomon,* that the words of the 
wise are as goads ; and those who are pricked by 
the precepts they contain, ought not to kick against 
them. Soon after the flight of Theophilus, Discorus 
bishop of Hermopolis, one of those termed the Long 
Monks^ died, and was honoured with a magnificent 
funeral, being interred in the church ^ at, " The Oak," 
where the Synod was convened on John's account. 
John meanwhile was sedulously employed in preach- 
ing ; and ordained Serapion, bishop of Heraclea in 
Thrace, on whose account the odium against himself 
had been raised. The following events occurred not 

long after. 

* Eccles. xii. 11. \ ^laprvpi^. 

CHAP. XVIII.] JOHN EXILED. — A. D. 402. 455 




There stood at this time a silver statue of the 
empress Eudoxia covered vnth a long robe, ujx)n a 
column of porphyry supported by a lofty base, which 
had been erected so near the church named Sophia^ that 
only half the breadth of the street separated them. 
At this pillar public games were accustomed to be 
performed ; which John regarded from its proximity 
to the church, as an insult offered to religion. Instead 
therefore of representing to the emperor the impro- 
priety of these exhibitions in such a place, and 
petitioning for their discontinuance, he employed his 
ordinary freedom and keenness of tongue in rebuking 
publicly those who tolerated them. The empress was 
exceedingly piqued at this presumption of the bishop, 
applying his expressions to herself as indicating 
marked contempt toward her own person : she there- 
fore endeavoured to procure the convocation of another 
Synod against him. When John was aware of this, 
he delivered in the church that celebrated oration 
commencing with these words: " Again Herodias 
raves ; again she is troubled ; she dances again ; and 
again desires to receive John's head in a charger." 
This of course exasperated the empress still more. 
Not long after the follomng prelat<5s arrived : Leon- 
tius bishop of Ancyra in Asia, Ammonius of Laodicea 
in Pisidia, Briso of Philippi in Thrace, Acacius of 
Bercea in Syria, and some others. John presented 
himself fearlessly before them, and demanded an 
investigation of the charges which were made against 


him. But the anniversary of the birth of our Saviour 
having recurred, the emperor would not attend church 
as usual, but sent Chrysostom an intimation that he 
should not communicate with him, until he had 
cleared himself from those misdemeanours with which 
he stood impeached. When John's accusers seemed 
to quail before his bold and ardent bearing, his judges 
setting aside all other matters, said they would confine 
their examination to this one question, whether he 
had on his own responsibility after his deposition, 
again seated himself in the episcopal chair, without 
being authorised by an ecclesiastical council. On 
John's saying that he was reinstated by the decree of 
sixty -five bishops who had communicated with him : 
Leontius objected that he had been condemned in a 
Synod composed of a much greater number. John 
then contended that this was a canon of the Arians, 
and not of the catholic church, and therefore it was 
inoperative against hhn : for that it had been framed 
in the council convened against Athanasius at An- 
tioch, for the subversion of the doctrine of consub- 
stantiality. The bishops however would not listen to 
this defence, but immediately condemned him, without 
considering that by using this canon they were sanc- 
tioning the deposition of Athanasius himself. This 
sentence having been pronounced a little before 
Easter, the emperor sent to tell John that he could 
not go to the church, because two Synods had con- 
demned him. Chrysostom therefore went there no 
more ; but those who were of his party celebrated that 
feast in the public baths which are named after Con- 
stantius, and thenceforth left the church. Among 
his adherents were many bishops and presbyters, with 
others of the clerical order, who from that time 


holding their assemblies apart in various places, were 
from him denominated Johannites. For the space of 
two months, John refrained from appearing in public ; 
after which he was conveyed into exile by the em- 
peror's command. On the very day of his departure, 
some of John's friends set fire to the church, which 
by means of a strong easterly mnd,* connnunicated 
with the senate-house. This conflagration happened 
on the 20th of June, under the sixth consulate of 
Honorius, which he bore in conjunction with Aris- 
taenetus. The severities inflicted on John's friends 
even to the extent of capital punishment, on account 
of this act of incendiarism, by Optatus the praefect of 
Constantinople, who being a Pagan was as such an 
enemy to the Christians, I ought I believe to pass by 
in silence. 



After the lapse of a few days, Arsacius, the bro- 
ther of Nectarius who so ably governed the chui'ch 
at Constantinople before John, was appointed to that 
see, although he was then very aged, being upwards 
of eighty years old. During his singularly mild and 
peaceful administration of the episcopate, Cyrln bishop 
of Chalcedon, upon whose foot Maruthas bishop of 
Mesoj)Otamia had inadvertently trodden, became so 
seriously aftected by the accident, that from morti- 
fication having ensued, amputation was found neces- 
sary. Nor was this abscission performed once only, 
but was required to be often repeated : for after the 

* *A7rij\iwr»;Vi from ciiro and ijIKio^:, 


injured limb was cut off, the gangrene so invaded his 
whole system, that he was compelled to submit to 
the loss of the other foot also. I have alluded to 
this circumstance, because many have affirmed that 
what he suffered was a judgment upon him for his 
calumnious aspersions of John, whom he so often 
designated as arrogant and inexorable. On the 30th 
of September, in the last-mentioned consulate, there 
was an extraordinary fall of haU of immense size at 
Constantinople and its suburbs. This also was de- 
clared to be an expression of Divine indignation on 
account of Chrysostom's unjust deposition: and the 
death of the empress only four days after the hail- 
storm, tended to give increased credibility to these 
reports. Others however asserted that John had been 
deservedly deposed, because of the violence he had 
exercised in Asia and Lydia, in depriving the Nova- 
tians and Quartodecimani of many of their churches, 
when he went to Ephesus and ordained Heraclides. 
But whether John's deposition was just, as his ene- 
mies declare, or Cyrin's sufferings were in chastise- 
ment for his slanderous revilings, whether the hail fell, 
or the empress died on John's account, or whether 
these things happened for other reasons, or for these 
in connection with others, God only knows, who is 
the discerner of secrets, and the just judge of truth 
itself. I have simply stated the reports which were 
current at that time. 



But Arsacius did not long survive his accession to 
the bishopric; for he died on the 11th of November 


under the following consulate, which was Stilicho's 
second, and the first of Anthemius. In consequence 
of there being many aspirants to the vacant see, much 
time elapsed l^efore the election of a successor: but 
at length in the following consulate, which was the 
sixth of Arcadius, and the first of Probus, a devout 
man named Atticus was promoted to the episcopate. 
He was a native of Sebastia in Armenia, and had 
followed an ascetic life from an early age : moreover 
in addition to a moderate share of learning, he pos- 
sessed a large amount of natural prudence. But I 
shall speak of him more particularly hereafter. 



On the 14th of September, in the following con- 
sulate, which was the seventh of Honorius, and the 
second of Theodosius, John died in exile at Comanes. 
His love of virtue inclined him, as we have before 
observed, rather to anger than forbearance: and his 
personal sanctity of character led him to indulge in 
a latitude of speech which to others was intolerable. 
But what is most inexplicable to me is, how with a 
zeal so ardent for the practice of self-control* and 
blamelessness of life, he should in his sermons appear 
to encourage licentiousness. For whereas by the 
Synod of bishops repentance was accepted but once 
from those who had sinned after baptism; he did 
not scruple to say, " Approach, although you may 
have repented a thousand times." For this doctrine, 
many even of his friends censured liim, but especially 
Sisinnius bishop of the Novatians; who wrote a book 


condemnatory of this expression of Chysostom's, and 
severely rebuked hiin for it. But this occurred long 



It will not be out of place here, I conceive, to give 
some account of Sisinnius. He was, as I have often 
said, remarkably eloquent, and well-instructed in phi- 
losophy. But he had particularly cultivated logic, 
and was profoundly skilled in the interpretation of 
the holy Scriptures ; insomuch that the heretic Euno- 
mius often shrank from the acumen which his reason- 
ing displayed. He was not simple in his diet; for 
although he practised the strictest moderation, yet 
his table was always sumptuously furnished. His 
habits were soft and delicate, being accustomed to 
clothe himself in white garments, and to bathe twice 
a day in the public baths. And when some one 
asked him why he who was a bishop bathed twice a 
day? he replied, " Because it is inconvenient to bathe 
thrice." Going one day from courtesy to visit the 
bishop Arsacius, he was asked by one of the friends of 
that prelate, why he wore a garment so unsuitable 
for a bishop? and where it was written that an eccle- 
siastic* should be clothed in white? " Do you tell me 
first," said he, "where it is written that a bishop should 
wear black?" ^\nien he that made the enquiry knew 
not what to reply to this counter-query: " You 
cannot show," rejoined Sisinnius, " that a priest 
should be clothed in black. But Solomon is my 

CHAP. XXII.] SISINNIUS. — A.D. 407. 461 

authority, whose exhortation is, ' Let thy garments be 
white.'* And our Saviour in the Gospels appears 
clothed in white raiment : ^ moreover he showed Moses 
and Elias to the apostles, clad in white gannents." 
His prompt reply to these and other questions called 
forth the admiration of those present. Again when 
Leontius bishop of Ancyra in Galatia Minor had 
taken away a church from the Novatians, and after- 
wards came to Constantinople, Sisirmius went to him, 
and begged him to restore the church. But he re- 
ceived him rudely, saying, " Ye Novatians ought not 
to have churches ; for ye take away repentance, and 
shut out divine mercy." To these and many other 
such revilings against the Novatians, Sisinnius re- 
plied: " No one repents more heartily than I do." 
And when Leontius asked him on what account? 
'' That I came to see you," said he. On one occasion 
John having a contest with him, said, " The city 
cannot have two bishops." " Nor has it," said Sisin- 
nius. John being irritated at this response, said, 
" You seem to pretend that you alone are the bishop." 
" I do not say that," rejoined Sisinnius ; " but that 
I am not bishop in your estimation only, who am 
such to others." John being still more chafed at this 
reply, said, " I will stop your preaching; for you are 
a heretic." To which Sisinnius good-humouredly 
replied, " I will give you a reward, if you will relieve 
me from so arduous a duty." John being softened a 
little by this answer, said, " I will not make you 
cease to preach, if you find it so troublesome." So 
facetious was Sisinnius, and so ready at repartee: 
but it would be tedious to dwell further on his ^\nt- 
ticisms. The specimens we have given will serve to 

* Ecclea. ix. 8. t l^uke ix. 29. 


show what sort of a person he was. I will merely 
add that his uncommon erudition acquired for him 
the esteem and regard of the bishops who succeeded 
him ; and that he was loved and honoured by aU the 
leading members of the senate. He is the author of 
many works : but they are characterized by too great 
an affectation of elegance of diction, and a lavish 
intermingling of poetic expressions. On which account 
he was more admired as an orator than a writer ; for 
there was dignity in his countenance and voice, as 
well as in his form and aspect, and every movement 
of his person was graceful. These advantages com- 
mended him to all the sects, and he was in especial 
favour with Atticus the bishop. But I must conclude 
this brief notice of Sisinnius. 



Not long after the death of John, the emperor 
Arcadius died also. This prince was of a mild and 
gentle disposition, and toward the close of his life 
was esteemed to be greatly beloved of God, from the 
following circumstance. There was at Constantinople 
an immense mansion called Carya,* because of a nut- 
tree in the court of it, on which it is said Acacius 
suffered martyrdom by hanging. A chapelt was on 
that account built near it, which the emperor Arca- 
dius one day thought fit to visit, and after having 
prayed there, left again. All who lived near this 
oratory ran in a crowd to see the emperor ; and some 
going out of the mansion referred to, endeavoured to 
pre-occupy the streets in order to get a better view of 

* Kapvay, f OiKitTKO^ €vicnipiOQ, 


their sovereign and his suite, while others followed in 
his train, until all who inhabited it, including the 
women and children, had wholly gone out of it. 
No sooner was this vast pile emptied of its occupants, 
the buildings of wliich completely environed the 
church, than the entire mass fell. On which there 
was a great outcry, followed by shouts of admiration, 
because it was believed the emperor's prayer had 
rescued so great a number of persons from destruc- 
tion. After this event, on the 1st of May, Arcadius 
died, leaving his son Theodosius only eight years 
old, under the consulate of Bassus and Philip, in the 
second year of the 297th Olympiad. He had reigned 
thirteen years with Theodosius his father, and fourteen 
years after his death, and had only then attained the 
thirty-first year of his age. This book includes the 
space of twelve years and six months. 




After the death of Arcadius, his brother Honorius 
still governed the Western parts of the empire; but 
the administration of the East devolved on his son 
Theodosius junior, then only eight years old. The 


management of public affairs was therefore entrusted 
to Anthemius the Praetorian prsefect, grandson of 
that Philip who in the reign of Constantius ejected 
Paul from the see of Constantinople, and established 
Macedonius in his place. By his directions the im- 
perial city was surrounded with high walls. He 
was justly esteemed the most prudent man of his 
time, and seldom did any thing unadvisedly, but 
consulted with the most judicious of his friends 
respecting all practical matters; Troilus the sophist 
was more especially his coimsellor, who while ex- 
celling in philosophical attainments, was not inferior 
to Anthemius himself in political wisdom. Almost 
all things were therefore done with the concurrence 
of Troilus. 




When Theodosius thus in the eighth year of his 
age succeeded to the imperial authority, Atticus 
was in the third year of his presidency over the 
church at Constantinople, and was become exceed- 
ingly eminent. For being, as we have before re- 
marked, distinguished alike for his learning, piety, 
and discretion, the churches under his episcopate 
attained a very flourishing condition. He not only 
united those of his own faith, but also by his pru- 
dence called forth the admiration of the heretics, 
whom indeed he by no means desired to harass ; but 
if he sometimes was obliged to impress them with 
the fear of him, he soon afterward showed himseK 
mild and clement toward tliem. So assiduous was 

CHAP. III.] THEODOSIUS. — A.D. 408. 465 

he as a student, that he often spent whole nights 
in perusing the Avritings of the ancients ; and thus he 
became intimately acquainted with the reasonings of 
the philosophers, and the fallacious subtilties of the 
sophists. Besides this he was affable in conversation, 
and ever ready to sympathize with the afflicted: in 
short, to sum up his excellences in the Apostle's word, 
" He was made all things to all menJ'^* Formerly 
while a presbyter, he had been accustomed, after 
composing his sermons, to commit them to memory, 
and then recite them in the church : but by diligent 
application he acquired so much confidence as to be 
able to preach extemporaneously. His discourses 
however were not such as to be received with much 
applause by his auditors, nor to deserve to l^e com- 
mitted to writing. Let these particulars respecting 
his talents, erudition and manners, suffice. We must 
now proceed to relate such things as are worthy of 
record, that happened in his time. 



Theodosius bishop of Synada in Phrygia Piicata, 
was a violent persecutor of the heretics, of whom 
there was a great number in that city, and especially 
of the Macedonian sect, whom he sought if possible 
to root out of the country. This course he pursued 
not from any precedent in the orthodox church, nor 
from the desire of propagating the true faith; but 
being enslaved by the love of filthy lucre, he was 
impelled by the avaricious motive of amassing money, 
by extorting it from the heretics. To this end he 

* 1 Cor. ix. 22. 



made all sorts of attempts upon the Macedonians, 
putting arms into the hands of his clergy; and em- 
ploying innumerable stratagems against them, he 
delivered them up also to the secular tribunals. 
But his annoyances were especially directed against 
Agapetus their bishop : and finding the governors 
of the province were not invested with sufficient 
authority to punish heretics according to his wish, 
he set out for Constantinople to petition for edicts 
of a more stringent nature from the Pnetorian 
prsefect. ^\liile Theodosius was absent on this busi- 
ness, Agapetus who, as I have said, presided over the 
Macedonian sect, formed a wise and prudent resolu- 
tion ; and after communicating with his clergy, he 
called all the people under his guidance together, and 
persuaded them to embrace the Homoousian faith. 
On their acquiescing in this proposition, he proceeded 
immediately to the church attended not merely by 
his own adherents, but by the whole body of the 
people. There having offered prayer, he took pos- 
session of the episcopal chair in which Theodosius 
was accustomed to seat himself; and preaching 
thenceforth the doctrine of consubstantiality, he 
reunited the people, and made himself master of 
the churches in that diocese. Soon after these trans- 
actions, Theodosius, in total ignorance of what had 
taken place, returned to Synada, bringing with him 
extended powers from the prajfect. But on his 
going to the church and behig forthwith unani- 
mously expelled, he again betook hunself to Con- 
stantinople, wliere he complained to Atticus the 
bishop of the treatment he had met with, and the 
manner in which he had been deprived of his bishop- 
ric. Atticus perceiving the advantage of this move- 

CHAP. IV. j MIRACLE BY ATTICUS. — A.D. 408. 467 

ment to the church, consoled Theodosius as well as 
he could; recommending hhn to embrace with a con- 
tented mind a retired life, and thus sacrifice his own 
private interests to the public good. He then wrote 
to Agapetus authorizing him to retain the episcopate, 
and bidding him be under no apprehension of being 
molested by Theodosius. 



Tnis was one important improvement in the cir- 
cumstances of the church, which happened during the 
ecclesiastic administration of Atticus. Nor were 
these times without the attestation of miracles. For 
a Jew who had been confined to his bed by paralysis 
for many years, and had been benefitted neither by 
medical skill, nor by the prayers of his Jewish bre- 
thren, had recourse at length to Christian baptism, 
hoping that as it was the only means now left un- 
tried, it would prove to be the true remedy. When 
Atticus the bishop was informed of his wishes, he 
instructed him in the first principles of Christian 
truth, and having preached to him the hope in Christ, 
directed that he should be brought in his bed to the 
font. The paralytic Jew receiving baptism with a 
sincere faith, as soon as he was taken out of the 
water found himself perfectly cured of his disease, 
and continued to enjoy sound health afterwards. 
Such was the miraculous power of Christ vouchsafed 
to be manifested even in our times; the fame of 
which caused jnany heathens to believe and be bap- 
tized. But the Jews who so zealously seek after 


signs, were not induced to embrace the faith by pre- 
sent miracles, notwithstanding the blessings they saw 
thus conferred by Christ upon men. 



Not only did the Jews continue in unbelief after 
this miracle, but many others also who were imita- 
tors of them persisted in their impiety, and rejected 
this evidence of Divine power. Among these was 
Sabbatius, of whom mention has before been made ; 
who not being content with the dignity of presbyter 
to which he had attained, but aiming at a bishopric 
from the beginning, separated himself from the church 
of the Novatians, under pretext of observing the Jew- 
ish Passover. Holding therefore schismatic assemblies 
apart from his own bishop Sisinnius, in a place named 
Xerolophus, where the forum of Arcadius now is, he 
was guilty of an act deserving the severest punish- 
ment. Reading one day at one of these meetings 
that passage in the gospel where it is said, " Now* it 
was the Feast of the Jews called the Passover," he 
added what was never written nor heard of before: 
" Cursed be he that celebrates the Passover oiit of the 
days of unleavened bread.^^ When these words were 
reported among the people, the more simple of the 
Novatian laity, deceived by this artifice, flocked to 
him. But his fraudulent fabrication was of little 
avail to him, and issued in most disastrous conse- 
quences. For when shortly aft^r, he in conjunction 

* This, like many other professed quotations from Scripture^ is 
incorrectly cited : Luke xxii. 1 is most like it. 

CHAP. VI.] ARIAN BISHOPS. — ^A.D.409. 469 

-with many others kept this feast anticipatively of the 
Christian Easter, a supernatural panic fell upon them, 
wliile they were passing the night in the accustomed 
vigils, as if Sisinnius their bishop were coming with 
a multitude of persons to fall upon them. From the 
perturbation that might be expected in such a case, 
and their being shut up at night in a confined place, 
they trod upon one another, insomuch that above 
seventy of them were crushed to death. On this 
account many deserted Sabbatius: some however, 
holding his ignorant anticipative opinion, remained 
with him. In what way Sabbatius, by a violation 
of his oath, afterwards managed to get himself or- 
dained a bishop, we shall relate hereafter. 



DoROTHEUs bishop of the Arians, who, as we have 
said, was translated by that sect from Antioch to 
Constantinople, having attained the age of one hun- 
dred and nineteen years, died on the 6 th of Novem- 
ber, in the seventh consulate of Honorius, and the 
second of Theodosius Augustus. He was succeeded 
bv Barba, in whose time the Arian faction was fa- 
voured by possessing two very eloquent members, 
both having the rank of presbyter, one of whom was 
named Timothy, and the other George. The latter 
excelled in Grecian literature, and constantly had the 
writings of Aristotle and Plato in his hands: the 
former had devoted himself more to the study of 
the sacred Scriptures, and was a great admirer of 
Origen; he also evinced in his public expositions 
of the Old Testament no inconsiderable acquaintance 


with the Hebrew language. Timothy had however 
formerly identified himself with the sect of the Psa- 
thyrians; but George had been ordained by Barba. 
I have myself conversed with Timothy, and was 
exceedingly struck by the readiness with which he 
would answer the most difficult questions, and clear 
up the most obscure passages in the Divine oracles ; 
invariably quoting Origen as an unquestionable au- 
thority in confirmation of his own sentiments. But 
it is astonishing to me that these two men should 
continue to uphold the heresy of the Arians ; the one 
being so conversant with Plato, and the other having 
Origen so frequently on his lips. For Plato does not 
say that the second and third cause, as he usually 
terms them, had a beginning of existence : and Origen 
eveiywhere acknowledges the Son to be co-eternal* 
with the Father. Nevertheless although they re- 
mained connected with that sect, they purged it from 
some of its grosser corruptions, and raised it to a 
more tolerable condition, by abolishing many of the 
blasphemies of Arius. But enough of these persons. 
Sisinnius bishop of the Novatians dying under the 
same consulate, was succeeded by Chrysanthus, of 
whom we shall have to speak by and by. 



Theophilus bishop of Alexandria having soon after 
fallen into a lethargic state, died on the 15th of 
October,t in the ninth consulate of Honorius, and the 

t This chapter is out of chronological order : for Alaric took 
Rome in 410. See chap. x. 


fifth of Theodosius. A great contest iininediately 
arose about the appointment of a successor, some 
seeking to place Timothy the archdeacon in the 
episcopal chair ; and others desiring Cyril, the nephew 
of Theophilus. But although the fonner was sup- 
ported by Abundantius the commander of the troops 
in Egypt, yet the partisans of Cyril triumphed, and 
on the third day put him in possession of the episco- 
l)ate, Avith greater power than his uncle had ever 
exercised. For from that time the bishops of Alex- 
andria gohig beyond the Ihnits of their sacerdotal 
functions, assumed the administration of secular 
matters. Cyril immediately therefore shut up the 
churches of the Novatians at Alexandria; after which 
he took possession of all their consecrated vessels and 
ornaments; and then stripped their bishop Theo- 
[)emptus of all that he had. 



About this time Christianity was disseminated in 
Persia, by means of the frequent embassies between 
the sovereigns of that country and the Roman em- 
pire, for which there were continual causes. It hap- 
pened that the Roman emperor thought projx^r to 
send Maruthas bishop of Mesopotamia, who has been 
before mentioned, on a mission to the king of the 
Persians : who perceiving this prelate to be eminently 
pious, treated him with great honour, and revered 
him as one who was indeed beloved of God. This 
excited the jealousy of the magi, whose influence^ is 
considerable in that country, lest he should prevail 
on the Persian monarch to embrace Christianity. 


For Maruthas had by his prayers cured the king of a 
violent head-ache to which he had been long subject, 
and which the magi were unable to relieve. They 
therefore had recourse to this expedient in order to 
get rid of him. As the Persians worship fire, and 
the king was accustomed to pay his adorations in a 
certain edifice where a fire was kept perpetually 
burning ; they concealed a man underneath the sacred 
hearth, ordering him to make this exclamation as 
soon as the king began his devotions : " Let the king 
be thrust out who is guilty of impiety, in imagining 
a Christian priest to be loved by the Deity." When 
Isdigerdes, for that was the king's name, heard these 
words, he determined to dismiss Maruthas, notwith- 
standing the reverence with which he regarded him. 
But this holy man, by the earnestness of his prayers, 
detected the imposition of the magi. Going to the 
king therefore, he addressed him thus : " Be not de- 
luded, O king ; but when you again enter that edifice 
and hear the same voice, explore the ground below, 
and you will discover the fraud. For the fire does 
not speak, but this pretended oracle proceeds from 
human contrivance." In accordance with this sug- 
gestion, the king went as usual to the place where 
the ever-burning * fire was ; and when he again heard 
the same voice, he ordered the earth to be dug up, 
where the impostor was found, who uttered the sup- 
posed words of the Deity. Indignant at the cheat 
which was thus attempted to be practised upon him, 
the king commanded that the tribe of the magi should 
be decimated. ^ After which he permitted Maruthas 
to erect churches wherever he wished ; and from that 

* ** Aajottnov, 

t ' ATTiliKCLTuKny i. c. cveiy tenth man put to death. 


time the Christian religion was diffused among the 
Persians. Maruthas being recalled for a while to 
Constantinople, was afterwards again sent as ambas- 
sador to the Persian court, when the magi sought by 
every possible means to prevent his having access to 
the king. One of their devices was to cause a most 
disgusting smell where the king was accustomed to 
go, and then accuse the Christians of being the 
authors of it. The king however having already had 
occasion to suspect the magi, closely scrutinized the 
matter; and again detecting their deceptive tricks, 
he punished several of them, and held Maruthas in 
still higher honour. For the Romans as a nation he 
had much regard, and entered into an alliance with 
them. Nay, he was on the point of embracing the 
Christian faith himself, after witnessing another mi- 
racle which was wrought by Maruthas in conjunction 
with Abdas bishop of Persia : for these two by giving 
themselves to much fasting and prayer, had cast out 
a demon with which the king's son was possessed. 
But the death of Isdigerdes* prevented his making an 
open profession of Christianity. The kingdom then 
devolved on Vararanes his son, in whose time the 
treaty between the Romans and Persians was vio- 
lated, as the sequel of this history vnll show. 



During this period Porphyry received the episco- 
pate of Antioch upon the death of Flavian:^ and 
after him Alexander ♦ was set over that church. But 
at Rome, Damasus having held that bishopric eighteen 

* A.D. 420. t A.D. 404. t A.D. 414. 


years, was succeeded by Siricius ;* who after presiding 
there fifteen years, left it to Anastasius : three years 
after Innocent was promoted to the same see, and 
was the first persecutor of the Novatians at Rome, 
many of whose churches he took away. 



About this time Rome was taken by barbarians; 
for Alaric, who had been an ally of the Romans, 
and had rendered important services to the emj)e*ror 
Theodosius in the war against the tyrant Eugenius, 
having on that account been honoured with Roman 
dignities, was unable to bear his good fortune. He 
did not choose to assume unperial authority; but 
retiring from Constantinople he went into the West<irn 
parts, and laid waste all Ulyricum. The Thessalo- 
nians opposed his march at the mouths of the river 
Peneus, whence there is a pass over Mount Pindus to 
Xicopolis in Epirus; and coming to an engagement, 
they killed about three thousand of his men. After 
this the barbarians that were with him destroyed 
every thing in their way, and at last took Rome 
itself, which they pillaged, burning the greatest part 
of the magnificent structures and other admirable 
works of art it contained. Having shared the booty 
among themselves, they put many of the principal 
senators to death by a variety of the most cruel 
tortures: but Alaric in mockery of the imperial 
dignity, proclaimed one Attains emperor, whom he 
ordered to be attended with all the insignia of 
sovereignty on one day, and to be exhibited in the 

• A.D. 385. 

CHAP. XI.] BISHOPS OF ROME. — A.D. 410. 475 

habit of a slave on the next. After these achieve- 
ments he made a precipitate retreat, a report having 
reached him that the emperor Theodosius had sent an 
army against him. Nor was this a groundless alarm, 
for the imperial forces actually arrived; but Alaric 
terrified at the bare rumour, had already decamped. 
It is said that as this barbarian was advancing 
towards Rome, he was met by a pious monk, who 
exhorted him to refrain from the perpetration of 
such atrocities, and no longer to delight in slaughter 
and blood. To whom Alaric replied, " I am urged 
on in this course in spite of myself; for there is 
a something that irresistibly impels me daily, saying, 
Proceed to Borne, and desolate that city^ Such was 
the career of this person. 



After Innocent, Zosimus governed the Roman 
church for two years: and after him Boniface* pre- 
sided over it for three years. He was succeeded 
by Celestinus. This prelate took away the churches 
from the Novatians at Rome also, and obliged Rus- 
ticula their bishop to hold his meetings secretly in 
private houses. Until this time that sect had flou- 
rished exceedingly in the imperial city of the West, 
possessing many churches there, which were attended 
by large congregations. But envy attacked them 
also, as soon as the Roman episcopate, like that of 
Alexandria, extended itself beyond the limits of 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and degenerated into its 
present state of secularl domination. For thence- 

* A. D. 418. t *iepi$KTvyrjQ, J ^vyaarilay* 


forth the Roman bishops would not suflfer even those 
who perfectly agreed with them in matters of faith, 
and whose purity of doctrine they extoUed, to enjoy 
the privilege of assemblhig in peace, but stripped 
them of all they possessed. From such tyrannical 
bigotry the Constantinopolitan prelates kept them- 
selves free ; inasmuch as they not only permitted the 
Novatians to hold their assemblies within the city, 
but, as I have already stated, ti-eated them ^vith every 
mark of Christian regard. 




After the death of Sisinnius, Chrysanthus was 
constrained to take upon him the episcopal ojfice. 
He was the son of Marcian the predecessor of Sisin- 
nius, and at an early age had a military appointment 
at the palace; but he was subsequently made gover- 
nor* of Italy, and after that Lord-lieutenant ^ of the 
British Isles, in both which capacities he acquitted 
himself with the highest credit. Returning to Con- 
stantinople at an advanced age, with the desire of 
being constituted prsefect of that city, he was made 
bishop of the Novatians against his will. For when 
Sisinnius was at the point of death, he referred to 
him as a most desirable person to preside over the 
episcopate ; and the people regarding this declaration 
as law, sought to have him ordained forthmth. While 
he remained in privacy to avoid ha\dng this dignity 
forced upon him, Sabbatius, supposing a seasonable 
opportunity was now afforded him of making himself 

* 'TTranicoci Consularis. t Bixapios, Vicarius. 

CHAP. XII.] CHRYSANTHUS. — A.D.412. 477 

master of the churches, in thorough recklessness of 
the oath by which he had bound himself, procured 
his own ordination at the hands of a few undis- 
tinguished prelates. Among these was Hermogenes, 
who had been excommunicated with curses by Sabba- 
tius himself on account of his blasphemous writings. 
But this perjured procedure of Sabbatius was of no 
avail to him: for the people disgusted with his 
unsanctified ambition, used every eflPbrt to discover 
the retreat of Chrysanthus; and having found him 
secluded in Bithynia, they brought him back by force, 
and invested him with the bishopric. He was a man 
of singular modesty and prudence ; and by his means 
the churches of the Novatians at Constantinople were 
estiiblished and greatly augmented. He was the first 
prelate who distributed gold among the poor out of 
his own private property. From the churches he 
would receive nothing but two loaves of the conse- 
crated bread* every Lord's day. So anxious was he 
to promote the advantage of his own church, that he 
drew Ablabius, the most eminent orator of that time, 
from the school of Troilus, and ordained him a pres- 
byter. Ablabius whose sermons are remarkably 
elegant and full of point, was afterwards promoted 
to the bishopric of the Novatian church at Nice, 
where he also taught rhetoric^ at the same time. 

* "Aprovg EvXoyiutVj loaves of Benediction, i. e. offerings of the 
faithful, part of which was taken for the Eucharist, and the rest 
allotted as food for the clergy. t So^terrcvwv. 




About this time the Jemsh inhabitants were driven 
out of Alexandria by Cyril the bishop on the follow- 
ing account. The Alexandrians are more delighted 
with tumult than any other people : and if they can 
find a pretext, they will break forth into the most 
intolerable excesses; nor is it scarcely ix)ssible to 
check their impetuosity until there has been much 
bloodshed. It happened on the present occasion that 
a disturbance arose among the populace, not from a 
cause of any serious importance, but out of an evil 
that has become inveterate in almost all cities, viz. 
a fondness for pantomimic'^ exhibitions. In conse- 
quence of the Jews being disengaged from business 
on the Sabbath, and spending their time, not in hear- 
ing the Law, but in theatrical amusements, dancers 
usually collect great crowds on that day, and disorder 
is almost invariably produced. And although this 
was in some degree controlled by the governor of 
Alexandria, yet the Jews were continually factious; 
and there was superadded to their ordinary hatred of 
the Christians, rage against them on account of the 
dancers. When therefore Orestes the praefect was 
publishing an edict t in the theatre for the regulation 
of the shows, some of the bishop's party were present 
to learn the nature of the orders about to be issued. 
Among these was Hierax, a teacher of the rudimental 
branches of literature ; one who was a very assiduous 

* 'Opxttrrag. f UoXirilav, 


auditor of the bishop's sermons, and made himself 
conspicuous by his forward and noisy plaudits.* 
When the Jews observed this person in the theatre, 
they immediately cried out that he had come there 
for no other purpose than to excite sedition among 
the people. Now Orestes had long regarded with 
jealousy the growing power of the bishops, and their 
encroachments on the jurisdiction of the civil authori- 
ties. Believing therefore that Cyril wished to set 
spies over his proceedings, he ordered Hierax to be 
seized, and publicly subjected to the torture in the 
theatre. Cyril on being informed of this, sent for 
the principal Jews, and threatened them with the 
utmost severities, unless they desisted from their mo- 
lestation of the Christians. These menaces instead 
of suppressing their violence, only rendered the eTew- 
ish populace more furious, and led them to form 
conspiracies for the destruction of the Christians; 
one of which was of so desperate a character, as to 
cause their entire expulsion from Alexandria. Hav- 
ing agreed that each one of them should wear a ring 
on his finger made of the bark of a palm branch, for 
the sake of mutual recognition, they determined to 
attack the Christians on a certain night : and sending 
persons into the streets to raise an outcry that Alex- 
ander's church was on fire, they thus drew the Chris- 
tians out in great anxiety to save their church. The 
Jews immediately fell upon and slew them; readily 
distinguishing each other by their rings. At day- 
break the authors of this atrocity could not be con- 
cealed: and Cyril going to their synagogues (which 
is the name they give their house of prayer), attended 
by an immense body of people, took them away from 

* Kporovc, clappings. 


them, and driving the Jews out of the city, permitted 
the multitude to plunder their goods. Thus were the 
Jews who had inhabited the city from the time of 
Alexander the Macedonian, expelled from it, stripped 
of all they possessed, and dispersed some in one direc- 
tion, and some in another. One of them, a physician* 
named Adamantius, fled to Atticus bishop of Con- 
stantinople, and professing Christianity, afterwards 
returned to Alexandria and fixed his residence there. 
But Orestes the governor of Alexandria viewed these 
transactions with great indignation, and was exces- 
sively annoyed that a city of such magnitude should 
have been suddenly bereft of so large a portion of its 
population; he therefore at once communicated the 
whole aflPair to the emperor. Cyril also wrote to him, 
describing the outrageous conduct of the Jews ; and 
in the meanwhile sent persons to Orestes who should 
mediate concerning a reconciliation: for this the 
people had urged him to do. And when Orestes 
refused to listen to a word on the subject, Cyril ex- 
tended toward him the book of the gospels, believing 
that respect for religion would induce him to lay 
aside his resentment. When however even this had 
no pacific effect on the praefect, but he persisted in 
implacable hostility against the bishop, the following 
event afterwards occurred. 




Some of the monks inhabiting the mountains of 
Nitria, of a vety fiery disposition, whom Theophilus 

• larpiKwv \6ywv ffofiffTi)^* 


some time before had so unjustly armed against 
Discorus and his brethren, being again transported 
with an ardent zeal, resolved to fight valiantly in 
behalf of Cyril. About five hundred of them there- 
fore quitting their monasteries, came into the city; 
and meeting the praefect in his chariot, they called him 
a Pagan idolator, and applied to him many other 
abusive epithets. He supposing this to be a snare 
laid for him by Cyril, exclaimed that he was a 
Christian, and had been baptized by Atticus the 
bishop at Constantinople. The monks gave but little 
heed to his protestations, and one of them named 
Ammonius threw a stone at Orestes which struck him 
on the head, and covered him with the blood that 
flowed from the wound. All the guards with a few 
exceptions fled, fearing to be stoned to death: but 
the populace among whom the fugitive guards had 
mingled, running to the rescue of the governor, put 
the rest of the monks to flight, and having secured 
Ammonius delivered him up to the praefect. Orestes 
immediately put him publicly to the torture, which 
was inflicted with such severity that he died under 
the eflfects of it : and not long after he gave an account 
to the emj^erors of what had taken place. Cyril on 
the other hand forwarded his statement of the matter 
also : and causing the body of Ammonius to be de- 
posited in a certain church, he gave him the new 
appellation of Thaumasius,* ordering him to be 
enrolled among the martyrs, and eulogising his mag- 
nanimity as that of one who had fallen in a conflict 
in defence of piety. This approval of Ammonius on 
the part of Cyril, met with no sympathy from the 
more sober-minded Christians; for they well knew 

* OavfiAaiov, i. e. Admirable. 



that he had suflfered the punishment due to his 
temerity, and had not lost his life under the torture 
because he would not deny Christ. And Cyril him- 
self being conscious of this, suffered the recollection 
of the circumstance to be gradually obliterated by 
silence. But the animosity between Cyril and Orestes 
did not by any means subside, but was kindled* afresh 
by an occurrence not unlike the preceding. 



There was a woman at Alexandria named Hypatia, 
daughter of the philosopher Theon, who made such 
attainments in literature and science, as to far surpass 
all the philosophers of her o^vn time. Having suc- 
ceeded to the school of Plato and Photinus, she ex- 
plained the principles of philosophy to her auditors, 
many of whom came from a distance to receive her 
instructions. Such was her self-possession and ease 
of manner, arising from the refinement and cultivation 
of her mind, that she not unfrequently appeared in 
public in presence of the magistrates, without ever 
losing in an assembly of men that dignified modesty 
of deportment for which she was conspicuous, and 
which gained for her universal resi)ect and admira- 
tion. Yet even she fell a victim to the political 
jealousy which at that time prevailed. For as she 
had frequent interviews with Orestes, it was calumni- 
ously reported among the Christian populace, that it 
was by her influence he was prevented from being 
reconciled to Cyril. Some of them therefore, hurried 

* ^AviaPitn, This expression is opposed to the sense of the context; 
it should rather be, avc^Xe^c. 

CHAP. XVI.] JEWISH OUTRAGE. — ^A. D. 414. 483 

away by a fierce and bigoted zeal, whose ringleader 
was a reader named Peter, entered into a conspiracy 
against her; and observing her returning home in 
her carriage, they dragged her from it, and carried 
her to the church called Caesareum, where they com- 
pletely stripped her, and then murdered her with 
shells.* After tearing her body in pieces, they took 
her mangled limbs to a place called Cinaron, and 
there burnt them. An act so inhmnan could not 
fail to bring the greatest opprobrium, not only upon 
Cyril, but also upon the whole Alexandrian church. 
And surely notliing can be farther from the spirit of 
Christianity than the allowance of massacres, fights, 
and transactions of that sort. This happened in the 
month of March during Lent, ^ in the fourth year of 
CyriPs episcopate, under the tenth consulate of Ho- 
norius, and the sixth of Theodosius. 




Soon afterwards the Jews renewed their malevolent 
and impious practices against the Christians, which 
drew doAvn upon them deserved chastisement. At a 
place named Immestar situat<5d between Antioch in 
Syi'ia and Chalcis, the Jews, while amusing themselves 
in their usual way mth a variety of sports, impelled 
by drunkenness were guilty of many absurdities. At 
last they began to scoff at Christians and even Christ 
himself; and in derision of the cross and those who 
put their trust in the crucified One, they seized a 
Christian boy, and having bound him to a cross, began 

* *()0rpajco(i:, or tiles. i* Niyoreiwv ovoijr. 


to laugh and sneer at him. But m a little while 
they became so transported with fury, that they 
scourged the chQd until he died under their hands. 
This brutal conduct occasioned a sharp conflict be- 
tween them and the Christians ; and as soon as the 
emperors were informed of the circumstance, they 
issued orders to the governor of the province to find 
out and punish the deluiquents with the utmost 
severity. Thus vengeance overtook the Jewish in- 
habitants of this place for the wickedness they had 
committed in their impious sport. 



About this time Chrysanthus bishop of the Xova- 
tians, after presiding over the churches of his own 
sect seven years, died on the 26th of August, under 
the consulate of Monaxius and Plintha. He was 
succeeded in the bishopric by Paul, who had formerly 
been a teacher of Roman eloquence : but afterwards 
abandoning* this profession, had devoted himself to 
an ascetic course of life; and having founded a 
monastery of religious men, he adopted a mode of 
living very similar to that pursued by the monks 
in the desert- In fact I myself found him just such 
a person as Evagrius+ describes these recluses to be; 
imitating them in continued fastings, silence, absti- 
nence from animal food, and a very sparing use of oil 
and wine. He was moreover particularly solicitous 
about the wants of the poor ; frequently visited those 
who were in prison, and in behalf of many criminals 
interceded with the judges, who readily attended to 

* HoWa xaiptiv ippatrag, having bid adieu. 

t Evagrius's £ccleBia8tica] History, Svo. Lond. 1844. 

CHAP. XVII.] MIRACLE. — A. 1). 419. 485 

him on account of his eminent piety. But instead 
of farther enumerating the excellencies that distin- 
guished him, I shall content myself with mentioning 
a fact well worthy of being recorded. A Jewish 
impostor, pretending to be a convert to Christianity, 
had been often baptized, and by that artifice amassed 
a good deal of money. After having deceived many 
of the Christian sects by this fraud, and received 
baptism from the Arians and Macedonians, so that 
there remained no others to practise his hj^ocrisy 
upon, he at length came to Paul bishop of the 
Novatians, declaring that he earnestly desired bap- 
tism, and requesting that he might obtain it at his 
hand. Paul commended the determination of the 
Jew, but told him he could not perform that rite 
for him, until he had been instructed in the funda- 
mental principles of the faith, and given himself to 
fasting and prayer for many days. The Jew im- 
patient of the long fasts which he most unwillingly 
was obliged to undergo, became the more imf)ortunate 
for his baptism ; and Paul not wishing to discourage 
him by longer delays now that he was so urgent, con- 
sented to grant his request, and made all the necessary 
preparations. Having purchased a white vestment 
for him, he ordered the font to be filled vnth water, 
and then led the Jew to it in order to baptize him. 
But by the invisible power of God, the water sud- 
denly disappeared. The bishop and those present, 
had not the least suspicion of the real cause, but 
imagined that the water had escaped by the ordinary 
channels underneath: these passages were therefore 
very carefully closed, and the font filled again. No 
sooner however was the Jew taken there a second 
time, than the water vanished as before. Then Paul 


addressing the Jew, said, " Either you are a deceiver, 
or an ignorant person who has already been baptized." 
The people having crowded together to witness this 
miracle, one among them recognized the Jew, and 
identified him as having been baptized by Atticus 
the bishop a little while before. Such was the 
miracle Avrought by the hands of Paul bishop of 
the Novatians. 



IsDiGERDES king of the Persians, who had always 
favoured the Christians in his dominions, having 
died, was succeeded by Vararanes* his son. This 
prince at the instigation of the magi, persecuted 
the Christians there with so much rigour, by in- 
flicting on them a variety of punishments and 
tortures, that they were obliged to desert their 
country and seek refuge among the Romans, whom 
they entreated not to suflcr them to be ccMnpletely 
extirpated. Atticus the bishop received these sup- 
pliants with great benignity, and besought the em- 
peror to take them under his protection. It happened 
at the same time that another subject of diflPerence 
arose between the Romans and Persians, both because 
the latter would not send back the labourers in the 
gold mines who had been hired from among the 
former; and also on account of their having plun- 
dered the Roman merchants. The bad feeling which 
tliese things produced was greatly increased by the 
flight of the Persian Christians into the Roman 

* BapapdvrfQ. 


territories. For the Persian king immediately sent 
an embassy to demand the fugitives, whom the 
Romans were by no means disposed to deliver up; 
not only as desirous of defending their suppliants, 
but also because they were ready to do anything 
for the sake of the Christian religion. They chose 
rather therefore to renew the war with the Persians, 
than to suflfer the Christians to be miserably des- 
troyed: the league was accordingly broken, and the 
fierce war that followed thereupon, I must now 
give some brief account of. The Roman emperor first 
sent a body of troops under the command of Arda- 
burius; who making an irruption through Armenia 
into Persia, ravaged one of its provinces called 
Azazene. Narsaeus the Persian general marched 
against him, but on coming to an engagement was 
defeated, and obliged to retreat. Afterwards he 
judged it advantageous to make a sudden irruption 
through Mesopotamia into the Roman territories 
there unguarded, thinking by this means to be re- 
venged on the enemy. But Ardaburius being ap- 
prized of his design, hastened the spoliation of 
Azazene, and then himself also marched into Meso- 
potamia. AVTierefore Narsaeus although furnished 
with a large army, was prevented from invading 
the Roman provinces ; but arriving at Nisibis, a city 
in the possession of the Persians situated on the fron- 
tiers of both empires, he sent to Ardaburius desiring 
that they might make mutual arrangements about 
carrying on the war, and appoint a time and place 
for an engagement. But Ardaburius said to his mes- 
sengers, " Tell Narsaeus that the Roman emperors 
will not fight when it pleases him." The emperor 
perceiving that the Persian was mustering his whole 


force, made additional levies to his army, and put his 
trust in God for the victory: nor was he without 
immediate benefit from this pious confidence, as the 
following circumstance proves. As the Constantino- 
I)olitans were in great consternation,* and apprehen- 
sive respecting the issue of the war, a ^ision of 
angels appeared to some persons in Bithyuia who 
were travelling to that city on their own affairs, 
and bade them tell the people not to be alarmed, 
but pray to God in the assurance that the Romans 
would be conquerors, for that they themselves were 
appointed to defend them. Thus were not only the 
inhabitants comforted, but the soldiers also received 
fresh courage. The seat of war being transferred, as 
we have said, from Armenia to Mesopotamia, the 
Romans shut up the Persians in the city of Nisibis, 
which they besieged ; and having constructed wooden 
towers which they advanced by means of machines to 
the walls, they slew great numbers of those who de- 
fended them, as well as of those who ran to their 
assistance. When Vararanes the Persian monarch 
learnt that his province of Azazene had been deso- 
lated, and that his anny was closely besieged in the 
city of Nisibis, t he resolved to march in person ^nth 
all his forces ao^ainst the Romans : but dreadinsr the 
Roman valour, he implored the aid of the Saracens, 
who were then governed by a warlike chief named 
Alamundarus. This prince accordingly brought with 
him a large reinforcement of Saracen auxiliaries, and 
exhorted the king of the Persians to fear nothing, for 
that he would soon reduce the Romans under his 
power, and deliver Antioch in Syria into his hands. 
But the event nullified these promises: for God in- 

CHAP. XIX.] PALLADIUS. — ^A. D. 420. 489 

fused into the minds of the Saracens a terrible panic, 
as if the Roman army was falling upon them; and 
finding no other way of escape, they precipitated 
themselves, armed as they were, into the river Eu- 
phrates, wherein nearly one hundred thousand of 
them were drowned. After this multitude had thus 
perished, the Romans understanding that the king 
of Persia was bringing with him a great number of 
elephants, became alarmed in their turn ; they there- 
fore burnt all the machines they had used in carry- 
ing on the siege, and I'etired into their own country. 
What engagements afterwards took place, and how 
Areobindus another Roman general killed the bravest 
of the Persians in single combat, and by what means 
Ardaburius destroyed seven Persian commanders in 
an ambuscade, and Vitian another Roman general 
vanquished the remnant of the Saracen forces, I be- 
lieve I ought to pass by, lest I should digress too far 
from my subject. 



Now although the scenes of the transactions re- 
ferred to, were in places very remote from the capi- 
tal, yet the emperor received intelligence of what 
was done in an incredibly short space of time. For 
he had the good fortune to possess among his sub- 
jects a man endowed with extraordinary energy both 
of Ixxly and mind, named Palladius; who so vigour- 
ously managed the public conveyances, that he Avould 
reach the frontiers of the Roman and Persian do- 
minions in three days, and again return to Constan- 
tinople in as many more. The same individual 


traversed other parts of the world on missions from 
the emperor with equal celerity : so that an eloquent 
man once said not unaptly, ** This man by his speed 
seems to contract the vast expanse of the Roman 
territories." The king of the Persians himself was 
astonished at the exj^editious feats which were related 
to him of this courier : but we must not stay to give 
further details concerning him. 




Such was the moderation with which the emperor 
used the advantage which God had given him, that 
he nevertheless desired to make peace; and to that 
end he despatched Helion, a man in whom he placed 
the greatest confidence, with a commission to enter 
into a pacific treaty with the Persians. He having 
arrived in Mesopotamia, at the place where the 
Romans for their own security had formed a trench, 
sent before him as his deputy Maximin an eloquent 
man who was the assessor of Ardaburius the com- 
mander-in-chief of the army, to make preliminary 
arrangements concerning the terms of peace. Maxi- 
min on coining into the presence of the Persian king, 
said he had been sent to him on this matter, not by 
the Roman emperor, who was ignorant of the state 
of things, and thoroughly contemned the war, but 
by his generals. And when the sovereign of Persia 
would have gladly received the embassy, because his 
troops were suflfering from want of provisions; that 
corps among them which is distinguished by the 
name of the Immortals^ numbering about ten thou- 


sand of his bravest men, counselled the king not to 
listen to any overtures for peace, until they should 
have made an attack upon the Romans, who, they 
said, were now become extremely incautious. The 
king approving their advice, ordered the ambassador 
to be imprisoned and a guard set over him ; and per- 
mitted the Immortals to put their design upon the 
Romans into execution. They therefore, on arriving 
at the place appointed, divided themselves into two 
bands, with a view to surround some portion of the 
Roman army. The Romans observing but one body 
of Persians approaching them, prepared themselves to 
receive it, not having seen the other division, in con- 
sequence of their suddenly rushing forth to battle. 
But just as the engagement was about to commence, 
Divine Providence so ordered it, that Procopius a 
Roman general with another part of the army ap- 
peared on the heights, who, perceiving their comrades 
in danger, attacked the Persians in the rear. Thus 
were they, who but a little before had surrounded 
the Romans, themselves encompassed and in a short 
time utterly destroyed: and those who broke forth 
from their ambuscade being next attacked by the 
Romans, were in like manner every one of them 
slain with darts. In this way was the mortality de,- 
monstrated of those who by the Persians were termed 
the Immortals ; Christ having executed this vengeance 
upon that people, because of their having shed the 
blood of so many of his pious worshippers. The 
king of the Persians on being informed of this over- 
throw, pretended to be ignorant of what had been 
done; and ordering the embassy to be admitted, he 
thus addressed Maximin : " I agree to the peace, not 
as yielding to the Romans ; but to gratify you, whom 


I have found to be the most prudent of your whole 
nation." Thus was that war concluded which had 
been undertaken on account of the suffering Chris- 
tians in Persia, under the consulate of the two Au- 
gusti, being the thirteenth of Honorius, and the tenth 
of Theodosius, in the fourth year of the 300th Olym- 
piad: and with it terminated the persecution which 
had been excited in Persia against the Christians. 



A NOBLE action of Acacius bishop of Amida, at that 
time greatly enhanced his reputation among all men. 
The Roman soldiery in devastating Azazene, had 
taken seven thousand captives, whom they would on 
no account restore to the king of Persia: meanwhile 
famine began to rage among these unfortunates, a 
circumstance which greatly distressed that monarch. 
Their condition becoming known to Acacius, he 
thought such a matter was by no means to be tri- 
fled with; having therefore assembled his clergy, he 
thus addressed them : " Our God, my brethren, needs 
neither dishes nor cups; for he neither eats, nor 
drinks, nor is in want of any thing. Since then, by 
the liberality of the faithful, the church possesses 
many vessels both of gold and silver, it behoves us 
to sell them, that by the money thus raised we may 
be able to redeem the prisoners, and also supply them 
with food." Having thus said, he ordered the ves- 
sels to be melted dovn, and from the proceeds paid 
the soldiers a ransom for their captives, whom he 
supported for some time; and then furnishing them 


with what was needful for their journey, sent them 
J^ack to their sovereign. This extraordinary bene- 
volence on the part, of the excellent Acacius, so as- 
tonished the king of the Persians, that he declared 
the Romans were determined to conquer their ene- 
mies as well by their beneficence in peace, as their 
prowess in war. He is also said to have been very 
desirous that Acacius should come into his presence, 
that he might have the pleasure of beholding such 
a man; a wish which by the emperor Theodosius's 
order was soon gratified. After so signal a victory 
had through Divine favour been achieved by the 
Romans, many who were distinguished* for their elo- 
quence, wrote panegyrics in honour of the emperor, 
which they recited in public. The empress herself 
also composed a poem in heroic verse: for she pos- 
sessed a highly cultivated mind, being the daughter 
of Leontius the Athenian sophist, who had instructed 
her in every kind of learning. Atticus the bishop 
had baptized her a little while previous to her mar- 
riage Avith the emperor, and had then given her the 
Christian name of Eudocia, * instead of her Pagan one 
of Athenais. Of the many, who, as I have said, pro- 
duced eulogiums on this occasion, some were stimu- 
lated by the desire of being noticed by the emperor ; 
while others were anxious to display their talents, 
being unwilling that the attainments they had made 
by dint of great exertion, should lie buried m ob- 

♦ *Ev X0701C &vBovvTwv. t ^vhoKiay, i. e. Benevolence. 




But although I neither seek the notice of my sove- 
reign, nor wish to make an exhibition of my oratorical 
powers, yet have I felt it my duty to record without 
exaggeration, the singular virtues with which the em- 
peror Theodosius is endowed: for I am persuaded 
that should I pass them over in silence, posterity 
would be defrauded of the knowledge of that which 
is calculated, as an illustrious example, to be emi- 
nently useful. In the first place then, this prince 
though born and bred to empire,* was neither stulti- 
fied nor efl^eminated by the circumstances of his birth 
and education. He early evinced so much prudence, 
that he appeared to those who conversed with him to 
have acquired the wisdom and experience of advanced 
age. Such was his fortitude in undergoing hardships, 
that he would courageously endure both heat and cold ; 
fasting very frequently, especially on Wednesdays and 
Fridays, from an earnest endeavour to observe with 
accuracy all the prescribed forms of the Christian reli- 
gion. His palace was so regulated, that it dififered 
little from a monastery: for he, together with his 
sisters, rose early in the morning, and recited respon- 
sive hymns ^ in praise of the Deity. By this training 
he learnt the holy Scriptures by heart ; I and he would 
often discourse with the bishops on scriptural sub- 
jects, as if he had been an ecclesiastic of long stand- 
ing. He was a more indefatigable collector of the 
sacred books and of the expositions which had been 

* 'Ef fiaviKtlff. t ^ AvTi^rn'ov^. J *Airo <n-^Oovc- 

CHAP. XXn.] EMP. THEODOSIUS JUN. — A.D. 422. 495 

written on them, than even Ptolemy Philadelphus* 
had formerly been : while in clemency and humanity 
he far surpassed all others. The emperor Julian 
although he professed to be a philosopher, could not 
moderate his rage against the Antiochians who derided 
him, but inflicted upon Theodore the most agonizing 
tortures. Theodosius on the contrary, bidding fare- 
well to Aristotle's Syllogisms, exercised philosophy in 
deeds, by getting the mastery over anger, grief, and 
pleasure. Never has he revenged himself on any one 
by whom he has been injured; nor has he ever even ap- 
peared irritated. And when some of his most intimate 
friends once asked him, why he never inflicted capital 
punishment upon ofl^enders? his answer was, " Would 
that it were even possible to restore to life those that 
have died." To another making a similar enquiry he 
replied, " It is neither a great nor a difficult thing to 
put a mortal to death : but it is God only that can 
resuscitate by repentance a person that has once 
died." So habitually indeed did he practise mercy, 
that if sentence of death was passed upon a criminal, 
and he was conducted toward the place of execution, 
he was never suffered to reach the gates of the city 
before a pardon was issued, commanding his im- 
mediate return. Having once exhibited a show of 
hunting wild beasts in the Amphitheatre at Constan- 
tinople, the people cried out, " Let one of the boldest 
Bestiariit encounter the enraged animal." But he 
said to them, " Do ye not know that we are wont to 

* A name applied to him by aniiphrasis, because he killed his 
brothers. It was by this king's command that the Old Testament 
was translated into Greek by the Seventy, thence called The Sep- 
tuagint. Translated into English, 8vo. Lond. 1S44. 

t Il€ipa(36Xuy. 


view these spectacles with feelings of humanity ?" By 
this expression he instructed the people to be satisfied 
in future with shows of a less cruel description. His 
piety was such that he had a reverential regard for 
all who were consecrated to the service of God; and 
honoured in an especial manner those whom he knew 
to be eminent for their sanctity of life. The bishop 
of Chebron having died at Constantinople, the em- 
peror is reported to have expressed a wish to have his 
cassock of sackcloth of hair; which, although it was 
excessively filthy, he wore as a cloak, hoping that thus 
he should become a partaker in some degree of the 
sanctity of the deceased. In a certain year during 
which the weather had been very tempestuous, he was 
obliged by the eagerness of the people to exhibit the 
usual sports in the Hippodrome ; and when the circus 
was filled mth spectators, the violence of the storm 
increased, and there was a heavy fall of snow. Then 
the emperor made it very evident how his mind was 
affected towards God; for he caused the herald to 
make a proclamation to the people to this effect : " It 
is better to desist from the show, and that all should 
unite in prayer to God, that we may be preserved 
unhurt from tlie impending storm." Scarcely had the 
herald executed his commission, than all the people 
with the greatest joy began with one accord to offer 
supplication and sing praises to God, so that the whole 
city became one vast congregation ; and the emperor 
himself laying aside his unperial robes, went into the 
midst of the multitude and commenced the hjinns. 
Nor was he disappointed in his expectation, for the 
atmosphere suddenly resumed its wonted serenity: 
and Divine benevolence bestowed on all an abundant 
harvest, instead of an expected deficiency of com. If 


at any time war was raised, like David he had re- 
course to God, kno^ving that He is the disposer of 
battles, and by prayer brought them to a prosperous 
issue. I shall here therefore relate, how by placing 
his confidence in God he vanquished the tyrant John, 
after Honorius liad died on the 15th of August, in the 
consulate of Asclepiodotus and Marian. For I judge 
what then occurred worthy of mention, inasmuch as 
there happened to the emperor's generals who were 
despatched against the tyrant, something analogous 
to what took place when the Israelites crossed the 
Red Sea under the guidance of Moses. My narrative 
must however be brief, for the details, which I leave 
to others, would require a special treatise. 



Theodosius being now sole ruler,* concealed the 
death of the emperor Honorius as long as possible, 
amusing the people sometimes with one report, and 
then another. But he privately despatched a military 
force to Salonae a city of Dalmatia, that in the event 
of any revolutionary movement in the West there 
might be resources at hand to check it; and after 
making these provisional arrangements, he at length 
openly announced his uncle's death. In the interim, 
John the emperor's chief secretary, not content with 
the dignity to which he had already attained, seized 
upon the sovereign authority; and sent an embassy 
to the emperor Theodosius, demanding to be recog- 

* AhTOKpctTtap. 



nised as his colleague in the empire. But that prince 
after causing the ambassadors to be arrested, imme- 
diately sent off Ardaburius the commander-in-chief of 
the army, who had greatly distinguished himself in 
the Persian war. He, on arriving at Salonae, set sail 
from thence for Aquileia:* but fortune was adverse 
to him as he then thought (although it afterwards 
appeared far otherwise); for a contrary wind having 
arisen, he was driven into the tyrant's hand. The 
capture of Ardaburius made the usurper more san- 
guine in his hope, that Theodosius would be induced 
by the urgency of the case to elect and proclaim him 
emperor, in order to preserve the life of this officer. 
And the emperor was in tact greatly distressed when 
he heard of it, as was also the army which had been 
sent against the tyrant, lest Ardaburius should be 
subjected to any rigorous treatment. Aspar the son 
of Ardaburius, having learnt that his father was in 
the tyrant's power, and aware at the same time that 
the party of the rebels was strengthened by the ac- 
cession of immense numbers of barbarians, knew not 
what course to pursue. But at this crisis the prayer 
of the pious emperor again prevailed. For an angel 
of God under the appearance of a shepherd, undertook 
the guidance of Aspar and the troops which were 
with him, and led him through the lake near Ravenna : 
for in that city the tyrant was then residing, and there 
detained the military chief. Now no one had ever 
been known to have forded that lake before ; but God 
then rendered that passable, which had hitherto been 
impassable. Having therefore crossed the lake, as if 
going over dry ground, they found the gates of the 
city opeji, and seized the tyrant. This event afforded 

* 'AKvXifiay. 


that most devout emperor Theodosius an opportunity 
of giving a fresh demonstration of his piety towards 
God. For the news of the tyrant's being destroyed, 
having arrived while he was engaged at the exhibition 
of the sports of the Hippodrome, he immediately said 
to the people : " We will, if you please, leave these 
diversions, and proceed to the church to offer thanks- 
givings to God, by whose hand the tyrant has been 
overthrown." Thus did he address them; and the 
spectacles were immediately forsaken, the people all 
passing out of the circus singing praises together with 
him, as with one heart and one voice. And arriving 
at the church, the whole city again became one vast 
congregation, and passed the remainder of the day 
in these devotional exercises. 



After the tyrant's de^th, the emperor Theodosius 
became very anxious as to whom he should proclaim 
emperor' of the West. He had a cousin then very 
young named Valentinian ; the son of that Constan- 
tius who had been proclaimed emperor by Honorius, 
and had died after a short reign with him, and of his 
aunt Placidia, daughter of Theodosius the Great, and 
sister of the two Augusti, Arcadius and Honorius. 
This cousin he created Caesar, and sent into the West- 
ern parts, committing the administration of affairs to 
his mother Placidia. He himself also hastened to- 
wards Italy, that he might in person both proclaim 
his cousin emperor, and also being present among 
them, endeavour to influence the Italians by his coun- 

* AifTOKpftTtjp. t BaacXta. 


sels not Avillingly to submit to tyrants. But when he 
reaxjhed Thessalonica he was prevented from proceed- 
mg further by sickness ; he therefore sent forward the 
imperial crown to his cousin by Helion a patrician, 
and he himself returned to Constantinople. 



Meanwhile Atticus the bishop caused the affairs of 
the church to flourish in an extraordinary manner; 
administering all things with singular prudence, and 
inciting the people to virtue by his discourses. Per- 
ceiving the church to be divided by the Johannists 
assembling themselves apart, he ordered that mention 
of John should be made in the prayers, as was cus- 
tomary to be done of the other deceased prelates; by 
which means he trusted that many would be induced 
to return to the church. His liberality was so great 
that he not only provided fbr the poor of his own 
churches,* but transmitted contributions to supply the 
wants and promote the comfort of the indigent in the 
neighbouring cities also. On one occasion he sent to 
Calliopius a presbyter of the church at Nice, three 
hundred piecest of gold with the following letter. 

" Atticus to Calliopius — salutations in the Lord. 
" I have been informed that there are in your city 
a great number of necessitous persons, whose condition 

* '£v .... irapoUtaic^ parishes. 

i Xpwo-iVouc, this is of indefinite value (crrar^fHic, each worth 
\L Os. 9d.i may he understood). 


demands the compassion of the pious. As therefore I 
have received a sum of money from him, who with a 
bountiful hand is wont to supply faithful stewards; 
and since it happens that some are pressed by want, 
tliat those who have may be proved, who yet do not 
minister to the needy — ^take, my friend, these three 
hundred pieces of gold, and dispose of them as you 
may think fit. It wU be your care, I doubt not, to 
distribute to such as are ashamed to beg, to the exclu- 
sion of those who through life have sought to feed 
themselves at others' expense. In bestowing these 
alms I would have no distinction made on religious 
grounds; but feed the hungry whether they agree 
with us in sentiment, or not." 

Thus did Atticus consider even the poor who were 
at a distance from him. He laboured also to abolish 
the superstitions of certain persons. For he was in- 
formed that the Separatists from the Novatians, on 
account of the Jewish Passover, had transported the 
body of Sabbatius from the island of Rhodes, where 
he had died in exile, and having buried it, were ac- 
customed to pray at his grave. Atticus therefore 
caused the body to be disinterred at night, and depo- 
sited in a private sepulchre; after which those who 
had formerly paid their adorations at that place, 
ceased to do so, on finding his tomb had been opened. 
Moreover he manifested a great deal of taste in the 
application of names to places. To a port in the 
mouth of the Euxine sea, anciently called Pharma- 
ceus,* he gave the appellation of Therapeia ; ^ because 
he would not have a place where religious assemblies 

* ^(ipfiaKea, i. e. a poisoner. 

t Oepatrelac, i. e. service, worship, or healing. 


were held, dishonoured by an inauspicious name. 
Another place in the vicinity of Constantinople he 
termed Argyropolis,* for this reason. Chrysopolis + 
is an ancient port situated at the head of the Bos- 
phorus, and is mentioned by several of the early 
writers, especially Strabo, Nicolaus Damascenus, and 
the eloquent Xenophon in the sixth book of his 
" Expedition of Cyrus ;" and again in the first of his 
" Grecian ' History" he says concerning it, Tliat Aid- 
blades having walled it rounds established a toll in it^ 
obliging all who sailed out of Pontiis to pay tithes there. 
Atticus seeing the former place to be dir^tly opposite 
to Chrysopolis, and very delightftdly situated, declared 
the most appropriate name for it was Argyropolis, 
which was assigned to it from that time. Some per- 
sons having said to him that the Novatians ought not 
to be permitted to hold their assemblies within the 
cities : " Do you not know," he replied, " that they 
were fellow-sufferers with us in the persecution under 
Constantine and Valens? Besides," said he, "they 
have steadfastly adhered to our Creed : for although 
they separated from the church a long while ago, they 
have never introduced any innovations conceniing the 
faith." Being once at Nice on account of the ordina- 
tion of a bishop, and seeing there Asclepiades bishop 
of the Novatians, then very aged, he asked him how 
many years he had borne the episcopal office? When 
he was answered fifty years : " You are a happy man," 
said he, " to have been exercised in so good a work 
for such a length of time." To the same Asclepiades 
he observed: " I commend Novatus; but can by no 
means approve of the Novatians." And when Ascle- 
piades expressed his surprise at this strange remark, 

* The silver city. f The golden city. J 'EXKfiyiKAy. j 


Atticus gave him this reason for the distinction. " No- 
vatus has my approbation for refusing to communi- 
cate with those who had sacrificed, for I myself would 
have done the same: but I cannot praise the Nova- 
tians, inasmuch as they exclude laymen from commu- 
nion for very trivial offences." Asclepiades answered, 
" There are many other sins unto death as the Scrip- 
tures term them, besides sacrificing to idols; on ac- 
count of which even you excommunicate ecclesiastics, 
but we laymen also, reserving to God alone the power 
of pardoning them." Atticus had moreover a presen- 
timent of his own death; for at his departure from 
Nice, he said to Calliopius a presbyter of that place : 
" Hasten to Constantinople before autumn if you wish 
to see me again alive; for if you delay beyond that 
time, you will not find me surviving." Nor did he 
err in this prediction; for he died on the 10th of 
October, in the 21st year of his episcopate, under the 
eleventh consulate of Theodosius, and the first of Va- 
lentinian Caesar. The emperor Theodosius indeed 
was not at his funeral, being then on his way from 
Thessalonica, and did not reach Constantinople until 
the day after Atticus was interred.* On the 23rd of 
the same month, Valentinian junior was proclaimed 



Afier the decease of Atticus, there arose a strong 
contest about the election of a successor, some pro- 
posing one person, and some another. One party 
was urgent in favour of a presbyter named Philip; 


another wished to promote Proclus who was also a 
presbyter; but the general desire of the people was 
that the bishopric should be conferred on Sisinnius. 
This person held no ecclesiastical office within the 
city, but had been appointed to a presbyterate in a 
church at Elaea, a village in the suburbs of Constan- 
tinople, where from an ancient custom the whole po- 
pulation annually assembled for the celebration of our 
Saviour's ascension. His eminent piety, and above 
all his untiring efforts to promote the comforts of the 
poor, even beyond his power, endeared him so much 
to the laity, that they procured his ordination on 
the last day of February, under the following con- 
sulate, which was the twelfth of Theodosius, and 
the second of Valentinian. The presbyter Philip was 
so chagrined at the preference of another to himself, 
that he even introduced into his " Christian History" 
some very censorious remarks on this ordination. But 
as I cannot by any means approve of the temerity 
with which he has reflected on not only the ordina- 
tion itself, but those also who ordained him, and more 
especially the lay partisans of Sisinnius, I deem it 
quite inadmissible to give the least countenance to 
his invectives by inserting any portion of them here : 
some notice however must be taken of his works. 




Philip was a native of Side, a city of Pamphylia, 
which was also the birth-place of Troilus the sophist, 
to whom he boasted himself to be nearly related. 
During his diaconate he was admitted to the privilege 


of familiar intercourse with John Chiysostom bishop 
of Constantinople. He was an exceedingly laborious 
student, and besides making very considerable literary 
attainments, formed an extensive collection of books 
in every branch of knowledge. Affecting the Asiatic 
style, he became the author of many treatises : for he 
wrote a refutation of the emperor Julian's works, and 
compiled a "Christian History," which he divided into 
thirty-six books ; each of these books occupied several 
volumes,* so that they amounted altogether to nearly 
one thousand, and the mere argument (or table of 
contents) of each volume equalled in magnitude the 
volume itself. In this composition, which he has en- 
titled not an " Ecclesiastic," but a " Christian His- 
tory," he has grouped together abundance of very 
heterogeneous elements, from the vanity of displaying 
the versatility of his genius, and the extent of his 
erudition: for it contains a medley of geometrical 
theorems, astronomical speculations, arithmetical cal- 
culations, and musical principles, mth geographical 
delineations of islands, mountains, forests, and various 
other matters of little moment. By forcing such irre- 
levant details into connection with his subject, he has 
rendered his work a very loose production, useless 
alike, in my opinion, to the ignorant and the learned; 
for the illiterate are incapable of appreciating the lofti- 
ness of his diction, and such as are really competent 
to fonn a just estimate, are disgusted with his weari- 
some tautology. But let every one exercise his own 
judgment concerning these books according to his 
taste. All I have to add is, that he has sadly con- 
founded the chronological order of the transactions he 
describes : for after having related what took place in 

* TofJlOVQ* 


the reign of the emperor Theodosius, he immediately 
goes back to the times of the bishop Athanasius ; and 
this sort of thing is of frequent occurrence. But 
enough has been said of Philip : we must now men- 
tion what happened under the episcopate of Sisinnius. 



The bishop of Cyzicum having died, Sisinnius or- 
dained Proclus to the prelacy of that city. But while 
he was preparing to depart thither, the inhabitants 
anticipated him, by electing an ascetic named Dal- 
matius. This they did in contempt of a law which 
forbad their ordination of a bishop, without the sane 
tion of the bishop of Constantinople : but they pre- 
tended that this was a special privilege granted to 
Atticus alone. Proclus therefore continued destitute 
of the presidency over his own church, but his sermons 
acquired for him celebrity in the churches of Constan- 
tinople. We shall however speak of him more par- 
ticularly in an appropriate place. Sisinnius survived 
his appointment to the bishopric scarcely two entire 
years, for he was removed by death on the 24th of 
December, in the consulate of Hierius and Ardaburius. 
For his temperance, integrity of life, and benignity to 
the poor, he was deservedly eminent; but his sin- 
gularly affable and guileless disposition rendered him 
rather averse to business, so that by men of active 
habits he was accounted indolent. 

CHAP. XXIX.] NEST0RIU8 BISHOP. — A.D. 426. ^507 



After the death of Sisinnius, such was the spirit of 
ambitious rivahy displayed by the ecclesiastics of 
Constantinople, that the emperors resolved that none 
of that church should fill the vacant bishopric, not- 
withstanding the cabals of Philip's partisans, and the 
no less numerous votes in favour of the election of 
Proclus. They therefore sent for a stranger' from 
Antioch whose name was Nestorius, a native of Ger- 
manicia,+ distinguished for his excellent voice and 
fluency of speech; qualifications which they judged 
important for the instruction of the people. After 
three months had elapsed, Nestorius therefore arrived 
from Antioch, being greatly lauded by some for his 
temperance : but what sort of a disposition he was of 
in other respects, those who possessed any discernment 
were able to perceive from his first sermon. Being 
ordained on the 10th of April, under the consulate of 
Felix and Taurus, he immediately addressed the em- 
peror, before all the people, in these remarkable words : 
" Give me, my prince, the earth purged of heretics, 
and I will give you heaven as a recompence. Assist 
me in destroying heretics, and I will assist you in 
vanquishing the Persians." Now although this lan- 
guage was extremely gratifying to some of the mul- 
titude, who cherished a senseless antipathy to the 
very name of heretic ; yet those, as I have said, who 
were skilful in predicating a man's character from his 
expressions, at once detected his levity of mind, and 

*Eir^Xt;^a. t A city of Cilicia, on the western border of Syria. 


violent temper, combined with an excessive love of 
vain glory : inasmuch as he had burst forth into such 
vehemence without being able to contain himself for 
the shortest space of time ; and to use the proverbial* 
phrase, " before he had tasted the water of the city," 
showed himself a furious persecutor. Accordingly 
on the fifth day after his ordination, he determined to 
demolish the oratory in which the Arians were accus- 
tomed to perform their devotions privately: an act 
that drove these people to desperation ; for when they 
saw the work of destruction going forward in their 
edifice, they threw fire into it, which spreading on all 
sides reduced many of the adjacent buildings also to 
ashes. This catastrophe created extraordinary tumult 
throughout the city, and the Arians burning to re- 
venge themselves, made preparations for that purpose : 
but God, the Guardian of the city, suffered not the 
mischief to gather to a climax. Nestorius however 
was from that time branded as an incendiary, not only 
by the heretics, but by those also of his own faith. 
Still he could not rest there, but seeking every means 
of harassing those who embraced not his own sen- 
timents, he continually disturbed the public tran- 
quillity. The Novatians also became objects of his 
malignity, being incited to molest them in every pos- 
sible way, from the jealousy he felt towards Paul 
their bishop, who was everywhere respected for his 
piety: but the emperor's admonitions checked his 
fury. With what calamities he visited the Quarto- 
decimani throughout Asia, Lydia, and Caria, and 
what multitudes perished in a popular tumult of which 
he was the cause at Miletum and Sardis, I think 
proper to omit the description of. The chastisement 

* Hapoifiiay, 


inflicted on him for all these enormities, and for that 
unbridled licence of speech in which he indulged 
himself, will be mentioned hereafter. 



I MUST now relate an event well worthy of being 
recorded, which happened about this time. There is 
a barbarous nation dwelling beyond the Rhine, deno- 
minated Burgundians, who lead a very peaceful life, 
being almost all artisans,* and supporting themselves 
by the exercise of their trades. The Huns t by mak- 
ing continual irruptions on this people, devastated 
their country, and often destroyed great numbers of 
them. In this perplexity therefore, the Burgundians 
resolved to have no recourse to human aid, but to 
commit themselves to the protection of some god: 
and having seriously considered that the God of the 
Romans mightay defended those that feared him, they 
all with common consent embraced the faith of Christ. 
Going therefore to one of the Gallic cities, they re- 
quested the bishop to grant them Christian baptism : 
who ordering them to fast seven days, and having 
meanwhile instructed! them in the elementary princi- 
ples of the faith, on the eighth day baptized and dis- 
missed them. Becoming confident thenceforth, they 
marched against their invaders; nor were they disap- 
pointed in their hope of Divine assistance. For Optar 
the king of the Huns having died in the night from 
the efifects of a surfeit, the Burgundians attacked that 
people then without a commander-in-chief; and 
although they were vastly inferior in numbers, they 

* TiKTovii. t Ovvywy. * KarrrxfftTagy catechised. 


obtained a complete victory, the Burgundians being 
altogether but three thousand men, having destroyed 
no less than ten thousand of the enemy. From that 
period this nation became zealously attached to the 
Christian religion. About the same time Barba bishop 
of the Arians died, on the 24th of June, under the 
thirteenth consulate of Tlieodosius, and the third 
of Valentinian, and Sabbatius was constituted his suc- 



Nestorius indeed not only himself acted contrary 
to the usage of the church, but caused others also to 
imitote him in this respect, as is evident from what 
happened during his episcopate. For Antony bishop 
of Germa, a city of the Hellespont, actuated by the 
example of Nestorius in his intolerance of heretics, 
began to persecute the Macedonians, under pretext of 
carrying out the intentions of the patriarch. For 
some time that sect endured his annoyance ; but when 
Antony proceeded to farther extremities, unable any 
longer to bear his harsh treatment, and becoming 
infuriated by despair, they preferred the adoption of 
a cruel expedient to justice, and suborned two men to 
assassinate their tormentor. When the Macedonians 
had perpetrated this crime, Nestorius took occasion 
from it to increase his violence of conduct against 
them, and prevailed on the emperor to take away 
their churches. They were therefore deprived of not 
only those which they possessed at Constantinople, 
before the old walls of the imperial city, but of those 
also which they had at Cyzicum, and many others 

CHA1\ XXXII.] AJJASTASIUS. — A. D. 430. 511 

that belonged to them in tlie Hellespont. Many of 
them therefore at that time came over to the Catholic 
church, and professed the Homoousian faith. But as 
the proverb says, drunkards never want wine^ nor the 
contentious strife : and so it fell out with regard to 
Nestorius, who after having exerted himself to expel 
others from tlie church, was himself ejected on the 
following account. 




Nestorius had brought with him from Antioch a 
presbyter named Anastasius, for whom he had the 
highest esteem, and whom he consulted in the ma- 
nagement of his most important affairs. This Ana- 
stasius preaching one day in the church said, " Let no 
one call Mary Tlieotocos* for Mary was but a woman ;t 
and it is impossible that God should be bom of a 
woman." These words created a great sensation, and 
troubled many both of the clergy and laity ; they hav- 
ing been hei etofore taught to acknowledge Christ + as 
God, and by no means to separate his humanity from 
his divinity on account of the economy of incarnation. 
This they conceived was inculcated by the apostle 
when he said, " Yea, though we have known Christ 
after the flesh ; yet now henceforth know we him no 
more."§ And again, "Wherefore, leaving the word 
of the beginning of Christ, let us go on unto perfec- 
tion."ll While great ofience was taken in the church, 
as we have said, at what was thus propounded, Nesto- 

* 9cor<$cov, L e. mother of God. t *AKOp<i»iroC) a human being. 
X BtoKoytiv Xpc^ov. § 2 Cor. v. 16. || Heb. vi. 1. 


rius endeavoured to establish Anastasius's proposition : 
and in his desire to shelter from reprobation the man 
for whom he had so exalted an opinion, he delivered 
several public discourses on the subject, in which he 
not only rejected the epithet Theotocos^ but involved 
the whole question in fresh grounds of controversy. 
Then indeed the discussion which agitated the whole 
church, resembled the struggle of combatants in the 
dark, all parties uttering the most confused and con- 
tradictory assertions. The general impression was 
that Nestorius was tinctured with the errors of Paul 
of Samosata and Photinus, and was desirous of foisting 
on the church the blasphemous dogma that the Lord 
is a mere man ; and so great a clamour was raised by 
the contention, that it was deemed requisite to convene 
a general council * to take cognizance of the matter in 
dispute. Having myself perused the writings of Nes- 
torius, I shall candidly express the conviction of my 
own mind concerning him : and as in entire freedom 
from personal antipathies, I have already alluded to 
his faults, I shall in like manner be unbiassed by the 
criminations of his adversaries, to derogate from his 
merits. I cannot then concede that he was either a 
follower of the heretics with whom he was thus 
classed, or that he denied the Divinity of Christ : but 
he seemed scared at the term Theotocos^ as though it 
were some terrible phantom. ^ The fact is, the cause- 
less alarm he manifested on this subject, just exposed 
his grievous ignorance : for instead of being a man of 
learning, as his natural eloquence caused him to be 
considered, he was in reality disgracefully illiterate. 
His conscious readiness of expression led him to con- 
temn the drudgery of an accurate examination of the 

* OiKov^eriKfJQ avvvhov. f Moy»fioXviria. 

CHAP. XXXII.] NESTORIUS. — A. D. 430. 513 

ancient expositors, and puffed him up with a vain 
confidence in his own powers. Now he was evidently 
unacquainted with the fact, that in the first catholic 
epistle of John (iv..2, 3), it was written in the ancient 
copies, " Every spirit that separates* Jesus, is not of 
God." The mutilation of this passage is attributable 
to those who desired to separate the Divine nature 
from tlie human economy: or to use the very lan- 
guage of the early interpreters, some persons have 
corrupted this epistle, aiming at " separating the man- 
hood of Christ from his Deity. "t But the humanity 
is united to the Divinity in the Saviour, so as to con- 
stitute but one person. Hence it was that the 
ancients, emboldened by this testimony, scrupled not 
to style Mary Theotocos. Eusebius Pamphilus in his 
third book of the Life of Constantine f thus writes : 
" Emanuel^ submitted to be born for our sake; and 
the place of his nativity is by the Hebrews called 
Bethlehem. Wherefore the devout empress Helen 
adorned the placed of accouchement of the God-bearing 
virgin with the most splendid monuments, decorating 
that sacred spotH with the richest ornaments." Origen 
also in the third volume of his commentaries on the 
apostolic epistle to the Romans, gives an ample ex- 
position of the sense in which the term Tlieotocos is 
used. It is therefore obvious that Nestorius had very 
little acquaintance with the old theologians, and for 
that reason, as I observed, objected to that expression 
only : for his own published Homilies fully exonerate 

* Av€(. In the Alex. MS. it is ofioXoyc? rov 'lr)<rovv, without 
the \(it<rT6v tv aapKi eXriXvOora contained in the Greek copies now 
extant. t 'Atto rov Otov rov 6.y0pa}iror, 

X English Translation, 8vo. Lond. 1 844. 

§ McO' fifiiiv 0£oc» God with us. || T^c BeordKov rrjv Kvrj<nv, 

% "Avrpov. 



him from all identification with Paul of Samosata's 
impious assertion of the mere manhood of Christ. In 
these discourses he no where destroys the proper Per- 
sonality* of the Word of God ; but on the contrary 
invariably maintains that He has an essential and dis- 
tinct t^ existence. Nor does he ever deny his sub- 
sistencet as Photinus and Paul of Samosata did, and 
as the Manichaeans and followers of Montanus have 
also dared to do. I can speak thus positively respect- 
ing Nestorius's opinion, partly from having myself 
read his own works, and partly from the assurances 
of his admirers. But this idle contention of his has 
produced no slight ferment in the religious world, 



While matters were in this state, the church was 
profaned in the most outrageous manner. For the 
domestics of a man of quality who were foreigners,^ 
having experienced harsh treatment from their master, 
fled from him to the church, and ran|| up to the very 
altar with their swords drawn. Nor could they be 
prevailed upon by any entreaties to withdraw, so as 
not to impede the performance of the public services ; 
but they obstinately maintained their position for 
several days, brandishing their weapons in defiance of 
any one who dared to approach them. At last after 
having killed one of the ecclesiastics, and wounded 
another, they slew themselves. A person who was 
present at this desecration of the sanctuary, remarked 
that such a profanation was an ominous presage, and 

* *YTr6<rra<Tiv, f *Eyov(riov. J "Yirapfir. 

§ 'Bappapot, II Ftiawri^fitraQ eii ro dvaiaariipwy. 


in support of his view of the matter, quoted the two 
following iambics of an ancient poet : 

*' For such prognostics happen at a time 

When temples are defiled by impious crime." 

Nor did succeeding events falsify these inauspicious 
forebodings: for there followed division among the 
people, and the deposition of the author of it. 




Shortly after this, the emperor's mandate was 
issued directing the bishops in all places to assemble 
at Ephesus. Immediately after Easter therefore, 
Nestorius escorted by a strong body of his adherents 
repaired to that city, and found many prelates already 
there. Cyril bishop of Alexandria made some delay, 
and did not arrive till near Pentecost; and Juvenal*" 
bishop of Jerusalem was not present until five days 
after that feast. While John of Antioch was still 
absent, those who were now congregated entered into 
the consideration of the question ; and Cyril of Alexan- 
dria began a sharp skirmish of words, with the design 
of terrifying Nestorius, for whom he had a strong dis- 
like. When many had declared that Christ was God, t 
Nestorius said : "I cannot term him God who was two 
and three months old. I am therefore clear of your 
blood, and shall in future come no more among you." 
Having uttered these words he left the assembly, and 
afterwards held meetings with the other bishops who 
entertained sentiments similar to his own. Thus were 
those present divided into two factions. That section 

* 'lovfliyaXiog. f QioXoyoviTuty roy X/oioroi'. 


which supported Cyril, having constituted themselves 
a council/ summoned Nestorius: but he refused to 
meet them, until John of Antioch should arrive. They 
therefore proceeded to the examination of the public 
discourses of Nestorius which had been the main sub- 
ject of complaint ; and after deciding from a repeat^ 
perusal of them that they contained blasphemy against 
the Son of God, they deposed him. This being done, 
the partisans of Nestorius constituted themselves an- 
other council apart, and therein deposed Cyril himself, 
and together with him Memnon bishop of Ephesus. 
John bishop of Antioch made his appearance soon 
after these transactions ; and being informed of what 
had taken place, he pronounced unqualified censure 
on Cyril as the author of all this confusion, in having 
so precipitately proceeded to the deposition of Nesto- 
rius. Upon this Cyril combined with Juvenal to re- 
venge themselves on John, and they deposed him also. 
When Nestorius saw that the contention which had 
been raised was thus tending to schism and the de- 
struction of communion, in bitter regret he cried out : 
" Let Mary be called Theotocos, if you will, and let 
all disputing cease." But although he made this re- 
cantation, no notice was taken of it ; for his deposi- 
tion was not revoked, and he was banished to Oasis, 
where he still remains. Such was the conclusion of 
this Synod, which was dissolved on the 28th of June, 
under the consulate of Bassus and Antiochus. John 
when he had returned to his bishopric, having con- 
vened several prelates, deposed Cyril, who had also 
returned to his See : but being reconciled soon after, 
they mutually reinstated each other in their episcopal 
chairs. But the dissension which had been excited in 


the churcli of Constantinople by the absurd garrulity 
of Nestorius, was by no means allayed after his depo- 
sition ; for the people were so agitated by divisions, 
that the clergy unanimously anathematized him. For 
such is the sentence which we Christians are accus- 
tomed to pronounce on those who have advanced any 
blasphemous doctrines, in order that their impiety 
may be publicly exj^osed as it were on a pillar, to 
universal execration. 



After this there was another debate concerning 
the election of a bishop of Constantinople. Many 
were in favour of Philip, of whom we have already 
spoken ; but a still greater number advocated the 
claims of Proclus. And the votes of the majority 
would have determined the matter, had not some in- 
fluential jKjrsons interfered, on the ground of its being 
forbidden by the ecclesiastical canon that a person 
nominated to one bishopric should be translated to 
another See. The people believing this assertion, 
were thereby restrained ; and about four months after 
the deposition of Nestorius, a presbyter named Maxi- 
mian, who had lived an ascetic life, was elected to this 
episcopate. He was neither an eloquent man, nor at 
all dis|X)sed to trouble himself with the busy affairs of 
life ; but had acquired a high reputation for sanctity, 
on account of having at his own expense constructed 
sepulchral depositaries for the reception of the pious 
after their decease. 




But since some parties by alleging a prohibition in 
the ecclesiastical canon, prevented the election of Pro- 
clus, because of his previous nomination to the See of 
Cyzicum, I shall make a few remarks on this subject. 
Those who tlien presumed to interpose such a cause 
of exclusion, appear to me to have either been influ- 
enced by prejudice against Proclus to affirm what 
they knew to be untrue ; or at the least to have been 
themselves completely ignorant both of the canons, 
and of the frequent and often advantageous usage of 
the churches. Eusebius Pamphilus relates in the 
sixth book of his " Ecclesiastical History,"* that Alex- 
ander bishop of a certain city in Cappadocia, coming 
to Jerusalem for devotional purposes, was detained by 
the people, and constituted bishop of that place, as 
the successor of Narcissus; and that he continued 
to preside over the churches there during the re- 
mainder of his life. So indifferent a thing was it 
amongst our ancestors, to transfer a bishop from 
one city to another as often as it was deemed ex- 
pedient. But to place beyond a doubt the fallacy of 
the pretensions of those who opposed the ordination 
of Proclus, I shall annex to this History the canon 
which they cited against him. It runs thus : — " If t 
any one after having been ordained a bishop should 
not proceed to the church t xmto which he has been 

* English Translation, Svo. Lond. 1842. 

t Valesius contends that Socrates here adduces the •eighteenth 
canon of the Synod at Antioch, instead of the twenty-first, which 
raiUtates against his view of the case. X UopoiKiay, 


appointed, from no fault on his part, but either be- 
cause the people are unwilling to receive him, or for 
some other reason which casts no imputation on him ; 
let him be partaker of the honour and functions of the 
rank with which he has been invested, provided he in- 
termeddles not with the affairs of the church wherein 
he may minister.* It is his duty however to submit 
to whatever the Synod of the province may see fit to 
determine, after it shall have taken cognizance of 
the matter." Such is the language of the canon. I 
shall now show that this construction of its mean- 
ing is fully borne out by abundant precedents of 
bishops having been translated from one city to an- 
other to meet the exigences of peculiar cases, giving 
the names of those bishops who have been so trans- 
lated. Perigenes was ordained bishop of Patrae: 
but inasmuch as the inhabitants of that city refused 
to admit him, the bishop of Rome appointed him 
to the metropolitan See of Corinth, on its becoming 
vacant by the decease of its former bishop, where 
he presided during the rest of his days. Gregory 
was first made bishop of Sasimi, one of the cities of 
Cappadocia, but was afterwards transferred to Na- 
zianzen. Meletius after having presided over the 
church at Sebastia, subsequently governed that of 
Antioch. Alexander bishop of Antioch translated t 
Dositheus bishop of Seleucia, to Tarsus in Cilicia. 
Reverentius was removed from Arci in Phoenicia, and 
afterwards translated to Tyre. John was transferred 
from Gordum a city of Lydia, to Proconnesus,+ and 
presided over the church there. Palladius was trans- 
lated from Helenopolis to Aspuna; and Alexander 
from the $ame city to Adriani. Theophilus was re- 

* Xvydyoito. t Merriy ay it . J ITpocJCOFi/tr^. 


moved from Apamea in Asia, to Eudoxiopolis an- 
ciently called Salambeia. Polycarp was transferred 
from Sexantapristi a city of Mysia, to Nicopolis in 
Thrace. Hierophilus from Trapezopolis in Phrygia 
to Plotinopolis in Thrace. Optimus from Agdamia 
in Phrygia to Antioch in Pisidia ; and Silvanus from 
Philippopolis in Thrace to Troas. Let this enumera- 
tion of bishops who have passed from one See to an- 
other suffice for the present, as I deem it desirable 
liere to give a concise account of him whom I last 



SiLVANUS was formerly a rhetorician, and had been 
brought up in the school of Troilus the sophist ; but 
aiming at perfection in his Christian course, he en- 
tered on the ascetic mode of life, and threw aside 
the rhetorician's pallium. Atticus bishop of Constan- 
tinople having afterwards ordained him bishop of 
Philippopolis, he resided three years in Thrace; but 
being unable to endure the cold of that region from 
the feebleness and delicacy of his frame, he begged 
Atticus to appoint some one else in his place. This 
having been done, Silvanus returned to Constanti- 
nople, where he practised so great austerities, that 
despising the luxurious refinements of the age, he 
often appeared in the crowded streets of that ix)pu- 
lous city shod with sandals made of hay.* Some 
time having elapsed, the bishop of Troas died; on 
which account the inhabitants of that city came to 
Atticus concerning the appointment of a successor. 

* Xopr/voiv. 


While he was deliberating whom he should ordain for 
them, Silvanus happened to pay him a visit, which at 
once relieved him from further anxiety ; for address- 
ing Silvanus, he said : " You have now no longer any 
excuse for avoiding the pastoral administration of a 
church ; for Troas is not a cold place : so that God 
has considered your infirmity of body, and provided 
you a suitable residence. Go thither then, my bro- 
ther, without delay." Silvanus therefore removed to 
that city, where he performed a miracle which I shall 
now relate. An immense ship for carrying burdens, 
such as they term Plate^ intended for the conveyance 
of enormous pillars, had been recently constructed on 
the shore at Troas. But every effort to launch this 
vessel proved ineffectual; for although many strong 
ropes were attached to it, and the power of a vast 
number of persons was applied, all was unavailing. 
When these attempts had been repeated several days 
successively with the like result, the people began to 
think that the devil detained the ship ; they therefore 
went to the bishop Silvanus, and entreated him to go 
and offer a prayer in tliat place, as they thought it 
could not be otherwise moved. He replied with his 
characteristic lowliness of mind that he was but a sin- 
ner, and that it pertained to some one more worthy to 
receive such grace from God as would relieve them 
from their difficulty. Being at length prevailed on by 
their continued entreaties, he approached the shore, 
where after having prayed, he took hold of a rope, 
and exhorting the rest to vigorous exertion, the ship 
was by the first pull instantly set in motion, and ran 
swiftly into the sea. This miracle wrought by the 
hands of Silvanus, stirred up the whole population of 
the province to piety. But the uncommon worth of 


moved from Apamea in Asia, to Eudoxiopolis an- 
ciently called Salambeia. Polycarp was transferred 
from Sexantapristi a city of Mysia, to Nicopolis in 
Thi'ace. Hierophilus from Trapezopolis in Phrygia 
to Plotinopolis in Thrace. Optimus from Agdamia 
in Phrygia to Antioch in Pisidia ; and Silvanus from 
Philippopolis in Thrace to Troas. Let this enumera- 
tion of bishops who have passed from one See to an- 
other suffice for the present, as I deem it desirable 
here to give a concise account of him whom I last 



Silvanus was formerly a rhetorician, and had been 
brought up in the school of Troilus the sophist ; but 
aiming at perfection in his Christian course, he en- 
tered on the ascetic mode of life, and threw aside 
the rhetorician's pallium. Atticus bishop of Constan- 
tinople having afterwards ordained him bishop of 
Philippopolis, he resided three years in Thrace; but 
being unable to endure the cold of that region from 
the feebleness and delicacy of his frame, he begged 
Atticus to appoint some one else in his place. This 
having been done, Silvanus returned to Constanti- 
nople, where he practised so great austerities, that 
despising the luxurious refinements of the age, he 
often appeared in the crowded streets of that popu- 
lous city shod vnth sandals made of hay.* Some 
time having elapsed, the bishop of Troas died; on 
which account the inhabitants of that city came to 
Atticus concerning the appointment of a successor. 

* Xofrriywy. 


While he was deliberating whom he should ordain for 
them, Silvanus happened to pay him a visit, which at 
once relieved him from further anxiety ; for address- 
ing Silvanus, he said : " You have now no longer any 
excuse for avoiding the pastoral administration of a 
church ; for Troas is not a cold place : so that God 
has considered your infirmity of body, and provided 
you a suitable residence. Gro thither then, my bro- 
ther, Avithout delay." Silvanus therefore removed to 
that city, where he performed a miracle which I shall 
now relate. An immense ship for carrying burdens, 
such as they term Plate^ intended for the conveyance 
of enormous pillars, had been recently constructed on 
the shore at Troas. But every eiFort to launch this 
vessel proved ineiFectual; for although many strong 
ropes were attached to it, and the power of a vast 
number of persons was applied, all was unavailing. 
When these attempts had been repeated several days 
successively with the like result, the people began to 
think that the devil detained the ship ; they therefore 
went to the bishop Silvanus, and entreated him to go 
and offer a prayer in that place, as they thought it 
could not be otherwise moved. He replied with his 
characteristic lowliness of mind that he was but a sin- 
ner, and that it pertained to some one more worthy to 
receive such grace from God as would relieve them 
from their difficulty. Being at length prevailed on by 
their continued entreaties, he approached the shore, 
where after having prayed, he took hold of a rope, 
and exhorting the rest to vigorous exertion, the ship 
was by the first pull instantly set in motion, and ran 
swiftly into the sea. This miracle wrought by the 
hands of Silvanus, stirred up the whole population of 
the province to piety. But the uncommon worth of 


moved from Apamea in Asia, to Eudoxiopolis an- 
ciently called Salambeia. Polycarp was transferred 
from Sexantapristi a city of Mysia, to Nicopolis in 
Thrace. Hierophilus from Trapezopolis in Phrygia 
to Plotinopolis in Thrace. Optimus from Agdamia 
in Phrygia to Antioch in Pisidia ; and Silvanus from 
Philippopolis in Thrace to Troas. Let this enumera- 
tion of bishops who have passed from one See to an- 
other suffice for the present, as I deem it desirable 
here to give a concise account of him whom I last 



SiLVANUS was formerly a rhetorician, and had been 
brought up in the school of Troilus the sophist ; but 
aiming at perfection in his Christian course, he en- 
tered on the ascetic mode of life, and threw aside 
the rhetorician's pallium. Atticus bishop of Constan- 
tinople having afterwards ordained him bishop of 
Philippopolis, he resided three years in Thrace; but 
being unable to endure the cold of that region from 
the feebleness and delicacy of his frame, he begged 
Atticus to appoint some one else in his place. This 
having been done, Silvanus returned to Constanti- 
nople, where he practised so great austerities, that 
despising the luxurious refinements of the age, he 
often appeared in the crowded streets of that i)opu- 
lous city shod wth sandals made of hay.* Some 
time having elapsed, the bishop of Troas died; on 
which account the inhabitants of that city came to 
Atticus concerning the appointment of a successor. 

* Xopriywy. 


While he was deliberating whom he should ordain for 
them, Silvanus happened to pay him a visit, which at 
once relieved him from further anxiety; for address- 
ing Silvanus, he said : " You have now no longer any 
excuse for avoiding the pastoral administration of a 
church ; for Troas is not a cold place : so that God 
has considered your infirmity of body, and provided 
you a suitable residence. Go thither then, my bro- 
ther, wthout delay." Silvanus therefore removed to 
that city, where he performed a miracle which I shall 
now relate. An immense ship for carrying burdens, 
such as they term Plate^ intended for the conveyance 
of enormous pillars, had been recently constructed on 
the shore at Troas. But every eiFort to launch this 
vessel proved ineffectual; for although many strong 
ropes were attached to it, and the power of a vast 
number of persons was applied, all was unavailing. 
When these attempts had been repeated several days 
successively with the like result, the people began to 
think that the devil detained the ship ; they therefore 
went to the bishop Silvanus, and entreated him to go 
and offer a prayer in that place, as they thought it 
could not be otherwise moved. He replied with his 
characteristic lowliness of mind that he was but a sin- 
ner, and that it pertained to some one more worthy to 
receive such grace from God as would relieve them 
from their difficulty. Being at length prevailed on by 
their continued entreaties, he approached the shore, 
where after having prayed, he took hold of a rope, 
and exhorting the rest to vigorous exertion, the ship 
was by the first pull instantly set in motion, and ran 
swiftly into the sea. This miracle wrought by the 
hands of Silvanus, stirred up the whole population of 
the province to piety. But the uncommon worth of 


moved from Apamea in Asia, to Eudoxiopolis an- 
ciently called Salambeia. Polycarp was transferred 
from Sexantapristi a city of Mysia, to Nicopolis in 
Thrace. Hierophilus from Trapezopolis in Phrygia 
to Plotinopolis in Thrace. Optimus from Agdainia 
in Phrygia to Antioch in Pisidia; and Silvanus from 
Philippopolis in Thrace to Troas. Let this enumera- 
tion of bishops who have passed from one See to an- 
other suffice for the present, as I deem it desirable 
here to give a concise account of him whom I last 



Silvanus was formerly a rhetorician, and had been 
brought up in the school of Troilus the sophist ; but 
aiming at perfection in his Christian course, he en- 
tered on the ascetic mode of life, and threw aside 
the rhetorician's pallium. Atticus bishop of Constan- 
tinople having afterwards ordained him bishop of 
Philippopolis, he resided three years in Thrace ; but 
being unable to endure the cold of that region from 
the feebleness and delicacy of his frame, he begged 
Atticus to appoint some one else in his place. This 
having been done, Silvanus returned to Constanti- 
nople, where he practised so great austerities, that 
despising the luxurious refinements of the age, he 
often appeared in the crowded streets of that popu- 
lous city shod mth sandals made of hay.* Some 
time having elapsed, the bishop of Troas died; on 
which account the inhabitants of that city came to 
Atticus concerning the appointment of a successor. 

* Xofrrlywy. 


While he was deliberating whom he should ordain for 
them, Silvanus happened to pay him a visit, which at 
once relieved him from further anxiety ; for address- 
ing Silvanus, he said : " You have now no longer any 
excuse for avoiding the pastoral administration of a 
church; for Troas is not a cold place: so that God 
has considered your infirmity of body, and provided 
you a suitable residence. Go thither then, my bro- 
ther, without delay." Silvanus therefore removed to 
that city, where he performed a miracle which I shall 
now relate. An immense ship for carrying burdens, 
such as they term Plate^ intended for the conveyance 
of enormous pillars, had been recently constructed on 
the shore at Troas. But every eiFort to launch this 
vessel proved ineffectual; for although many strong 
ropes were attached to it, and the power of a vast 
number of persons was applied, all was unavailing. 
When these attempts had been repeated several days 
successively with the like result, the people began to 
think that the devil detained the ship ; they therefore 
went to the bishop Silvanus, and entreated him to go 
and offer a prayer in that place, as they thought it 
could not be other\vise moved. He replied with his 
characteristic lowliness of mind that he was but a sin- 
ner, and that it pertained to some one more worthy to 
receive such grace from God as would relieve them 
from their difficulty. Being at length prevailed on by 
their continued entreaties, he approached the shore, 
where after having prayed, he took hold of a rope, 
and exhorting the rest to vigorous exertion, the ship 
was by the first pull instantly set in motion, and ran 
swiftly into the sea. This miracle wrought by the 
hands of Silvanus, stirred up the whole population of 
the province to piety. But the uncommon worth of 


his custom was, committed the management of the 
matter to God ; and continuing in earnest prayer, he 
speedily obtained what he sought, for the following 
disasters befel the barbarians. Rougas their chief 
was struck dead with a thunderbolt.* Then a plague 
followed which destroyed most of the men who were 
under him : and as if this was not sufficient, fire came 
down from heaven, and consumed many of the survi- 
vors. This series of supernatural catastrophes filled 
the barbarians with the utmost terror; not so much 
because they had dared to take up arms against a na- 
tion of such valour as the Romans possessed, as that 
they perceived them to be assisted by a mighty Grod. 
On this occasion, Proclus the bishop preached a ser- 
mon in the church which was greatly admired; in 
which he applied a prophecy out of EzekieP to the 
deliverance which had been eflfected by God in the 
late emergency. This is the language of the pro- 
phecy : — " And thou, son of man, prophecy against 
Gog the prince of Rhos, Misoch, and Thobel.^ For I 
will judge him with death, and with blood, and vnth 
overflowing rain, and with hail-stones. I will also 
rain fire and brimstone upon him, and upon all his 
bands, and upon many nations that are with him. 
And I mil be magnified, and glorified, and I will be 
kno^vn in the eyes of many nations: and they shall 
know that I am the Lord." This application of the 
prophecy was received with great applause, as I have 
said, and enhanced the estimation in which Proclus 
was held. Moreover the providence of God rewarded 
the meekness of the emperor in various other ways, 
one of which I shall now mention. 

* Kepavy^. f ^ze. xxxviii. 2, 22, 23. 

t Russia, Moscow, Tobolsk. (Quoted from the Septuagint). 





He had by the empress Eudocia his wife, a daughter 
named Eudoxia, whom his cousin Valentinian, to 
whose care he had confided the empire of the West, 
demanded for himself in marriage. When the em- 
peror Theodosius had given his assent to this pro- 
posal, they consulted with each other as to what place 
on the frontiers of both empires it would be desirable 
that the marriage should be celebrated at ; and it was 
decided that both parties should go to Thessalonica 
(which is about half-way) for this purpose. But 
shortly afterwards Valentinian intimated by letter to 
Theodosius, that he would not give him the trouble 
of coming, for that he himself would go to Constan- 
tinople. Accordingly, having secured the Western 
parts with a sufficient guard, he proceeded thither on 
account of his nuptials, which were celebrated in the 
consulate of Isidore and Senator; after which he re- 
turned with his wife into the West. This auspicious 
event took place at that time. 




Not long after this, Proclus the bishop reunited to 
the church those who had separated themselves from 
it on account of bishop John's deposition ; he having 
soothed the irritation which had produced their schism, 
by the following prudent expedient. Having obtained 



the emperor's permission, he removed the body of John 
from Comani to Constantinople, in the thirty-fifth year 
after his deposition. And when he had carried it in so- 
lemn procession through the city, he deposited it with 
much honour in the church termed The Apostles. By 
this means the admirers of that prelate were con- 
ciliated, and again associated in communion with the 
other members of the catholic church. This hap- 
pened on the 27th of January, in the sixteenth con- 
sulate of the emperor Theodosius. But it astonishes 
me that the odium which has been attached to Origen 
since his death, has not also fastened itseK upon John. 
For the former was excommunicated by Theophilus 
about two hundred years after his decease ; while the 
latter was restored to communion by Proclus in the 
thirty-fifth year after his death ! This surely can only 
be accounted for by the difiference of character in the 
two individuals who have acted in so contrary a man- 
ner. And men of observation and intelligence cannot 
be deceived in reference to the motives and principles 
which operate continually to produce anomalies such 
as these. 



A LITTLE while after the removal of John's body, 
Paul bishop of the Novatians died, on the 21st of 
July, under the same consulate: who at his own 
funeral united, in a certain sense, all the different 
sects* into one church For such was the universal 
esteem in which he was held because of his rectitude 

* Aipitreic, 

CHAP. XLVI.] DEATH OF PAUL. — ^A.D. 438. 531 

of life, that all parties attended his body to the tomb, 
chanting psalms together. But as Paul just before 
his death performed a memorable act, which it may be 
interesting to the readers of this work to be acquainted 
with, I shall insert it here. And lest the brilliancy 
of that important deed should be obscured by dwelling 
on circumstantial details of minor consequence, I 
shall not stay to expatiate on the strictness with 
which he maintained his ascetic discipline as to diet 
even throughout his illness, without the least de- 
parture from the course he had prescribed for himself, 
or the omission of any of the ordinary exercises of 
devotion with his accustomed fervour. Conscious 
that his departure was at hand, he sent for all the 
presbyters of the churches under his care, and thus 
addressed them: ^'Give your attention while I am 
alive to the election of a bishop to preside over you, 
lest the peace of the church should hereafter be dis- 
turbed." They having answered that this aflfair had 
better not be left to them : " For inasmuch," said 
they, *' as some of us have one judgment about the 
matter, and some another, we shall never agree to 
nominate the same individual. We wish therefore 
that you would yourself designate the person you 
would desire to succeed you." " Give me then," said 
Paul, " this declaration of yours in ^vriting, that you 
will elect him whom I shall appoint. When they had 
written this pledge, and ratified it by their signatures, 
Paul rising in his bed and sitting up, wrote the name 
of Marcian in the paper, without informing any of 
those present what he had inserted. This person had 
been promoted to the rank of presbyter, and in- 
structed in the ascetic discipline by him, but was then 
gone abroad. Having folded this document and put 


his own seal on it, he caused the principal presbyters 
to seal it also ; after which he delivered it into the 
hands of Marcus a bishop of the Novatians in Scythia, 
who was at that time staying at Constantinople: to 
whom he thus spake. " If it shall please God that 
I should continue much longer in this life, restore me 
this deposit, now entrusted to your safe keeping. 
But should it seem fit to Him to remove me, you will 
herein discover whom I have chosen as my successor 
in the bishopric." Soon after this he died : and the 
paper having been unfolded on the third day after, in 
the presence of a great number of persons, Mar- 
cian's name was found within it, when they all cried 
out that he was worthy of the honour. Messengers 
were therefore sent off without delay to bring him to 
Constantinople, who finding him residing at Tiberio- 
polis in Phrygia, brought him back with them by a 
pious fraud ;* whereupon he was ordained and placed 
in the episcopal chair on the 2l8t of August fol- 



Moreover the emperor Theodosius oflcred up 
thanksgivings to God for the blessings which he had 
conferred upon him; at the same time reverencing 
Christ with the most special honours. He also sent 
his wife Eudocia to Jerusalem, she having bound her- 
self by a vow to go thither, should she live to see the 
marriage of her daughter. The empress therefore, 
in her visit to the sacred city, adorned its churches 
with the most costly gifts ; and both then, and after 


her return, decorated all the churches in the other 
cities of the East with a variety of ornaments. 




About the same time, under the seventeenth con- 
sulate of Theodosius, Proclus the bishop undertook 
the performance of an act, for which there was no 
precedent among the ancient prelates. Firmus bishop 
of Caesarea in Cappadocia being dead, the inhabitants 
of that place came to Constantinople to consult Pro- 
clus about the appointment of some one to succeed 
him. While Proclus was considering whom he should 
prefer to that see, it so happened that all the senators* 
came to the church to visit him on the sabbath day ; 
among whom was Thalassius also, who had ad- 
ministered the government of the nations and cities 
of Ulyricum. But notwithstanding the report of his 
being the person to whom the emperor was about to 
entrust the government of the Eastern parts, Proclus 
laid his hands on him, and ordained him bishop of 
Caesarea, instead of his being constituted Praetorian 
Praefect. In such a flourishing condition were the 
affairs of the church at this time. But I shall here 
close my history, praying that the churches every- 
where, with the cities and nations, may live in peace ; 
for as long as peace continues, those who desire to 
become historians will find no materials for their 
purpose. And we ourselves, holy man of God, 
Theodore, should have been unable to accomplish in 
seven books the task we undertook at your request, 

* Vtpovtrlat (TvyKXriTtKOVQ, 


had the lovers of seditions chosen to be quiet. This 
last book contains an account of the transactions of 
the last thirty-two years: and the whole history 
which is comprised in seven books, comprehends a 
period of 140 years. It commences from the first 
year of the 271st Olympiad, in which Constantine was 
proclaimed emperor; and ends at the second year of 
the 305th Olympiad, in which the emperor Theodosius 
bore his seventeenth consulate. 





Addas, bishop of Persia, casts a 
demon out of the king^s son . 473 

Abgarus excommunicated .219 

Ablabius, an eminent orator, or- 
dained a presbyter, and pro- 
moted to the bishopric of the 
Novatian church at Nice . 477 

Abundantius, a military com- 
mander . . .471 

Acacian sect, declaration of their 
principles . . . 293, 294 

Acacius succeeds to the bishop- 
ric of Caesarea, 116; deposed 219 

bishop of Amida, ran- 
soms 7000 Persian captives . 492 

Accsius, a bishop of the Novatian 
sect, summoned to a council 
by Constantine — his remark- 
able answer respecting ** a sin 
unto death,*' 52 ; and the em- 
peror's reply . . .53 

Achab, the false accuser of Atha- 
nasius, effects his escape . 59 

Achaia^ singular custom among 
the clergy of . . . 405 

Achilles succeeds to the bishop- 
ric of Alexandria ... 7 

Acindynus, a consul under Con- 
stantine the younger . .116 

Adamantius, a bishop inthe reign 
of Constantine . . .102 

a Jew physician of 

Alexandria .... 480 

Adelphius, a bishop, exiled un- 
der Constantius . . .171 

Adultery, extraordinary punish- 
ment of, in Rome . . . 392 

Adytum of Mythra, clearance of 
the 388 

A^tius (surnamed Atheus), a 
hetesiarch, 185 ; character of 
his heresy . . . 186, 187 


Agapetus, a Macedonian bishop, 
who supplants Theodosius in 
the see of Synada . 466> 467 

Agapius, an Arian bishop of 
Ephesus . . . .411 

Agatho, a bishop exiled under 
Constantius . . . .171 

Agelius, bishop of the Novatians, 
expelled by Valens, 308 ; his 
death .... 383, 396 

Agilo, a rebel general, hurt to 
death by Valens . . .302 

Alamundarus, a Saracen chieftain 488 

Alaric lays waste Illyricum, pil- 
lages Rome, and proclaims At- 
talus emperor, 474 ; retreats . 475 

Alexander, a bishop of Egypt . 58 

bishop of Alexandria, 

his death . . . .61 

a bishop of Constan- 
tinople, opposes Arius, 105 ; 
his death . . .117 

Paphlagon, a Nova- 
tian presbyter, death of . 205 

succeeds to the epis- 
copate of Antioch . 473 

Alexandria, commotion at^ 242 ; 
Christians persecuted . . 243 

Alexandrians, their love of tu- 
mult . . . . 478 

Altar, looking towards the west 
in the church of Antioch . 405 

Amachius, governor of Phrygia, 
266 ; persecutes Christians . 267 

Ambrose, a consul, proclaimed 
Arian bishop, 351, 352 ; per- 
secuted by Justina . 381, 382 

Ammon, a monk, history of 

328, 329 

Ammonius, three bishops of this 
name exiled under Constantius 171 

an Eg}'ptian monk, 




who mutilated himself to dis- 
qualify for ordination, 336 ; 
his reply to £vagriu8*s cen- 
sure 337 

Ammonius, a Pagan grammarian 
(whose pupil the author of this 
Ecclesiastical History was) said 
to be the priest of Simius, 
i. e. the ape .... 389 

a monk, enrolled 

among the martyrs .481 

Anachronism, (see note) .311 

Anagamphus, a bishop, exiled 
under Constantius .171 

Anastasia, Novatian church of . 206 

Ancoratus, a book of sects, 
written by the bishop of Cy- 
prus 413 

Ancyro-Galatians, a heretical 
sect ..... 141 

Andragathius, a general under 
Mazimus, assassinates Gra- 
tian, 381 ; commits suicide . 385 

Angels deter the (Hoths from 
burning the imperial palace 
at Constantinople . . . 429 

Anianus appointed bishop of 
Antioch — apprehended and 
exiled 219 

Anicetus, a bishop of Rome . 401 

Antharic, chief of a division of 
the Goths, 356; persecutes 
his countrymen who profess 
Arian Christianity . .357 

Anthemius, the Prstorian Prae- 
fect, acts during the minority 
of Theodosius junior . . 464 

Anthropomorphitse, a religious 
party so termed, opposed to 
the Origcnists . . . 435 

Antioch, grievous divisions at 

258, 259 

Antiochus, bishop of Ptolemais 
in Phoenicia . . .441 

Antony, a monk of the Egyptian 
desert 76 

the just, his view of 

created things . . . 333 

bishop of Germa, perse- 
cutes the Macedonians . .510 

Anubion, a bishop in the reign 

of Constantiue . . .102 
Apollinarcs, (the elder and the 


younger) translate and ex- 
pound the scriptures, 268 ; 
question, whether they did 
good or evil to the cause of 
truth, considered . 268—272 

Apollinaristse, a heretical sect, 
its origin, 231 ; and character 232 

Aratus, the astronomer .271 

Arbathion, a bishop in the reigo 
of Constantine . . .102 

Arbetion, a consul under the 
emperor Constantius . . 185 

Arbogastes, a commander under 
Vuentinian junior, with Eu- 
genius, murders his master, 
414; commits suicide .416 

Arcadius, son of Theodosius the 
great, 354 ; undertakes the go- 
vernment of the East, 419; 
summons John, a presbyter of 
Antioch, to Constantmople, 
420 ; conciliates Gainas, 428 ; 
Gainas, having broken his vow, 
is proclaimed a public enemy, 
and all the Goths in Constan- 
tinople are ordered to be put 
to death — Gainas slain at 
Thrace, 430 ; a sou is bom to 
him, called Theodosius the 
good, 431 ; refuses to attend 
the church at the anniversaryof 
the Saviour's birth, on account 
of the conduct of bishop John, 
456 ; whom he again sends into 
exile, 457 ; his death . 462, 463 

Archelaus, bishop of Caschamm, 
a zealous opponent of the Ma- 
nichsan heresy . .79 

Ardaburius invested with the 
command of the Roman forces 
against the Persians, 487; is 
made prisoner, and rescued by 
his son ... 497, 498 

Areobindus, a Roman general of 
great bravery . . .489 

Arian dissensions, 410 — 412; 
having lasted thirty -five years, 
terminated in the reign of 
Theodosius the younger .411 

Arianism, its n^ and extensive 
progress, 7, 8; its blasphemous 
character ably exposed by the 
bishqp of Alexandria, 10 — 14; 




this only aggravates the eril, 
14, 15 ; attempts made to dif- 
fuse it on the death of Con- 
stantinc — it is introduced into 
the palace of the emperor 
Constantius, and favoured by 
the empress . . . .113 

Arians persecute the Homoou- 
sians, 320 ; are expelled from 
the churches by Theodosius, 
371,372; excite a tumult at 
Constantinople, 384 ; and set 
fire to the bishop*s residence, 
385 ; their meetmgs and noc- 
turnal singing . . 436 

Arius is incited to controvert the 
unity of the Holy Trinity 7 ; 
he and his followers anathema- 
tized by the Nicene council, 
29; procures his recall by 
feigning repentance, 61; writes 
a treatise of his heresy, which 
is condemned by the Nicene 
Synod, 39 ; at Constantinople, 
obtains an interview with the 
emperor — feigns assent to the 
Nicean creed, 86 ; his recan* 
tation jointly with Euzoius, 
87, 88 ; returns to Alexandria 
— Athanasius refuses to re- 
ceive him — whereupon he re- 
news his endeavours to pro- 
pagate his peculiar heresy, 88 ; 
IS reinstated — excites com- 
motion in the church of Alex- 
andria— is summoned by the 
emperor to Constantinople, 
105; his awful death . .107 

Arsacius succeeds John in the 
see of Constantinople, 457; 
his death .... 458 

Arsenius,aMeletian bishop, with 
whose hand Athanasius was 
falsely accused of necromantic 
operations, 92 ; appears before 
the council of Tyre, where he 
confounds the accusers and 
traducers of Athanasius . 94, 95 

an Egyptian monk . 330 

Artemius, governor of Egypt, 
beheaded (see note) . . 245 

baptizes the enip. Theodosius 370 


Asclepas, bishop of Gaza, ex- 
pelled, 129; restored to his 
see by Constantius . .159 

Asclepiades, bishop of the Nova- 
tians, his defence of their 
views .... 502,503 

Asclepiodotus, a Roman consul, 
under Honorius . . 497 

Aspar delivers his father, and 
seizes the usurper John . 498 

Asterius, an Arian rhetorician, 
103, he is excommunicated .219 

Athanaric, king of the Goths, 
submits to Theodosius — his 
death 377 

Athanasius, a deacon who power- 
fully opposes Arianism at the 
council of Nice, 25 ; succeeds 
to the bishopric of Aiexandria, 
61 ; an incident in childhood 
secures for him both education 
and patronage, 61, 62 ; refuses 
to remstate Alius, 81 ; refuses 
to receive Arius, 88 ; is there- 
fore threatened by Constan- 
tine, and conspired against, 89 ; 
the emperor censures his ac- 
cusers — they accuse him of 
treason — the emperor declares 
him innocent, and dismisses 
him with honour — course taken 
by the Euscbian faction to im- 
peach Athanasius, 90 — 92 ; he- 
sitates to appear before the 
council of Tyre, but yields to 
the emperor's menaces, 93; 
confounds his perfidious en- 
emies, 94 — 96 ; protests aj;ainBt 
being tried before individuals 
who were his personal enemies, 
and withdraws from their juris- 
diction, 96 ; seeks an interview 
with the emperor — the Synod 
pass sentence of deposition 
against him, 97 ; banished bv 
Constantine, 102 ; takes up his 
abode at Treves, in Gaul, 1 03 ; 
recalled and reinstated by 
Constantine the younger, 114; 
returns to Alexandria, and is 
joyfully welcomed — the empe- 
ror*s mind is again influenced, 
and he is banished, 115 ; es- 




capes, 125 : is accused of pe- 
culation — is menaced ^ith 
death, and flies to Rome, 134 ; 
appeals to the emperor, 135 : 
demands that a Synod should 
be convened to take cogni- 
zances of his deposition, 145 ; 
reinstated by the council of 
Sardica, 146 ; recalled by Con- 
8tantiu8,153 ; repairs to Rome, 
155 ; returns to the East, 159 ; 
is admitted to an interview by 
Constantius, who endeavours 
to circumvent him, and is re- 
stored to his see, 159 ; pro- 
ceeds to Jerusalem, 163 ; pro- 
poses a council of bishops 
there— they are accordingly 
convened b^ bishop Maximus 
— the hostility of the Arian 
party excited by this — he 
passes to Alexandria — per- 
forms ordination on his way, 
which is made matter of fresh 
accusation against him, 164 ; 
further accusations against 
him — convenes a council of 
bishops in Egypt — the em- 
peror reverses all that he had 
grantedinhis favour, and gives 
commands to put him to death 
— escapes by flight, 167 ; his 
account of the atrocities in- 
flicted upon Christians, by the 
Arian bishop Greorge, 169 — 
171 ; a council of prelates 
assemble at Milan to pass sen- 
tence against him, but their 
purpose is defeated, 188 ; at- 
tacks the creed proposed at 
the Synod of Rimini, 193 — 
196 ; restored to the see of 
Alexandria, 247 ; his apology 
for his flight, 252—257 ; an 
edict for his apprehension is- 
sued by Julian, 263 ; he again 
betakes himself to flight and 
escapes, 265 ; secretly returns 
to Alexandria, 266 ; is restored 
to the Alexandrine church 
after the death of Julian, 291 ; 
conceals himself four months 
in his father's tomb — the em- 


peror favours him, 319 ; his 
influence overValens, 325; his 
lamented death . . . 326 

Athenais, the Pagan name of the 
empress fkidoxia . . . 493 

Athenodorus, a bishop, exiled 
under Constantius . .171 

Atticus, a monk of Armenia, is 
ordained to the see of Constan- 
tinople, 459 ; some account of 
his learning and conduct, 464, 
465 ; his benevolence, 500 ; 
labours to abolish superstitious 
observances — gives new names 
to several places, 501 ; pro- 
tects the Novatians, 502 ; his 
death 503 

Atys, a Pagan priest, who insti- 
tuted frantic rites in Phrygia . 289 

Aurelian, a consul under Arca- 
dius ..... 431 

Auxano, a Novatian presbyter, 
cruelly treated . . . 205 

Auxentius deposed by the Synod 
of Rimini .... 196 

Bacurius, a prince among the 
Iberians . . . .75 

an officer under Theo- 

dosius .... 415 

Bakehouses in Rome perverted 
to evil purposes . .391, 392 

Baptism, singular limit to its ce- 
lebration in Thessaly, 405 ; of 
the empress Eudoxia . . 493 

Barba, successor to the Arian 
bishop Dorotheus, 469; his 
death 510 

Basil reinstated at Ancyra, 167 ; 
deposed .... 223 

of Cappadocia, his estimate 

of the grace of God . 335 

bishop of Csesarea, labours 

against the Arian heresy, 342 ; 
promoted to the office of dea- 
con and bishop, 343 ; is threat- 
ened with martyrdom — the 
emperor's wife interferes on 
his behalf, 344; is brought 
before Valens and is dismissed, 
345 ; the friend of Chrysostom 422 

Basilicus excommunicated .219 

Bassus, a consul under Arcadius 463 




Berillus, bishop of Philadelphia, 
ID Arabia .... 249 

Bishop, extraordinary popular 
electionof an Arian .351, 352 

Bishops, the Western, rest on 
the sufficiency of the Nicene 
Creed, 144 ; of the East refuse 
to confer with those of the 
West, 145 ; they withdraw, 
form a separate council, and 
anathematize the term cori' 
svb$tuntial, 146; thirty exiled 
and cruelly treated, 171 ; those 
at the Synod of Constanti- 
nople, 373 ; the principal, un- 
der Gratian and Theodosius 
—disagreement between, 380 ; 
of the East, singular volun- 
tary abstinence of^ 405 ; trans- 
lation of . . 518—520 

Boniface succeeds Zosimus in 
the see of Rome . . . 475 

Boy, a Christian, bound to a cross 
in derision of the Saviuur^s 
crucifixion, and scourged to 
death by the Jews . . 483 

Briso, a eunuch in the service of 
Eudoxia .... 452 

British Isles, a Novatian bishop 
lord lieutenant of the . .476 

Buddas (previously called Tcre 
binthus), his death . . 77 

Burgundians, the, embrace Chris- 
tianity, 509; and rout the 
Huns 510 

Byzantium enlarged by Constan- 
tine, and called Constanti- 
nople 62 

Cai'us, a bishop, exiled under 
Constantius . . .171 

Callistus, one of Julianas body 
guards 279 

Cdvary, a temple of Venus 
erected on its summit by 
Adrian . . . .50 

Candles lighted, used at prayers 
in the churches of Achaia, 
Thessaly, and among the No- 
vatians at Constantinople . 406 

Canon concerning the translation 
of bishops . . . .518 

Carterius, a doctrinifit . .413 


Catechumens in the ancient 
churches . . . 405 

Celestinus succeeds Boniface in 
the see of Rome,— deprives 
the Novatians of the churches 
in that city .... 475 

Cerealis, a consul . . . 209 

Chanters in the ancient churches, 
how chosen .... 405 

Christian populace of Alexan- 
dria commit a most inhuman 
murder, 482; history,by Philip, 
apresbvter .... 504 

Christianity ridiculed, in conse- 
quence of the dissensions cre- 
ated by Arianism, 15; its 
dissemination among the Per- 
sians .... 471 — 473 

Christians, their dissensionscha- 
racterised by atrocious out- 
rages, 127 ; exposed to perse- 
cution and torture, 169 ; real 
and merely professing ones 
made manifest by Julian, 263, 
264 ; persecuted under Julian, 
266 ; three, heroically endure 
cruel tortures, 267 ; observa- 
tions of a philosopher as to 
the differences of judgment 
among Christians, 355 ; slaugh- 
tered by the Jews at Alexan- 
dria,479; of Persia persecuted, 
486 ; extensive massacre of, 
at Alexandria . . . 388 

Chrysanthus succeeds Sisinnius 
bishop of the Novatians, 470 
—476; his character and 
virtues, 477 ; his death . . 484 

Church, its defective history by 
Eusebius — the present a more 
complete one, 1 ; a, built on 
the holy sepulchre, 64, 65; 
erected at the cave of Beth- 
lehem, 65 ; erected by the oak 
of Mamre— erected at Helio- 
polis, 67; Christian, erected 
m Iberia, 74, 75; consecra- 
tion of a, at Jerusalem, 93 : of 
Alexandria, commotions in 
the, 105 ; of Dionysius set on 
fire, 126; of Sophia erected 
at Constantinople, 133; its 
consecration, 226 ; of the No- 




vatians at Constantinople, re- 
moved piece-meal to Syes 
— restored to Constantinople 
in the same remarkable man- 
ner, and called Ana8ta8ia,206 ; 
demolition of the Novatian, at 
Cyzicmn, 207 ; the Anti- 
ochian, divided, 228; of St 
Thomas the apostle at Edessa, 
the worshippers therein doom- 
ed to martyrdom, but are 
saved, 323, 324 ; Antiochian, 
especial prerogatives reserved 
to it, 375; rent into rival 
factions, 376 ; at Antioch in 
Syria, its site inverted, 406 ; 
extraordinary preservation of 
a, at Constantinople, from fire 524 

Churches, dissensions in, 8, 27 ; 
two, built at Constantinople 
by the emperor Constantine, 
62 ; those of Sophia and 
Irene in one inclosure, 133; 
separation of the Eastern and 
Western, 151 ; disturbance in 
the, about the term cnnmih' 
Uantial. 1 65 ; commotions in 
those of the West, 202 ; the 
Scriptures expounded by can- 
dle-Ught in those of Csesarea, 
Cappadocia, and the Isle of 
Cyprus — various ways of 
praying in — particular dis- 
cipline among certain . 406 

Clearchus, governor of Constan- 
tinople under Valens . . 306 

a consul under Theo- 

dosius 383 

Clergymen, singular abstinence 
imposed upon, in Thessaly — 
in the East, singular voluntary 
abstinence of . . . 405 

Comet of prodigious magnitude 429 

Conflict between the Constanti- 
nopolitans and the Alexan- 
drians, 453 ; between the Jews 
and Christians at Alexandria 478 

Constans, the youngest son of 
Constantine, 108 ; favours 
Athanasius and Paul, 136; 
threatens to make war against 
his brother Constantius . 152 

Constantia, a town in Palestine 68 


Constantine, his life written bpr 
Eusebius, 1 ; account of his 
conversion — proclaimed em- 
peror, 2; initiatory ideas of 
Christianity— sees a vision, 3; 
foUows its bearing and gains 
a victory, 4 ; embraces Chris- 
tianity, 5 ; discovers the per- 
fidy of Licinius, 6 ; sends 
Uosius to the bishop of Alex- 
andria and Anus, 17; his 
reverent demeanour toward 
the bishops at the council of 
Nice — addresses the council, 
25; extract from his life 
(written by Eusebius), 26, 27 ; 
the emperor writes letters 
against Arius and Eusebius (of 
Nicomedia) and Theognis — 
exhorts the Nicomedians to 
elect another bishop, 51 ; 
names Constantinople, Nbw 
Rome — declares it the seat 
of the empire — builds two 
churches therein, riz. — Irene 
and the Aposilet^ 62 ; orna- 
ments the city vnth heathen 
spoils— sets up the Delphic 
tripod, 63 ; appropriates the 
nails of the Sariour*s cross, 65 ; 
abolishes gladiatorial combats, 
66 ; censures Eusebius of Cse- 
sarea, for demolishing the 
heathen altars, and erects a 
church there, 67 ; passes laws 
against the impure customs of 
Ueliopolis in Phoenicia, 67, 68 ; 
demolishes the temple of 
Venus on Mount Libanus — 
repels the Pythonic demon 
from Cilicia— causes an em- 
broidered tent to be made for 
worship, during the war with 
Persia, 68 ; receives an Arian 
presbyter, and inrites Arius 
to his presence, 85 ; summons 
the members of the council of 
Tyre to New Jerusalem, 99 ; 
banishes Athanasius, 102 ; re- 
ceives Arius, 106, 107; his 
happy death, 108, 109; ob- 
sequies, 109, 110; his tomb 
and ashes removed by Mace- 





donius, 208 ; his letter on the 
celebration of the Easter fes- 
tival 402 

Constantine, the eldest son of 
the renowned Constantine, 
108 ; recalls and reinstates 
Athanasius, 114; again ba- 
nishes him, 115 ; invades the 
dominions of Constans — is 
slain 116 

Constantinople, disturbance at, 
about the choice of a bishop, 
117 ; styled New Rome, 374 ; 
surrounded with high walls by 
Anthemius .... 464 

Constantius, father of Constan- 
tine, his death ... 2 

the second son of 

Constantine, 108; who suc- 
ceeds his father Constantine 
and favours an Arian pres- 
byter, 113 ; ejects the elected 
bishop of Constantinople, and 
translates Eusebius of Nico- 
media to the office — proceeds 
to Constantinople to expel 
bishop Paul, 118; deprives 
the inhabitants of the aid 
granted by his father, 128 ; 
orders bishop Paul to be ex- 
pelled by force, 131 ; sum- 
mons the Eastern bishops to 
conference, 153; sustains a 
check in the war with Persia, 
165 ; proclaimed sole emperor 
of the East, 166 ; persecutes 
those opposed to Arianism, 
168, 169; puts Gallus to death, 
and raises Galluses brother to 
the dignity of Caesar, 185 ; 
favours the Arian heresy, 
200—202; is baptised by £u- 
zoius, and dies of apoplexy . 233 

Contest at Antioch concerning 
Paulinus and Meletius . . 369 

Cornelius, a bishop of the Roman 
church, 347 ; gives indul- 
gence to those who had com- 
mitted deadly sin after baptism 
—consequences of this act . 348 

Courier, a Roman, of extraor- 
dinary vigour and celerity • 489 

Creed, form of a, proposed at 


the council of Seleucia, by 
Acacius, 213—215; of the 
Homoousians . 312 — 314 

Creeds, their number enumerated 222 

Cross, the true one discovered 
by a miraculous test . 64, 65 

Cubricus — see Manes 

Cynegius, a Roman consul under 
Theodosius .... 385 

Cyril installed in the see of 
Jerusalem, 203; appeals to 
the emperor against the de- 
cision of a Synod, 2 18 ; ejected, 
224 ; reinstated, 231 ; his 
death 387 

succeeds Theophilus in 

the see of Alexanaria — per- 
secutes and plunders the No- 
vatians, 471 ; expels the Jews, 
478—480 ; seeks the approval 
of the Prefect, 480, 481 ; de- 
posed by John of Antioch — 
reinstated . . . .516 

Cyrin, bishop of Chalcedon in 
fiithynia, 450 ; loses both his 
feet by amputation . . 458 

Cyrus, bishop of Beroea . • 83 

Dagalaifus, a consul under Va- 
lentinian .... 301 

Dalmatius, a nephew of the em- 
peror Constantine, appointed 
to investigate the charges a- 
gainst Athanasius, 92 ; slain . 165 

an ascetic, ordained 

bishop of Cyzicum . . 506 

Damasus, bishop of Rome, re- 
ceives the deposed bishop of 
Alexandria, 327 ; excites com- 
motions at Rome . . . 350 

Datian, a consul . . 209 

Deacon, a, brings scandal upon 
the Constantinopolitan church 394 

Death, awful, of Arius, 107; 
happ^, of Constantine . 108,109 

Decentius, brother of Magnen- 
tius, hangs himself . .183 

Decius persecutes the church . 347 

Demon, an execrable, 324 ; cast 
out of the king of Persia's son 473 

Demophilus succeeds to the See 
of Constantinople, 319; his 
death 383 




Desecration of the altar of the 
great church . .514 

Deserter, a Persian, his false re- 
port, and the burning of the 
provision ships . . .281 

Didymus, a philosophic teacher 836 

a celebrated blind 

scholar . . 340, 341 

a monk, lived alone 

until his death at ninety . 329 

Dio Csesarea, destroyed by Gal- 
lus 184 

Diocletian goes into retirement, 
2 ; his death .... 4 

Diodorus, bishop of Tarsus, in- 
vested with the administration 
of the churches in the East, 
375 ; mentioned . . . 422 

DionysiuSf the consul, summons 
the council of Tyre . . 93 

bishop of Alba, 188 ; 

exiled by Constantius . .189 

Discipline, church, at Csesarea, 
among the Novatians, Mace- 
donians, and Quarto-decimani 406 

Discorus, a presbyter, exiled . 171 

bishop of UermopoUs, 

zealous defender of Origen, 
434 ; his death and interment 454 

Discussion, a general, proposed 
by Theodosius, 377 ; between 
Theophilus bishop of Alexan- 
dria and the monks . 432, 433 

Dominica, the wife of Valens, is 
impressed by visions respect- 
ing the holy bishop Basil — in- 
tercedes with the emperor on 
his behalf . . . 344, 345 

Dorotheus, a presbyter, deposed 219 

appointed to the see 

of Antioch .... 359 

a bishop of the Arian 

party, 383 ; his death . . 469 

Dracontius, bishop of Pergamos, 
deposed .... 224 

Drepanium, called Helenopolis 
by Constantino . .63 

Earthquake at Bithynia, 209; 
prevents the rebuilding of So- 
lomou*8 temple, 277; great, 
at Constantinople, 300; de- 
stroys the city of Nice, 309 ; 


in Nicomedia — at Grerma in 
the Hellespont . . .310 

Earthquakes in the East, espe- 
cially at Antioch, 125 ; re- 
garded as typical. . . 310 

Easter festival* unanimity of its 
observance, 46 ; the author^s 
views respecting, 399 : its ob- 
servance in various countries, 
401 — 410; time not altered 
by the Nicene Synod, 407; 
celebration by the Samaritans 408 

Eastern bishops disclaim the in- 
terference of the See of Home 130 

Ecclesiastical History, the au- 
thor's reasons for revising this 
work on . . .111, 112 

Ecebolius, the sophist, 235 ; his 
hypocrisy ... . 264 

Edesius visits India — aids in the 
dissemination of Christianity, 
71 ; appointed bishop of Tyre 72 

Egypt, the church in, agitated 
about the term coruubsiantial 

81, 82 

EUeusius, bishop of Cyzicum,2(Vl; 
his cruel persecution of Chris- 
tians, 207 ; deposed, 223 ; 
professes the Arian creed — 
repents, and advises his flock 
to choose another bishop — 
they refuse Eunomius,appoint- 
ed to supersede him, 303 ; his 
flock erect an edifice for pub- 
lic worship without the city . 304 

ElpidiuSfbishop of Satala, ejected 224 

Emisa, a seditious movement in 121 

Empedocles, a heathen philoso- 
pher . . . .76 

Epaphinatus, a sophist . .231 

Epimenides, the Cretian initiator 271 

Epiphanius, bishop of Cyprus, 
wno wrote a book of sects un- 
der the title of " Ancoratus," 
413; procures the condemna- 
tion ofOrieen*s books, 439; 
comes to Constantinople to 
condemn Orieen^s books — 
performs ordinations there 
without leave of the bishop, 
445 ; is admonished by him— 
his death . . 448,449 

Epistle of Alexander, bishop of 




Alexandria, denouncing the 
Arian heresy, 8 — 14 ; from the 
Nicean Synod, relative to its 
decisions, 35 — 39 ; from the 
emperor Constantine to the 
bishops and people, against 
the impiety of Porphyry and 
Anus, 42, 43 ; to the churches 
relatiye to the Easter Festival, 
43—47 ; to £uscbius, and bi- 
shopsofevenr province,respcct- 
ing the building and mamte- 
nance of sacred edifices, 47 ; 
respecting the preparation of 
copies of the holy Scriptures, 
48; to Macarius respecting 
the erection of a magnificent 
church on the site of the holy 
sepulchre, 49 ; of Julius^bishop 
of Rome on behalf of Athana- 
sius, 157—159; iromConstan- 
tius announcing the restora- 
tion of Athanasius, 160; to 
the laity, 161 ; respecting the 
abrogation of all ecclesiastical 
enactments against Athana- 
sius, 163 ; to the council of 
bishops at Rimini, 200 ; (se- 
cond) from the Synod of Ri- 
mini to the emperor Constan- 
tius 201 

Epistles from Constantius to 
Athanasius, recalling him from 
exile .... 153 — 155 

Ethiopici (see note) . . 405 

Eucharist, the, variously cele- 
brated . . 404,405 

Eudsemon, a presbyter of the 
Constantinopolitan church, 
counsels the abolition of the 
office of Penitentiary presby- 
ter, 394 ; Socrates* reply . 395 

Eudocia, wife of the emperor 
Theodosius, Junior, fulfils her 
vow of going to Jerusalem . 532 

Eudoxia, the empress, endeavours 
to reconcile the bishops of 
Constantinople and Gabali, 
444 ; her death . .458 

Eudoxius, bishop of Germanicia, 
138; installs himself in the see 
of Antioch, 189,190 ; deposed, 
219; promoted to the see 


of Constantinople, 225.; his 
impious jesting, 226 ; disturbs 
the church of Alexandria, 318 ; 
his death . . .319 

Eugenius (styled " the tyrant") 
appointed chief secretary to 
Valentinian junior, whom he 
caused to be strangled, and 
assumed the supreme autho- 
rity, 414 ; is defeated by The- 
odosius, and beheaded .416 

Eunomians, the sect of, 16 ; dis- 
sensions among the . .412 

Eunomieutvchians, the followers 
of Eutychius . . .413 

Eunomiotheophronians, the fol- 
lowers of Theophronius .413 

Eunomius, head of the sect of 
Eunomians, 187 ; appointed to 
supersede Eleusius in the 
bishopric of Cyzicum, 303 ; 
his heretical principles, 304; 
seeks an asylum in Constan- 
tinople — specimens of his im- 
piety .... 305 

Euripides . . . 272 

Eusebius, sumamed Pamphilus, 
composes a history of the 
church, 1 ; retracts his non- 
assent to the faith promul- 
gated by the Nicene council, 
29 ; his views of the faith, 
29 — 32 ; copy of the Nicene 
creed, 32 — 35 ; undertakes to 
record the eminent doings of 
the emperor Constantine, 63 ; 
denies the accusation of Eus- 
tathius and recriminates, 82 ; 
refuses the vacant bishopric 
of Antioch — his admirable 
conduct commended by the 
emperor Constantine, 84 ; his 
death, 116; a review of his 
writings . . 147 — 151 

bishop of Berytus, takes 

possession of the see of Nico- 
media, and defends Arianism, 
8, 9, 14 ; defends Arianism be- 
fore the council of Nice, 24 ; 
recalled from exile, 59; copy 
of his retractation, 59, 60; 
returns to his heretical course, 
80y81 ; conspires against Atha- 




nasius, 99 ; is translated to the 
vacant bishopric of Constan- 
tinople, 118; sends a depu- 
tation to Rome— his death . 126 

Eusebius, chief eunuch of the 
imperial bed-chamber, intro- 
duces Arianism into the palace, 
113; put to death by the em- 
peror Julian . . . 240 

bishop of Verceil, a 

city of Liguria,l88 ; exiled by 
Constantius, 189 ; recalled 
firom exile — proceeds to Alex- 
andria, 248 ; travels through 
the Eastern provinces to heal 
the distraction^ of the church 259 

a consul • . 210 

Scholasticus, author of 

*' The Gainea" . . 431 

Eustathius, bishop of Antiochia 
Magna, 59 ; accuses Eusebius 
Pamphilus — deposed, 82; va- 
rious causes assigned, 83 ; or- 
dains Evagrius to the see of 
Constantinople — he is ba- 
nished by Valens . . 320 

bishop of Sebastia, de- 
posed for impious practices, 
224,225; heads a deputation 
to the emperor Valentinian, 
311 — 317 ; proceeds to Sicily, 


Eutropius, a presbyter among 
the Macedonians . .413 

chief officer of the im- 
perial bed-chamber, under Ar- 
cadius — an oration against 
him, 425; incurs the empe- 
ror's displeasure — is decapi- 
tated . .426 

Eutychian, a monk of the Nova- 
tian church, 56; miraculous 
effect attributed to his supe- 
rior sanctity . . 57, 58 

Eutychius excommunicated .219 

a teacher among the 

Eunomians at Constantinople 412 

Euzo'ius, a deacon, exiled — re- 
turns from exile, 86 ; recants, 
87 ; promoted to the see of 
Antioch, 227; attempts to 
depose Peter, in order to 
instal Lucius, 326 ; his death 359 


Evagrius, bishop of MytQene, 
deposed, 219 ; elected bishop 
of Constantinople by the 
Homoousian party — banished 
by the emperor . . 320 

a disciple of two Egyptian 

monks both named Macarius, 
deacon of Constantinople — 
titles of the books he wrote— 
with extracts from his history 

ordained bishop of An- 

tioch on the death of Paulinus 386 

Faith, the agreement at the Ni- 
cene council — number who 
signed and opposed it, 28 ; 
an exposition of, covertly to 
favour the Arian heresy, 122 ; 
a second, 123 ; an exposition 
of^ drawn up and presented to 
Constans bv bishops, 130, 
137 ; an elaborate exposition 
of the, promulgated by a Sy- 
nod of the Eastern bishops, 
138—144; expositions of the, 
decreed by the Synod of Sir- 
mium . . 174 — 180 

Famine, in Phrygia, 322 ; among 
the Persian prisoners . 492 

Fasting, days of, at Rome . 406 

Fasts, the author's opinion re- 
specting, 403; the various 
modes of their observance, 


Felix, an Arian bishop, appointed 
to the see of Rome — expelled 202 

Festival of Easter gives nse to 
distractions in the church , 22 

Fidelis excommunicated .219 

Fire from heaven consumes the 
tools with which the Jews 
were about to rebuild Solo- 
mon's temple, 277; destruction 
at Constantinople . . 524 

Flacilla, first wife of Theodosius 
the great, 354 ; gives buth to 
a son, who is named llo- 
norius . . . 383 

Flavian put into the see of An- 
tioch, 376 ; rejected by the 
people, 386 ; his perjury and 
schism, 387 ; his death . 473 




Franks, the, invade the Roman 
territories, 125; subdued by 
the consul Constans . .127 

Fravitus, a Groth, honoured with 
the office of consul as a reward 
for his fidelity . . .431 

Fritigemes, chief of a division of 
the Goths . . . .356 

Fruraentius visits India — aids in 
the dissemination of Chris- 
tianitVf 70 ; appointed bishop 
of India . .71 

Grainas, the Goth, conunander- 
in-chief of the Roman army — 
seeks to usurp supreme author- 
ity — is met by Arcadius — they 
vow fidelity — violates his vow, 
427« 428 ; excites a tumult — 
is slain . . . 430, 431 

" Gainea/* a book written by 
Kusebius Scholasticus . .431 

Gains deposed by the Synod of 
Rimini . . . .196 

Gralerius, the surname of Max- 
imian ... . . 2 

Galla, second wife of Theodosius 
the great .... 354 

Gallus, kinsman of Constantius, 
invested with the sovereignty 
of Syria, 172 ; attempts in- 
novations, 184; Constantius 
incensed at his conduct, causes 
him to be slain 184, 185 

Greorgc. bishop of Laodicea, 83 ; 
inducted into the see of Alex- 
andria by the Arians, 128; 
commits horrible atrocities, 
170, 171 ; deposed, 219; burnt 
by Pagans, 243 ; his death re- 
sented by the emperor Julian, 


a learned Arian presby- 
ter 469 

Germinius deposed by the Sy- 
nod of Rimini . .196 

*' Gnostic," title of a book 
written by Evagrius . 334 

Gnostic, a monk, views of . 334 

Gromarius, a rebel general, put 
to death by Valens .302 

Goths invade the Roman terri- 
tory, and, being defeated, em- 


brace Christianity, 66 ; renew 
their attacks against Constan- 
tinople — are repulsed, 355, 
356; the christianised, by 
simple views of truth are led 
to reject the Arian heresy — 
become subjects of Valens, 
357 ; they return his clemency 
by hostile aggressions . 358, 359 

Grata, daughter of Valentinian 
the elder .... 354 

Gratian, a consul under the em- 
peror Valentinian . . 301 

the emperor, grants free- 
dom to all sects — creates The- 
odosius his colleague, 366, 
367 ; assassinated by Maxi- 
mus 381 

Gregory designated bishop of 
Alexandria, 121 ; his installa- 
tion indignantly resented by 
the people, 125, 126 ; ejected 
from the see of Alexandria . 128 

of Nazianzen, his sketch 

of the emperor Julian, 284 — 
286 ; opposes the Arian he- 
resy, 342—345 ; translated to 
the see of Constantinople, 370 ; 
refuses to continue in the see 
of Constantinople 

the just, his four virtues 


and their province 

brother of Basil, bishop 

of Csesarea 

Thaumaturgus, a dis- 



ciple of Origcn, celebrated for 
his knowledge of Divine truth 

345, 346 
three of the name . 346 

Hail of prodigious size viewed 
as indicative of God's displea- 
sure .... 309, 458 

Heathen temples in Alexandria 
demolished . . 388,389 

Helen, mother of Constantine, 
erects a magnificent church 
on the site of the holy sepul- 
chre, 63 — 65 ; also at Beth- 
lehem, and at Mount Ascen- 
sion— her death 

Heliodorus, a bishop of Trica, 
in Thessaly .... 







llelion, a Roman, negociates 
with the Persians, 490 ; con- 
veys the imperial crown to 
Valentinian .... 500 

llelladius, a Pagan grammarian 
of Alexandria, priest of Jupi- 
ter, killed nine Christians 
with his own hand — flies un- 
der the dread of retributive 
justice 389 

Heraclides, a Cyprian, elected 
bishop of Ephesus . . 442 

Heraclius, a priest of Hercules, 
at T^, made deacon . . 223 

Herculius, the surname of Max- 
imian 2 

Hermes, a bishop, exiled under 
Constantius . .171 

Hermogenes, a general under 
Constantius . . .127 

Herrenius succeeds Cyril as bi- 
shop of Jerusalem . .231 

Hierax, a presbyter, exiled under 
Constantine . . . .171 

a literary teacher at A- 

lexandria .... 479 

Hieroglyphics, remarkable,fouud 
on demolishing the temple of 
Serapis at Alexandria . . 390 

Hilary, bishop of Poictiers, 259 ; 
confutes the Arian tenets . 260 

Himerius, of A thens,a celebrated 
sophist .... 342 

Hippodrome games . .416 

Homaiausios, explanation of the 
term (see note) . . . 228 

Homoousian faith publicly a- 
dopted by Jovian, 291 ; creed 
set forth . . 312—314 

Homoousians defend consub- 
stantiality, 132; persecuted 
bv the Arians, 320—322, 327 ; 
Valens relaxes his per<}ecu- 
tion against them, 359 ; they 
regain possession of the 
churches .... 372 

Honoratus, first prefect of Con- 
stantinople .... 220 

Honorius, son of Theodosius the 
great, 354; his birth, 383; 
assumes the government of 
the West, 419 ; his death . 497 

Hosius, bishop of Cordova, 58 ; 


attends the Synod of Sir- 
mium, 173 ; compelled tp com- 
pliance vrith its views . .182 

Hostilities between the Romans 
and the Persians renewed . 486 

Huns, the, vanquish the Goths, 
357; invade and devastate the 
territory of the Burgundians 509 

Hymns, responsive, nightly soiig 
by the Homoousians — origin 
of the custom . . . 437 

Hypatia, a female philosopher 
of Alexandria, horribly muti- 
lated and murdered . . 482 

Hypatian, bishop of Heraclea . 173 

Hypatius, a consul . . .210 

HypostanSy on the applicatioa 
of the word, 250 ; various in- 
terpretations thereof . 250 — 252 

Iberians, conversion of, to Chris- 
tianity. . . 72 — ^75 

Ignatius, third bishop of An- 
tioch, introduces the singing 
of hymns by night . . 437 

^^Itnmarttds,'^ certain Persian 
troops so called, routed .491 

Impostor, miraculous detection 
of a Jewish, 485 ; a Jewish, 
causes a great sacrifice of life 523 

India, introduction and dissemi- 
nation of Christianity in, dur- 
ing the reign of Constantine 


Interment, magnificent, of Con- 
stantine at Constantinople, 
109, 110; of the emperor 
Theodosius . . • .419 

Irenseus the grammarian . .251 

bishop of Lyons . .401 

Ischyras, of Mareotes, an infa. 
mous character, maligns A- 
thanasius . . . .91 

Isdigerdes, king of Persia, con- 
verted to Christianity, 471, 
472 ; his deatii . . . 473 

Isidore, an Egyptian monk and 
professed per^ctionist . . 330 

presbyter of Alexandria, 

opposes the ordination of John 420 

Jews of Dlo Csesarea revolt, 
184 ; favoured by Julian, who 




assists them to rebuild Solo- 
mon's temple, 276 ; they are 
miraculously hindered, 277; 
expelled from Alexandria,479, 
480 ; horrible impiety of, at 
Immestar .... 483 

Johannites, the adherents of 
John of Constantinople, so 
called 457 

John succeeds to the see of Je- 
rusalem .... 387 

presbyter of Antioch, ele- 
vated to the see of Constan- 
tinople — his birth, education, 
wriungs, &c., 421—423 ; ren- 
ders himself odious to his 
clergy, 424 ; draws upon him • 
self tbe hostility of persons of 
rank and influence, 425 ; ad- 
monishes Epiphanius for his 
uncanonical proceedings, 448, 
449 ; incurs the emperor*s dis- 
pleasure — is deposed, 449; 
exiled by the emperor, 451 ; 
the emperor recalls and re- 
instates him, 452, 453 ; anew 
provokes the empress — is 
brought before a Synod and 
deposed — the emperor ban- 
ishes him, 455 — 457; his death 
and character, 459 ; his re- 
mains transferred to the church 
of The Apostles . . 530 
secretary to Theodosius 


junior, seizes the sovereign 
authority, 497 ; put to death 

498, 499 
bishop of Antioch, deposes 

Cyril^they however become 
reconciled . . . .516 
Jovian proclaimed emperor, 280; 
close of the Persian war, 281 ; 
publicly adheres to the Ho- 
moousian faith— shuts up the 
Pagan temples, and abolishes 
human sacrifices, 291 ; pro- 
claims general tolerance, 294, 
295 ; is declared consul at 
Antioch — his sudden death 295 

a consul under Valens 309 

Julian proclaimed emperor, 234 ; 
his education, 235 ; is married 
to the emperor*s sister, Helen 

— a civic crown falls upon his 
head, 237 ; takes the barba- 
rians' king prisoner — acts in- 
dependently of Constantius. 
238 ; throws off Christianitv 
— excites a civil war against 
Constantius— makes a public 
entry into Constantinople — 
recalls the exiled bishops — 
commands the Pagan temples 
to be opened, 240; enforces 
economy in the household — 
reforms the mode of travelling 
— patronises literature and 
philosophy, and writes against 
Christians, 241 ; resents the 
murder of Bishop George of 
Alexandria, 243 ; writes to the 
citizens of Alexandria on the 
subject, 244 ; recalls Bishops 
Lucifer and Eusebius from 
exile, 248 ; becomes hostile to 
Christians, 261 ; favours Pa- 
gan superstitions — is rebuked 
by the blind bishop of Chal- 
cedon (Maris), 262 ; excludes 
Christians from literary in> 
struction to disable them for 
argument — interdicts their 
holding official places— en- 
deavours to bribe their com- 
pliance, 263 ; goes to war 
with the Persians, and ex- 
torts money from the Chris- 
tians, 264; seeks to appre- 
hend Athanasius, 265 ; mocks 
the Christians, 266; accele- 
rates his operations against 
the Persians, 272 ; oppresses 
the trade of Antioch, and ob- 
tains the cognomen of ** Bull- 
burner," 273 ; opens the Pa- 
ean temples at Antioch — en- 
deavours to obtain an oracle 
from Apollo Daphnseus, but 
fails, 274 ; commands the prse- 
fect to punish the Christians 
— receives and abruptly dis- 
misses the Persian ambassa- 
dors — orders the Jews to re- 
build the temple of Solomon 
at the expense of the public 
treasury, 276 ; this object 




defeated by earthcmakefl, &c. 
277; he iavades the Persian 
territories, 278 ; believes that 
he is a second Alexander, and 
refuses to wear armour — is 
mortally wounded, 279; the 
Pagans lament his death — 
Li^nius composes his funeral 
oration .... 281 

Julius, bishop of Rome, declines 
appearing at the Synod at An- 
tioch, 119; aflTords Athana- 
sius a refuge, 134 ; vindicates 
the privileges of the Romish 
see, 13^; his death . . 185 

Justa, daughter of Valentinian 
the elder .... S64 

Justina becomes the wife of Va- 
lentinian the elder, 353, 334 ; 
persecutes and banishes Am- 
brose, bishop of Milan . .381 

Justus, father of Justina, his re- 
markable dream, 353 ; for 
which the emperor causes 
him to be assassmated . . 354 

King, the, of Iberia, exhorted 
by a captive maid to acknow- 
ledge the true God — is con- 
verted and preaches the gospel 

73, 74 

Lampsacus, Synod assembles at 
— Its position . . .301 

Lauricius, a military commander 
under Constantius . .210 

Leona8,an officer of distinction, 
210; summarily dissolves the 
Synod of Seleucia . .217 

Leontius, bishop of Antioch, 
168; his death . . .189 

-^— — of Tripolis in Lydia, 
deposed .... 219 

bishop of the Nova- 

tian church at Rome . . 386 

Letter from Constantine to Bi- 
shop Alexander and Arius, 
17 — 22 ; addressed by Kuse- 
bius Pamphilus to the Chris- 
tians at Csesarea, 30 — 35; 
from Constantine to the church 
of the Alexandrians, 39 — 41 ; 
to Arius, 86 ; summoning the 


members of the council of 
Tyre, 91—101 ; (the younger) 
recalling Athanasius, 114,115; 
from Constans to his brother 
Constantine, 152; from Ju- 
lian to the citizens of Alex* 
andria, 244 — 247; from Li- 
berius, bishop of Rome, to the 
bishops of the Macedonians 


Libanius, the Syrian sophist, 
235 ; composes a funeral ora- 
tion for toe emperor Julian, 
281 ; refutation of it . 282—291 

a rhetorician of An- 
tioch 342 

Liberius elevated to the see of 
Rome, 185 ; exiled, and rein- 
stated, 202 ; receives a depu- 
tation of bishops, 311 — 314 ; 
dismisses them , S14'-~S}7 

Licinius, a Dacian, is appointed 
successor to Maximian Ga- 
lerius, 2 ; deceives Constan- 
tine by his craft. 5 ; his death 6 

Loaves of benediction (see note) 477 

Lollian, a consul under Con- 
stantius • . . .185 

Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari, ap- 
pointed to the see of Antioch, 
248 ; he constitutes Paulinus 
their bishop, and departs, 249; 
goes to Antioch, 258 ; his ad- 
herents become a sect — he 
leaves them, and returns to 
Sardinia .... 259 

Lucius, bishop of Adrianople, 
expelled and restored, 129; 
dies in prison . .167 

an Arian, ordained to 

the see of Alexandria, 247 ; 
installed in the episcopal chair 
of Alexandria. 326 ; attacks 
Egyptian monasteries, 338 ; 
expelled from the see of Con- 
stantinople . . . .361 

Ludi Circenses^ games (see note) 1 73 

Lupicin, a consul in the reign of 
Valens .... 309 

Macarius, the presbyter, con- 
ducted in chains to the council 
of Tyre . . . . 






Macarius, two Egyptian monks 
of this name — account of each 

331, 332, 339 

Macedonia, singular custom a- 
raong the clergy of . . 405 

Macedonians, the, petition the 
emperor Jovian, 292 ; the 
names of their bishops enu« 
merated, 314; determinately 
adhere to the Arian heresy, 
374 ; persecuted by the bi- 
shops of Constantinople and 
Germa .... 510 

Macedonius, head of a sect • 16 

. a deacon of the 

church in Constantinople, 117; 
elected bishop of Constanti- 
nople, 126 ; installed in the 
see of Constantinople, 132; 
massacre on this occasion, 
133; persecutes the Chris- 
tians« 168, 169; excites tu- 
mults—desolates the churches, 
204 — 208 ; he becomes odious, 
208, 209; deposed, 223; con- 
spires to excite commotions . 228 

a Christian, who en- 
dured a cruel martyrdom . 267 

Magi, the, attempt to deceive 
Isdigerdes .... 472 

Magnentius slays Constans, 165 ; 
becomes master of Rome, 182 ; 
is defeated— commits suicide 183 

Magnus excommunicated .219 

Maid, a captive, is instrumental 
to the conversion of the king 
and queen of Iberia, 73, 74 ; 
performs a miracle . .74 

Mancipes, their office . . 392 

Manes, born a slave, enfran- 
chised and educated, 77, 78 ; 
king of Persia puts him to a 
cruel death . .79 

MantiniUta, inhabitants of, de- 
feat the troops of Macedo- 
nius 207 

Marathonius, bishop of Nico- 
media .... 204, 228 

Marcellus, bishop of Ancyra, 
deposed, 103; is restored, 
104 ; expelled, and restored, 
129 ; reinstated by the coun- 
cil of Sardica, 146; restored 


to his see by Con8tantiu8,159 ; 

again ejected . . .167 
Marcellus, a consul under Con- 

stantius . . . .119 
Marcian, a pious and eloquent 

presbyter of the Novatian sect, 

308 ; bishop of the Novatian 

church at Constantinople, 396 ; 

his death . . . .419 
Macedonian bishop of 

Lampsacus .... 373 

bishop of the Nova- 

tians in Scythia, succeeds 
Paul 532 

Mardonius, a eunuch . 235 

Marinus succeeds Bishop De- 

mophilus . . . 383,411 
Maris, bishop of Chalcedon, de- 

fends Arianism, 24 ; conspires 

against Athanasius . 89, 136 
Mark, a Svrian, bishop under 

Constautius, 136 ; exiled .171 

(a second bishop of the 

name) exiled under Constan- 
tius . . . • . 171 

Marriase of Valentinian with 
the daughter of Theodosius 
Junior 529 

Mlartyrdom, cruel, of eighty 
pious ecclesiastics . .321 

Maruthas, bishop of Mesopo- 
tamia, 450 ; goes on a mission 
to the king of Persia, 471 ; is 
permitted to erect churches 
and diffuse Christianity 472, 473 

Massacre at the installation of 
Macedonius at Antioch . 133 

Mavia, queen of the Saracens, 
heads a revolt against the Ro- 
mans — offers to close the war 
on certain conditions, 359; 
the Roman generals consent 
— gives her daughter in mar- 
riage to Victor, commander- 
in-chief of the Roman army, 
359, 360 ; enables the inha- 
bitants of Constantinople to 
repulse the Goths . . 366 

Maxentius raised to sovereign 
power by the Praetorian sol- 
diers, 2 ; his atrocious acts . 3 

Maximian, sumamed Herculius, 
lays aside the imperial dig- 




nity— attempts to regain it — 
dies at Tarsus ... 2 

Maximian, surnamed Galerius, 
chief in the imperial sway — 
his death .... 2 

a monk, succeeds Nes- 

torius in the see of Constan- 
tinople — his death . . 525 

Maximin, a governor of Rome . 350 

assessor in the Roman 

armies — accompanies Helion 
to Persia, 490 ; is imprisoned 
— is released and concludes a 
treaty of peace . . .491 

Maximus, bishop of Jerusalem, 
119, 163; ejected . 203 

(of Ephesus) put to 

death as a practiser of magic 236 
the Novatian bishop of 

. • • • 0*xt7 


of Britain, causes Gra- 

tian to be assassinated, 381 ; 
is admitted by Valentinian 
the younger as his colleague 
in imperial power, 382 ; The- 
odosius puts him to death . 385 
Meletius (or Melitius) bishop 
of Sebastia, translated to Be* 
roea — thence to Antioch — sent 
into exile by Constantius, 227; 
recalled by Jovian, 291 ; ex- 
pelled by Valens, 299; his 

death 376 

Melitians, their origin, they 

unite with the Arians . 15, 16 
Melitius, bishop of Alexandria, 
deposed — becomes head of the 
sect called Meletians, 15 ; re- 
stored to communion by the 
Nicean council . . .39 
Memnon, a bishop of Ephesus .516 
Mendemus suffers martyrdom . 321 
Merobandes, a consul under 

Gratian .... 382 
Meropius, a Tyrian philosopher, 

murdered . . . .70 
Methodius, bishop of Olympus 

in Lycia, author of " Xenon" 447 
Metrodorus, a philosopher . 70 
Metrophanes, a bishop of Con- 
stantinople . . . .105 
Milan, tumult at . . 351,352 
Miracle, a, said to have been 


wrought through ChristiaQ 
baptism, 467 ; ascribed to Sil- 
van us, bishop of Troas . 521 

Miraculous healing of a child by 
a captive maid . . 72 , 73 

Mithra, murderous rites in the 
temple of, unveiled . 242, 243 

Modestus, the Praefect, bums 
eighty pious ecclesiastics in a 
ship 321 

Monasteries of Egypt, brief ac- 
count of, 328—337 ; assailed 
by a military force — horrible 
excesses committed . 338 

Money-changers (see note on 
this expression) . . .271 

Monks of Egypt, their remark- 
able lives, 328—337; their suf- 
ferings, and Christian endur- 
ance .... 338, 339 

surnamed the Long^ of 

Alexandria .... 433 

Moses, a Saracen and monk, is, 
at the instance of Queen Ma- 
via, ordained bishop of the 
Saracens . . . 359,360 

Names, many persons change 
their, to avoid death from sus- 
picion 325 

Narcissus, a Cilician bishop 
under Constantius . .136 

Narsseus, a Persian general, who 
commanded his country's 
forces against the Romans . 487 

Necromancy, practice of . 324, 325 

Nectarius elected to the episco- 
pate of Constantinople, 374 ; 
consulted by theEmperor The- 
odosius as to the points of 
difference between the various 
sects 377 

Neonas, bishop of Seleucia, e- 
jected . . . . . 224 

Nepotian assumes the sove- 
reignty of Rome — he is slain 166 

Nestorius succeeds Sisinnius in 
the episcopate of Constanti- 
nople, 507 ; excites a tumult 
— persecutes the Novatians — 
Quarto-decimani unto death, 
508 ; prevails on the emperor 
to deprive the Macedonians 




of their churches, 510 ; is c- 
jected, 511 ; deposed, and ba- 
nished to Oasis . . .516 

Nice, council of, summoned by 
Constantine — Eusebius Pam- 
philus's account of it, 23; 
names of bishops present at 
the council of, 58, 59 ; period 
of the assembling of the coun- 
cil of 59 

Nicene Synod, did not alter the 
time of celebration of the 
Easter Festival . . 407 

Nicocles, the Lacedemonian . 235 

Nigrinian, a consul . .166 

Nilammon, a bishop, exiled un- 
der Constantius . . .171 

Nile, superstitious views of its 
periodical overflowings . 66 

Novatians, the, (a sect in Phry- 
gia and Paphlagonia) change 
the day for celebrating the 
feast of Easter, 347 ; exclude 
from communion those that 
have twice married (see note), 
406 ; persecuted at Rome — 
treated with Christian regard 
at Constantinople . 475, 476 

Novatus (see note on his name), 
347 ; a presbyter of the Ro- 
man church who seceded from 
it, 347, 348 ; suffers martyr- 
dom 349 

Oak of Mamre . .66 

the, a place in Bithynia 

where a Synod was held in 
the reign of Arcadius . . 450 
Optar, king of the Huns, his 

death .... 509 
OptatuR, a Pagan Prsefect of 
Constantinople, under Arca- 
dius 457 

Oracle, metrical . . . 306 
Oratory erected in Iberia 74 

Orestes, a Prsefect of Alexan- 
dria, under Theodosius jun., 
478 ; opposes the bishop of 
that city, 480 ; is assailed by 
the monks . . . .481 
Origenists, a religious party so 
termed, opposed to the *^ An- 
thropomorphitse" . . 435 


Ousioy on the application of the 
term, 250 ; views of different 
theologians respecting the 
term . . . .250—252 

Pagan mysteries and obscene 

rites exposed . • . 388 
Palladius, governor of Egypt un- 
der the Emperor Valens • 326 

a monk and disciple 

of Evagrius . . 337 

a Roman courier of 

celerity .... 489 

Pambos, an Egyptian monk 330, 331 
Pancratius, bishop of Pelusium 173 
Paphnutius, bishop of Upper 
Thebes, 24 ; honoured by the 
emperor for the truth*s sake, 
53 ; opposes an austere law . 54 
Parembole, a gnostic monk . 334 
Patropassians, an heretical sect 142 
Patrophilus deposed . .219 

Paul, bishop of Tyre . . 94 

a presbyter, is elected to 

the bishopric of Constanti- 
nople, 117; ejected by Con- 
stantius, 118; reinstated in 
the bishopric of Constanti- 
nople, 126, 145, 146, 153, 159; 
strangled, 167 ; his body ho- 
nourably interred by Theodo- 
sius 375 

bishop of Antioch, repelled 

bv Constantius, 131 ; goes to 

a monk, succeeds the No- 

vatian bishop Chrysanthus, 
484 ; his eminent character, 
485 ; his death, 530 ; bis last 

owV • • • • « 

Paulinus, bishop of Treves, 188 ; 
exiled by Constantius . . 

bishop of Antioch, his 





Pazum, a village where a Nova- 
tian Synod was held . . 349 

Pelagius, bishop of Laodicea, is 
invested with the administra- 
tion of the churches in the 
East 375 

Penitentianr presbyter, office of, 
abolished, and cause where- 
fore .... 393, 394 




Period of the death of Constan- 
tine, 110; comprised in the 
whole of this history . 534 

Persia, pro[>agation of Chris- 
tianity in . . . .471 

Persian ambassadors received 
and dismissed by Julian . 275 

Persians, signal defeat of, by the 
Romans .... 491 

Peter, bishop of Alexandria, his 
martyrdom .... 7 

succeeds Athanasius as 

bishop of Alexandria — is de- 
posed and imprisoned, 326 ; 
escapes to Rome, 327; re- 
turns from Rome to Antioch 
— his death . . .361 

a monk, brother of Basil, 

bishop of Caesarea . 345 

an arch-presbyter of the 

Alexandrian church . . 438 

Petirus, a learned Egyptian 
monk, who gave scientific lec- 
tures commencing with prayer 331 

Pharmaceus, a port in the £u- 
xine sea .... 501 

Philip, a Praetorian Praefect un- 
der Constantius, 131 ; entraps 
bishop Paul . . .132 

a consul under Arcadius 463 

a learned presbyter — no- 
tice of his ** Christian His- 
tory/* and literary labours . 505 

Philo, a bishop, exiled under 
Constantius . .171 

Phoebus excommunicated . 219 

Photinus, bishop of the churches 
in Illyricum, introduces the 
Arian heresy in his district, 
137 ; deposed, 173 ; and after- 
wards exiled . . .181 

Pio, an Egyptian monk . . 330 

Placidia, daughter of the Em- 
peror Theodosius . . 354 

'* Placidian,** an imperial man- 
sion 450 

Placitus (otherwise Flaccillus) 
bishop of Antioch . .119 

Plinths, consul and commander- 
in-chief under Theodosius the 
younger . . .412 

Pliny, a bishop, exiled under 
Constantius . . .171 


Pnewnaticamachi, explanation of 
this term, &c. . . 229, 230 

Poly carp, bishop of Smyrna, who 
suffered martyrdom under 
Gordian .... 401 

Porphyry, a licentious railer a- 
gainst the truth, 42; sumamed 
*' the Tyrian old man,** 283 ; 
his'* History of Philosophers'* 284 

succeeds to the epis- 
copate of Antioch . 473 

Praefect, a, struck by the emperor 
Valens .... 323 

Prayer, the power of, signally 
exemplified . .415, 498, 524 

Prayers, variously performed in 
different churches, 406 ; with 
lighted candles in Achaia, 
Tnessaly, and among the No- 
vatians at Constantinople . 406 

Preface to book V. — apology for 
blending ecclesiastic^ and ci- 
vil matters, 364, 365 ; to book 
VI. 417 

Probinus, a consul under Con- 
stantius . . . .119 

Probus, a consul, has the chief 
administration of affairs in 
Italy during the minority of 
Valentinian the yoimger, 381 ; 
leaves Italy and retires to 
Thessalonica . . . 382 

Proclus, a consul under Con- 
stantine the younger . .116 

a presbyter, 504; or- 
dained bishop of Cyzicum, 
506 ; translated to the See 
of Constantinople, 525 ; his 
virtues, 526 ; preaches a ser- 
mon on EzekiePs prophecy, 
528 ; conciliates those who had 
seceded from the church, 529, 
530 ; makes an unprecedented 
ecclesiastical appointment . 533 

Procopius, a tyrant of Constan- 
tinople, meditates a usurpa- 
tion of the imperial throne, 
300; marches an army against 
Valens— is defeated and put 
to a horrid death . . 302 

a Roman general, 

held a command against the 
Persians . .491 





Probseresius, a celebrated bo- 
pbist of Athens . . .342 

Protogenes, bishop of Sardica . 145 

Psathyrians, a title given to one' 
of the Arian sections .411 

Psenosiris, a bishop, exiled un- 
der Constantius . . .171 

Ptolemy Philadelphus, by whose 
command the Septuagint was 
produced (see note) . 495 

Quarto-decimani, the, excom- 
municated (see note), 401 ; 
observance of Easter, 402 ; 
and discipline, 406 ; perse- 
cuted unto death, by Nesto- 
rius, bishop of Constantinople 508 

Queen, the, of Iberia, converted 
through the instrumentality of 
a captive maid, and preaches 
the gospel . .73, 74 

Readers in the ancient churches, 
how chosen .... 405 

Richomeres, a consul of the Ro- 
man empire under Theodo- 
sius 383 

Rings made use of by the Jews 
of Alexandria in a conspiracy 
against the Christians . . 479 

Rites, murderous Pagan, at A- 
thens and Alexandria, 265 ; 
and ceremonies, their diver- 
sity among the churches ac- 
counted for . . . 406, 407 

Roman empire invaded by Max- 
imus from the island of Bri- 
tain 381 

Rome taken and sacked by bar- . 
barians .... 474 

Rougas, chief of the barbarians 
who invaded Rome under 
Theodosius jun., struck dead 528 

Rufinus, a presbyter, 56 ; author 
of an '* Ecclesiastical His- 
tory" .... 111,275 

the EVaetorian Praefect, 

slain by the soldiery .419 

Rusticula, a Novatian bishop . 475 

Sabbatius, a converted Jew, or- 
dained a presbyter, 397; 
pledged himself by oath that 


he would never accept a bi- 
shopric — disregards his oath 
and is constituted bishop of 
bis followers, 398, 399 ; holds > 
schismatic meetings, 468, 469 ; 
procures bis own ordination 
to episcopal office, 477 ; his 
remains secretly removed from 
his tomb to a private sepulchre 501 

Sabbatius succeeds the Arian 
bishop Barba . .510 

Sabellius, the Lybian, head of 
a heretical sect .147 

Sabinus,the Macedonian bishop 
of Heraclea, speaks con- 
temptuously of the council of 
Nice, but praises Constan- 
tine, 27 ; the gross partiality 
of his " Collection of Synodi- 
cal Transactions** 130, 131,135, 327 

Sallust, a EVaetorian Praefect un- 
der Julian .... 275 

Sangarum, a commercial town 
near Helenopolis, where a No- 
vatian Synod was held . . 397 

Saracens revolt against the Ro- 
mans— peace concluded on 
certain conditions . 359, 360 

Sarmatians invade the Roman 
territory — are defeated, and 
embrace Christianity . 66 

Satumius, a consul of the Ro- 
man empire under Gratian . 382 

Scriptures translated into the 
language of the Groths by their 
bishop Ulfilas . .356 

Scythian, the name of a Saracen 
who corrupted the truth . 77 

Sebastian, a Manicbaean officer 170 

Seditious movements in Antioch 
on account of the deposition 
of Bishop Eustathius . . 83 

Selenas, a bishop of the Goths 411 

Serapion, angel of the church of 
Thmuitas . . . .335 

: — a deacon of Constan- 
tinople, 424 ; his acts, 443 ; 
is ordained bishop of Hera- 
clea in Thrace .454 

Serapis, temple of^ destroved, 
388 ; singular hieroglyphics 
found there . . 390, 391 

Sergius, a consul . .166 




Scvera, wife of ValentiDian the 
elder .... 353, 354 

SeveriaD, bishop of Gahali in 
Syria, 441 ; bis extraordinary 
rebuke of Serapion . . 443 

Sevenis Caesar is sent to Rome to 
seize the Emperor Maxentius 2 

Side, birthplace of Troilus the 
sophist .... 504 

Silvanus, a tyrant of Gaul, de- 
feated by Constantius . 183, 184 

an ascetic, ordained 

bishop of Philippopolis, 520 ; 
translated to Troas — performs 
a miracle, 521 ; his equitable 
administration . . . 522 

Siricius succeeds to the episco- 
pate of Antioch . . 474 

Sisinnius, reader to A^elius bi- 
shop of the Novatums, his 
suggestion, 377 ; ordained bi- 
shop of the Novatian church 
at Constantinople, 396 ; suc- 
ceeds Marcian in the No?a- 
tian episcopate, 419 ; his eru- 
dition, eloquence, and grace 
of person — some examples of 
his aptness of repartee, 460 — 
462 ; his death, 470 ; succeed, 
ed by Chrysanthus . . 476 

— succeeds Atticus as 

bishop of Constantinople, 504 ; 
ordains Proclus to the see of 
Cyzicum — his death . . 506 

Sistra, places of prostitution in 
Rome . . . . . 393 

Snow storm, violent, and singu- 
lar issue of . . . 496 

Socrates*s (Scholasticus) obser- 
vation on the abolition of the 
office of penitentiary presby- 
ter, 395 ; views respecting the 
celebration of Kaster-day, 
baptism, fasting, marriage, the 
eucharist, and other ecclesias- 
tical rites, 399; defence of 
Origen, 446, 447 ; exposition 
of the anachronisms of Philip's 
** Christian History," 505 ; 
opinion on the translation of 
bidhops . . .518—520 

Sophronius, bishop of Pompeio- 
polis, in Paphlagonia, decla- 


ration of, before the Synod of 
Seleucia, 215 ; deposed . 224 

Soucis, a mountain made the 
boundary between the East- 
em and Western churches . 151 

Spyridon, bishop of Cyprus — 
two remarkable things related 
of him .... 55, 56 

Stenography used to record the 
proceedings and sermons of 
the fathers . . 181, 210, 425 

Stilicho, a consul under the Em- 
peror Arcadius . .431 

Supernatural appearance in Ja- 
dea on attempting to rebuild 
Solomon's temple . 277 

Superscription, Pilate's, disco- 
vered 64 

Symmachus, a Roman senator, 
clemency of Theodoaius to- 
wards .... 386 

Synod at Antioch, 82 ; at Tyre, 
93; at Antioch, 118, 119; of 
Antioch, 122—124; of the 
Eastern bishops, 138—144; 
at Sardica, 144—146 ; at Sir- 
mium, 173 — 181 ; at Rome, 
185 ; of Milan, 188 ; ofNico- 
media, 189; at Rimini, 189 — 
202 ; of the Ursadan faction 
at Nice in Thrace, 203 ; of 
Seleucia (sumamed Aspera), 
209—217 ; at Constantinople, 
220-226; at Alexandria by 
Bishops Eusebius and Atba- 
naaius, 249 — ^258 ; of bishops 
of the Acacian sect, at An- 
tioch, 292—294; at Lamp- 
sacus, 301 ; of Sicilian bishops, 
317 ; of the Novatians held 
at Pazum, 349 ; of Constan- 
tinople, 373—375 ; of Nova- 
tian bishops, 398 ; at Chalce- 
don in Bitnynia,450; atEphe- 
sus ... . 515, 516 

Synods, provincial, the assem- 
bling of, authorised by the 
council of Constantinople . 375 

Syrian, a military commander . 1 25 

Tabernacle, an embroidered . 68 
Tatian, a Christian, endured 
martyrdom .... 267 




Thalassius ordained bishop of 
Csesarea .... 533 

Themistius, a philosopher, 294 ; 
records Jovian's religious to- 
lerance — pronounces the con- 
sular oration before him at 
Antioch, 295 ; induces Va- 
lens to relax the severitj of 
his persecution . . 355 

Theoctistusi head of an Arian 
sect . . . . .411 

^* Theod/* persons whose names 
commence with these five let- 
ters, such as Theodore, The- 
odotus, &c., suspected of ne- 
cromancy by Valens, are put 
to death .... 325 

Theodore, a Thracian, bishop 
under Constantine . .136 

a young Christian, cru- 
elly tortured by Julian . 275 

• a pious clerical indi- 
vidual, put to death . .321 

Theodosiolus put to death by 
the Emperor Valens . • 325 

Theodosius, bishop of Philadel- 
phia in Lydia, deposed . .219 

(a noble Spaniard) 

elevated to share imperial 
power, 367 ; is baptized by the 
bishop of Thessalonica, 370, 
371 ; convenes a Synod, 376 ; 
the Goths submit to him — 
proclaims his son Arcadius 
Augustus, 377; secures to the 
Novatians the privileges en- 
joyed by other sects, 380; 
opposes the tyrant Maxim us, 
382 ; gains the victory— re- 
turns in triumph, 385 ; his re- 
markable clemency towards 
the senator Symmachus, 386 ; 
demolishes the heathen tem- 
ples in Alexandria, 388 ; con- 
fers great benefits on llome, 
391 ; reforms some infamous 
abuses, 392 ; leaves Valenti- 
nian at Home, and returns to 
Constantinople, 393 ; gives 
freedom to heretics, 395 ; fa- 
vours the Novatians, 396 ; de- 
feats the regicide Eugenius, 
415 ; sends for his son IIo- 


norius— dies, 416 ; his funeral 
obsequies . . . .419 

Theodosius jun. succeeds the 
Emperor Arcadius, 463 ; his 
pre-eminent character, 494 — 
497 ; proclaims his cousin 
Constantius emperor of the 
West, 499; convenes a Sy- 
nod at Ephesus, 515 ; his ' 
deserved eulogium . 527 

bishop of Synada, in 

Phrygia Pacata, persecutes the 
Macedonians, 465 ; loses his 
see ... . 466, 467 

Theodulus, bishop of Chseretapi 
in Phrygia, deposed . .219 

a Christian, who 

was cruelly martyred . . 267 

Theognis, bishop of Nice, de- 
fends Arianism. 24; recalled 
from exile, 59 ; copy of his 
retraction, 59, 60 ; abuses the 
emperor*s clemency, 80 ; con- 
spires against Athanasius 89 

Theon, a philosopher of Alex- 
andria 482 

Theopemptus, a Novatian bishop 47 1 

TheophiluB succeeds Timothy 
at Alexandria, 383; induces 
Theodosius to demolish the 
temples, 389 ; his acts, 438 ; 
flies from Constantinople, 454 ; 
his death .... 470 

Theophronius, a Cappadocian 
and head of a sect . .412 

Theotinus, bishop of Scythia, 
defends Origen . . 445, 446 

Theotocos, disquisition on the 
term .... 511 — 514 

Therapeia, a port in the Euxine 
sea, called rharmaceus . . 501 

Thessalonica, singular custom 
among the clergy of . . 405 

Thumu'is, a bishop, exiled under 
Constantius . . .171 

Timothy succeeds Peter at Alex- 
andria, 361 ; his death . 383 

a learned Arian pres- 
byter 469 

Torture, horrible, inflicted upon 
Christian women . . . 205 

Transactions comprised in the 
last book .... 534 




Trollus, a sophist of prudence 

and judgment • . . 464 
Tumult at Ancyra . . .160 
Tyre, the council of, 97 ; sum- 
moned by the emperor . 98 

(JlBlas bishop of the Goths . 223 

translates the Scriptures 356 

Unity between the Catholics 

and Novatians . . 206» 207 
Uranius, of Tyre, deposed .219 
Urbanes suffers martyrdom . 321 
Ursacius conspires against A- 

thanasius, 89; recants, 126; 

deposed . . . .196 
Ursinus, a deacon of Rome . 350 

Valens, bishop of Mursa, con- 
spires against Athanasius, 89; 
recants, 126,164; deposed . 196 

raised to share the im- 
perial dignity, 297 ; favours the 
Arians, 298 ; resides at Con- 
stantinople—is intolerant and 
cruel, 299 ; orders the walls 
of Chalcedon to be destroy- 
ed, 304 ; uses the stones 
for public baths, 306 ; further 
persecutions, 308; leaves Con- 
stantinople for Antioch, 319; 
banishes Bishops Eustathius 
and Evagrius, 320—322; 
dooms an entire congregation 
to slaughter, 323; continued 
intolerance, 327, 338; per- 
mits the Goths to become 
his subjects, 358 ; departs 
from Antioch, 360 ; arrives at 
Constantinople, 361; his sub- 
jects murmur — routs the Goths 
— is slain .... 362 

Yalentinian declared emperor — 
makes Valens his colleague. 


297; favours the orthodox, 
298; goes to the West, 31 1 ; 
abstains from interfering with 
any sect, 350; his territory in- 
vaded — ruptures a blood-ves- 
sel and dies . . 352, 353 
Yalentinian junior proclaimed 
emperor, 353 ; Probus, con- 
sul during his minority, 381; 
compelled to admit Mazimus 
as his colleague — Theodosius 
helps him to resist the tyrant, 
383; triumphal entry into 
Rome, 385 ; strangled . .414 
Yararanes succeeds to the throne 
of Persia, 473 ; persecutes the 
Christians — provokes the Ro- 
mans, 486 ; imprisons the Ro- 
man embassy — is routed, and 
compelled to make peace . 491 
Yetranio, a tyrant, 166; pro- 
claimed emperor . . .172 
Yicennalia, celebration of Con- 

8tantine*s . .62 

Yicentius, a presbyter of Rome 58 
Yictor, a bishop of Rome . .401 
Yirgins, torture of Christian 170, 171 
Yitian, a Roman general . . 489 
Vito, a presbyter of Rome . 58 

Will of Constantine . 109 

Woman, a poor, preserves a con- 
gregation from martyrdom, 
323; confession of a, of noble 
family .... 394 

Women, tortures inflicted upon 
Christian .... 205 

<* Xenon,** a dialogue by Me- 
thodius, bishop of Olympus . 447 

Zosimus succeeds Innocent in 
the see of Rome . . 475 










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